• Agronomic performance of acid-based liquid fertilisers on winter wheat.

      Burke, J.I.; O'Reilly, B.; Gallagher, E.G. (Teagasc, 1999-12-01)
      In the early 90’s, a new and novel means (liquid Flex system) of crop fertilisation was launched on the Irish market which was capable of supplying the crop’s total nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and trace element requirement in liquid form, formulated to meet specific crop requirements. This system included novel chemistry, untested under Irish conditions and with little specific reference in the scientific literature. The chemistry of the liquid Flex system consists of an acid-based material. Stable compounds i.e. urea sulphate, urea phosphate and urea-metal complexes are formed by the reaction of urea with sulphuric acid, phosphoric acid and metal salts, respectively. Interest in these materials has been generated because they possess a number of physical and chemical characteristics, which, in theory, should be beneficial. However, the ability of the Flex system to effectively supply nutrients to the plant has not been researched. A field and greenhouse experimental programme was carried out over the three seasons, 1996-1998 to compare acid-base/urea-metal complexes with conventional fertilisers and to investigate whether this unconventional chemistry could lead to increased biological efficiency. The trial programme evaluated the Flex system, both as individual components and as a complete fertiliser. In field comparisons, formulation of P as urea phosphate gave similar results to conventional granular superphosphate in terms of grain yield, recovery of P by the crop and grain quality, regardless of soil type. This was supported by the results from the greenhouse experiment. In field comparisons of the main soil-applied liquid Flex source of N, i.e. N24 (urea with the addition of a standard level of acid and metal salts) with conventional N formulations, N24 gave poorer performance than CAN and granular urea in warm dry conditions due to insufficient inhibition to substantially reduce ammonia volatilisation. In wet conditions, the slow release of N from inhibited urea may have reduced the potential loss from leaching or denitrification, and led to a better performance than CAN or urea. The additional product of the Flex system, i.e. liquid Flex urea - N18 (urea with the addition of metal salts), applied as a foliar spray, was no more efficient than liquid urea as a late N source. The Flex urea had the disadvantage that it gave higher scorch levels than conventional liquid urea. When flag leaf scorch was excessive, grain yield was affected and quality suffered, with reduced grain and hectolitre weights. Where early application of P may have been critical to obtain maximum response, the N that accompanied the early application of P as urea phosphate was most likely lost through leaching. The application of large quantities of K in any one application with the liquid system was restricted due to solubility problems, which ultimately resulted in delayed application in soils with low K levels. The Flex system does not lead to increased biological efficiency. However, as farms get bigger and greater emphasis is placed on the reduction of water and air pollution, the liquid Flex system may become attractive because of its practical advantages in handling, storage and application and the ability to tailor-make specific formulations for given crop requirements.
    • AI For Sheep Using Frozen-thawed Semen.

      Donovan, A.; Hanrahan, J.P.; Lally, T.; Boland, M.P.; Byrne, G.P.; Duffy, P.; Lonergan, P.; O'Neill, D.J. (Teagasc, 2001-01-01)
      International experience has been that cervical insemination of sheep with frozen-thawed semen usually yields unacceptably low pregnancy rates (10 to 30%). An exceptional case has been Norway where non-return rates in on-farm usage are around 60%. The objective of the work described in this report was to develop an AI procedure for Irish conditions, based initially on Norwegian protocols, using semen from individual rams. Such a procedure would greatly facilitate and enhance genetic improvement programmes for sheep. The work undertaken had two separate aspects:- (i) studies on semen, including processing and freezing methods, laboratory evaluation of semen quality post thawing and the relationship of in vitro evaluation to fertilisation rate in vivo (ii) studies on pregnancy rate following AI in relation to issues such as ram breed effects, effects of synchronisation, operator differences and the role of ewe breed inducing the timing of ovulation and various physical and physiological assessments of the cervix at AI. The main results in relation to semen studies were that, while a range of differential staining procedures could be used to objectively evaluate semen with respect to proportion of live speramatozoa and the integrity of sperm cells after thawing, these results were not useful as indicators of fertilisation capacity in vivo. The in vitro fertilisation (IVF) of sheep oocytes recovered from abattoir material gave promising results as a method for evaluating the fertilisation capacity of frozen-thawed semen. The technique requires further validation.
    • Algal Proteins: Extraction, Application, and Challenges Concerning Production

      Bleakley, Stephen; Hayes, Maria (MDPI, 2017-04-26)
      Population growth combined with increasingly limited resources of arable land and fresh water has resulted in a need for alternative protein sources. Macroalgae (seaweed) and microalgae are examples of under-exploited “crops”. Algae do not compete with traditional food crops for space and resources. This review details the characteristics of commonly consumed algae, as well as their potential for use as a protein source based on their protein quality, amino acid composition, and digestibility. Protein extraction methods applied to algae to date, including enzymatic hydrolysis, physical processes, and chemical extraction and novel methods such as ultrasound-assisted extraction, pulsed electric field, and microwave-assisted extraction are discussed. Moreover, existing protein enrichment methods used in the dairy industry and the potential of these methods to generate high value ingredients from algae, such as bioactive peptides and functional ingredients are discussed. Applications of algae in human nutrition, animal feed, and aquaculture are examined
    • Alley coppice—a new system with ancient roots

      Morhart, Christopher D.; Douglas, Gerry C.; Dupraz, Christian; Graves, Anil R.; Nahm, Michael; Paris, Perluigi; Sauter, Udo H.; Sheppard, Jonathan; Spiecker, Heinrich (Springer, 2014-05)
      Context: Current production from natural forests will not satisfy future world demand for timber and fuel wood, and new land management options are required. Aims: We explore an innovative production system that combines the production of short rotation coppice in wide alleys with the production of high-value trees on narrow strips of land; it is an alternative form of alley cropping which we propose to call ‘alley coppice’. The aim is to describe this alley coppice system and to illustrate its potential for producing two diverse products, namely high-value timber and energy wood on the same land unit. Methods: Based on a comprehensive literature review, we compare the advantages and disadvantages of the alley coppice system and contrast the features with well-known existing or past systems of biomass and wood production. Results: We describe and discuss the basic aspects of alley coppice, its design and dynamics, the processes of competition and facilitation, issues of ecology, and areas that are open for future research. Conclusion: Based on existing knowledge, a solid foundation for the implementation of alley coppice on suitable land is presented, and the high potential of this system could be shown.
    • Alterations in hepatic miRNA expression during negative energy balance in postpartum dairy cattle

      Fatima, Attia; Waters, Sinead M.; O'Boyle, Padraig; Seoighe, Cathal; Morris, Dermot G (Biomed Central, 2014-01-15)
      Abstract Background Negative energy balance (NEB), an altered metabolic state, occurs in early postpartum dairy cattle when energy demands to support lactation exceed energy intake. During NEB the liver undergoes oxidative stress and increased breakdown of fatty acids accompanied by changes in gene expression. It is now known that micro RNAs (miRNA) can have a role in mediating such alterations in gene expression through repression or degradation of target mRNAs. miRNA expression is known to be altered by metabolism and environmental factors and miRNAs are implicated in expression modulation of metabolism related genes. Results miRNA expression was profiled in the liver of moderate yielding dairy cattle under severe NEB (SNEB) and mild NEB (MNEB) using the Affymetrix Gene Chip miRNA_2.0 array with 679 probe sets for Bos-taurus miRNAs. Ten miRNAs were found to be differentially expressed using the ‘samr’ statistical package (delta = 0.6) at a q-value FDR of < 12%. Five miRNAs including miR-17-5p, miR-31, miR-140, miR-1281 and miR-2885 were validated using RT-qPCR, to be up-regulated under SNEB. Liver diseases associated with these miRNAs include non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFLD) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). miR-140 and miR-17-5p are known to show differential expression under oxidative stress. A total of 32 down-regulated putative target genes were also identified among 418 differentially expressed hepatic genes previously reported for the same animal model. Among these, GPR37 (G protein-coupled receptor 37), HEYL (hairy/enhancer-of-split related with YRPW motif-like), DNJA1, CD14 (Cluster of differentiation 14) and GNS (glucosamine (N-acetyl)-6-sulfatase) are known to be associated with hepatic metabolic disorders. In addition miR-140 and miR-2885 have binding sites on the most down-regulated of these genes, FADS2 (Fatty acid desaturase 2) which encodes an enzyme critical in lipid biosynthesis. Furthermore, HNF3-gamma (Hepatocyte nuclear factor 3-gamma), a hepatic transcription factor (TF) that is involved in IGF-1 expression regulation and maintenance of glucose homeostasis is a putative target of miR-31. Conclusions This study shows that SNEB affects liver miRNA expression and these miRNAs have putative targets in hepatic genes down-regulated under this condition. This study highlights the potential role of miRNAs in transcription regulation of hepatic gene expression during SNEB in dairy cattle. Background Negative energy balance (NEB), an altered metabolic state, occurs in early postpartum dairy cattle when energy demands to support lactation exceed energy intake. During NEB the liver undergoes oxidative stress and increased breakdown of fatty acids accompanied by changes in gene expression. It is now known that micro RNAs (miRNA) can have a role in mediating such alterations in gene expression through repression or degradation of target mRNAs. miRNA expression is known to be altered by metabolism and environmental factors and miRNAs are implicated in expression modulation of metabolism related genes. Results miRNA expression was profiled in the liver of moderate yielding dairy cattle under severe NEB (SNEB) and mild NEB (MNEB) using the Affymetrix Gene Chip miRNA_2.0 array with 679 probe sets for Bos-taurus miRNAs. Ten miRNAs were found to be differentially expressed using the ‘samr’ statistical package (delta = 0.6) at a q-value FDR of < 12%. Five miRNAs including miR-17-5p, miR-31, miR-140, miR-1281 and miR-2885 were validated using RT-qPCR, to be up-regulated under SNEB. Liver diseases associated with these miRNAs include non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFLD) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). miR-140 and miR-17-5p are known to show differential expression under oxidative stress. A total of 32 down-regulated putative target genes were also identified among 418 differentially expressed hepatic genes previously reported for the same animal model. Among these, GPR37 (G protein-coupled receptor 37), HEYL (hairy/enhancer-of-split related with YRPW motif-like), DNJA1, CD14 (Cluster of differentiation 14) and GNS (glucosamine (N-acetyl)-6-sulfatase) are known to be associated with hepatic metabolic disorders. In addition miR-140 and miR-2885 have binding sites on the most down-regulated of these genes, FADS2 (Fatty acid desaturase 2) which encodes an enzyme critical in lipid biosynthesis. Furthermore, HNF3-gamma (Hepatocyte nuclear factor 3-gamma), a hepatic transcription factor (TF) that is involved in IGF-1 expression regulation and maintenance of glucose homeostasis is a putative target of miR-31. Conclusions This study shows that SNEB affects liver miRNA expression and these miRNAs have putative targets in hepatic genes down-regulated under this condition. This study highlights the potential role of miRNAs in transcription regulation of hepatic gene expression during SNEB in dairy cattle.
    • The altered gut microbiota in adults with cystic fibrosis

      Burke, D.G.; Fouhy, Fiona; Harrison, M. J; Rea, Mary C; Cotter, Paul D; O’Sullivan, O.; Stanton, Catherine; Hill, C.; Shanahan, F.; Plant, B. J; Ross, R. Paul (Biomed Central, 2017-03-09)
      Background Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive disease that affects the function of a number of organs, principally the lungs, but also the gastrointestinal tract. The manifestations of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) dysfunction in the gastrointestinal tract, as well as frequent antibiotic exposure, undoubtedly disrupts the gut microbiota. To analyse the effects of CF and its management on the microbiome, we compared the gut microbiota of 43 individuals with CF during a period of stability, to that of 69 non-CF controls using 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The impact of clinical parameters, including antibiotic therapy, on the results was also assessed. Results The CF-associated microbiome had reduced microbial diversity, an increase in Firmicutes and a reduction in Bacteroidetes compared to the non-CF controls. While the greatest number of differences in taxonomic abundances of the intestinal microbiota was observed between individuals with CF and the healthy controls, gut microbiota differences were also reported between people with CF when grouped by clinical parameters including % predicted FEV1 (measure of lung dysfunction) and the number of intravenous (IV) antibiotic courses in the previous 12 months. Notably, CF individuals presenting with severe lung dysfunction (% predicted FEV1 ≤ 40%) had significantly (p < 0.05) reduced gut microbiota diversity relative to those presenting with mild or moderate dysfunction. A significant negative correlation (−0.383, Simpson’s Diversity Index) was also observed between the number of IV antibiotic courses and gut microbiota diversity. Conclusions This is one of the largest single-centre studies on gut microbiota in stable adults with CF and demonstrates the significantly altered gut microbiota, including reduced microbial diversity seen in CF patients compared to healthy controls. The data show the impact that CF and it's management have on gut microbiota, presenting the opportunity to develop CF specific probiotics to minimise microbiota alterations.
    • The altered gut microbiota in adults with cystic fibrosis

      Burke, D.G.; Fouhy, Fiona; Harrison, M. J; Rea, Mary C; Cotter, Paul D; O’Sullivan, Orla; Stanton, Catherine; Hill, C.; Shanahan, F.; Plant, B. J; Ross, R. Paul (Biomed Central, 2017-03-09)
      Background Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive disease that affects the function of a number of organs, principally the lungs, but also the gastrointestinal tract. The manifestations of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) dysfunction in the gastrointestinal tract, as well as frequent antibiotic exposure, undoubtedly disrupts the gut microbiota. To analyse the effects of CF and its management on the microbiome, we compared the gut microbiota of 43 individuals with CF during a period of stability, to that of 69 non-CF controls using 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The impact of clinical parameters, including antibiotic therapy, on the results was also assessed. Results The CF-associated microbiome had reduced microbial diversity, an increase in Firmicutes and a reduction in Bacteroidetes compared to the non-CF controls. While the greatest number of differences in taxonomic abundances of the intestinal microbiota was observed between individuals with CF and the healthy controls, gut microbiota differences were also reported between people with CF when grouped by clinical parameters including % predicted FEV1 (measure of lung dysfunction) and the number of intravenous (IV) antibiotic courses in the previous 12 months. Notably, CF individuals presenting with severe lung dysfunction (% predicted FEV1 ≤ 40%) had significantly (p < 0.05) reduced gut microbiota diversity relative to those presenting with mild or moderate dysfunction. A significant negative correlation (−0.383, Simpson’s Diversity Index) was also observed between the number of IV antibiotic courses and gut microbiota diversity. Conclusions This is one of the largest single-centre studies on gut microbiota in stable adults with CF and demonstrates the significantly altered gut microbiota, including reduced microbial diversity seen in CF patients compared to healthy controls. The data show the impact that CF and it's management have on gut microbiota, presenting the opportunity to develop CF specific probiotics to minimise microbiota alterations.
    • Alternative Enterprises: Economic Performance and Viability.

      Connolly, L. (Teagasc, 1999-11-01)
      The economic environment for Irish farming has changed dramatically over the last two decades. The reform of the Common Agricultural Policy with the introduction of quotas on the main farm enterprises in the 1980’s, forced farmers to consider diversifying into new or “alternative” uses for their land, buildings and other resources. The main objectives of this study were to identify the factors affecting the profitability and expansion in the main alternative livestock enterprises and also in rural tourism. Investment costs, returns on investment and market prospects for these new enterprises were investigated. The main livestock enterprises considered were deer, sport horses, dairy goats and free range poultry.
    • Alternative uses for co-products: Harnessing the potential of valuable compounds from meat processing chains

      Mullen, Anne Maria; Alvarez Garcia, Carlos; Zeugolis, Dimitrios; Henchion, Maeve; O'Neill, Eileen; Drummond, Liana (Elsevier, 2017-05-03)
      Opportunities for exploiting the inherent value of protein-rich meat processing co-products, in the context of increased global demand for protein and for sustainable processing systems, are discussed. While direct consumption maybe the most profitable route for some, this approach is influenced greatly by local and cultural traditions. A more profitable and sustainable approach may be found in recognizing this readily available and under-utilised resource can provide high value components, such as proteins, with targeted high value functionality of relevance to a variety of sectors. Applications in food & beverages, petfood biomedical and nutrition arenas are discussed. Utilization of the raw material in its entirety is a necessary underlying principle in this approach to help maintain minimum waste generation. Understanding consumer attitudes to these products, in particular when used in food or beverage systems, is critical in optimizing commercialization strategies.
    • Alternatives to formic acid as a grass silage additive under two contrasting ensilability conditions

      Lorenzo, B. Fernandez; O'Kiely, Padraig (Teagasc, Oak Park, Carlow, Ireland, 2008)
      The effects of formic acid and four alternative additives on silage fermentation, in-silo DM losses and aerobic stability were compared in an experiment using both difficultto- ensile (DIFF) and easier-to-ensile (EASI) herbages. Both were ensiled in laboratory silos with either no additive or following the application of formic acid (FA; 850 g/kg) at 3 mL/kg herbage, Add-SaFeR® (ATF1) and GrasAAT® (ATF2), both based on ammonium tetraformate, at 4 mL/kg herbage, an antimicrobial mixture (MIX; potassium formate, sodium disulfite and sodium benzoate) at 3 g/kg herbage, or Ecosyl (LAB; Lactobacillus plantarum) at 3 mL/kg herbage. There were four replicates per treatment and the silos were stored for 132 days. DIFF silage made without additive was poorly fermented. All additives increased the extent and improved the direction of DIFF silage fermentation, and reduced in-silo losses. However, MIX did not reduce butyric acid concentration and increased the extent of aerobic deterioration. LAB had a smaller effect on fermentation and in-silo losses than FA. With EASI silages, all additives restricted the extent of fermentation and improved fermentation quality, with the latter effect being smaller than for DIFF silages. LAB promoted a particularly homolactic fermentation but subsequently increased aerobic deterioration. In both DIFF and EASI silages additive treatment improved in vitro digestibility. It is concluded that only ATF1, ATF2 and MIX were as effective as FA at improving silage preservation and reducing in-silo losses with both DIFF and EASI herbages. However, ATF1 and ATF2 were superior in reducing the apparent extent of proteolysis and MIX was slightly less effective at reducing the activity of saccharolytic Clostridia.
    • Ammonia emissions from cattle dung, urine and urine with dicyandiamide in a temperate grassland

      Fischer, K.; Burchill, W.; Lanigan, Gary; Kaupenjohann, M.; Chambers, B. J.; Richards, Karl G.; Forrestal, Patrick J. (Wiley, 2015-09-03)
      Deposition of urine and dung in pasture-based livestock production systems is a major source of ammonia (NH3) volatilization, contributing to the eutrophication and acidification of water bodies and to indirect nitrous oxide emissions. The objectives of this study were to (i) measure NH3 volatilization from dung and urine in three seasons, (ii) test the effect of spiking urine with the nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD) on NH3 volatilization and (iii) generate NH3 emission factors (EFs) for dung, urine and urine + DCD in temperate maritime grassland. Accordingly, simulated dung, urine and urine spiked with DCD (at 30 kg DCD/ha equivalent rate) patches were applied to temperate grassland. Treatments were applied three times in 2014 with one measurement of NH3 loss being completed in spring, summer and autumn. The NH3-N EF was highest in spring, which was most likely due to the near absence of rainfall throughout the duration of loss measurement. The EFs across the experiments ranged between 2.8 and 5.3% (mean 3.9%) for dung, 8.7 and 14.9% (mean 11.2%) for urine and 9.5 and 19.5% (mean 12.9%) for urine + DCD, showing that ammonia loss from dung was significantly lower than from urine. Aggregating country-specific emission data such as those from the current experiment with data from climatically similar regions (perhaps in a weighted manner which accounts for the relative abundance of certain environmental conditions) along with modelling is a potentially resourceefficient approach for refining national ammonia inventories.
    • Ammonia emissions from cattle dung, urine and urine with dicyandiamide in a temperate grassland

      Fischer, K.; Burchill, W.; Lanigan, Gary; Kaupenjohann, M.; Chambers, B. J.; Richards, Karl G.; Forrestal, Patrick J. (Wiley, 2015-09-03)
      Deposition of urine and dung in pasture-based livestock production systems is a major source of ammonia (NH3) volatilization, contributing to the eutrophication and acidification of water bodies and to indirect nitrous oxide emissions. The objectives of this study were to (i) measure NH3 volatilization from dung and urine in three seasons, (ii) test the effect of spiking urine with the nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD) on NH3 volatilization and (iii) generate NH3 emission factors (EFs) for dung, urine and urine + DCD in temperate maritime grassland. Accordingly, simulated dung, urine and urine spiked with DCD (at 30 kg DCD/ha equivalent rate) patches were applied to temperate grassland. Treatments were applied three times in 2014 with one measurement of NH3 loss being completed in spring, summer and autumn. The NH3-N EF was highest in spring, which was most likely due to the near absence of rainfall throughout the duration of loss measurement. The EFs across the experiments ranged between 2.8 and 5.3% (mean 3.9%) for dung, 8.7 and 14.9% (mean 11.2%) for urine and 9.5 and 19.5% (mean 12.9%) for urine + DCD, showing that ammonia loss from dung was significantly lower than from urine. Aggregating country-specific emission data such as those from the current experiment with data from climatically similar regions (perhaps in a weighted manner which accounts for the relative abundance of certain environmental conditions) along with modelling is a potentially resource-efficient approach for refining national ammonia inventories.
    • Ammonia emissions from urea, stabilized urea and calcium ammonium nitrate: insights into loss abatement in temperate grassland

      Forrestal, Patrick J.; Harty, M.; Carolan, R.; Lanigan, Gary; Watson, C.J.; Laughlin, R. J.; McNeil, G.; Chambers, B. J.; Richards, Karl G. (Wiley, 2015-11-17)
      Fertilizer nitrogen (N) contributes to ammonia (NH3) emissions, which European Union member states have committed to reduce. This study focused on evaluating NH3-N loss from a suite of N fertilizers over multiple applications, and gained insights into the temporal and seasonal patterns of NH3-N loss from urea in Irish temperate grassland using wind tunnels. The fertilizers evaluated were calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN), urea and urea with the N stabilizers N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT), dicyandiamide (DCD), DCD+NBPT and a maleic and itaconic acid polymer (MIP). 200 (and 400 for urea only) kg N/ha/yr was applied in five equal applications over the growing season at two grassland sites (one for MIP). Mean NH3-N losses from CAN were 85% lower than urea and had highly variable loss (range 45% points). The effect of DCD on NH3 emissions was variable. MIP did not decrease NH3-N loss, but NBPT caused a 78.5% reduction and, when combined with DCD, a 74% reduction compared with urea alone. Mean spring and summer losses from urea were similar, although spring losses were more variable with both the lowest and highest losses. Maximum NH3-N loss usually occurred on the second day after application. These data highlight the potential of stabilized urea to alter urea NH3-N loss outcomes in temperate grassland, the need for caution when using season as a loss risk guide and that urea hydrolysis in temperate grassland initiates quickly. Micrometeorological measurements focused specifically on urea are needed to determine absolute NH3-N loss levels in Irish temperate grassland.
    • Ammonia emissions from urea, stabilized urea and calcium ammonium nitrate: insights into loss abatement in temperate grassland

      Forrestal, Patrick J.; Harty, M.; Carolan, R.; Lanigan, Gary; Watson, C.J.; Laughlin, R. J.; McNeill, G.; Chambers, B.J.; Richards, Karl G. (Wiley, 2015-11-17)
      Fertilizer nitrogen (N) contributes to ammonia (NH3) emissions, which European Union member states have committed to reduce. This study focused on evaluating NH3-N loss from a suite of N fertilizers over multiple applications, and gained insights into the temporal and seasonal patterns of NH3-N loss from urea in Irish temperate grassland using wind tunnels. The fertilizers evaluated were calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN), urea and urea with the N stabilizers N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT), dicyandiamide (DCD), DCD+NBPT and a maleic and itaconic acid polymer (MIP). 200 (and 400 for urea only) kg N/ha/yr was applied in five equal applications over the growing season at two grassland sites (one for MIP). Mean NH3-N losses from CAN were 85% lower than urea and had highly variable loss (range 45% points). The effect of DCD on NH3 emissions was variable. MIP did not decrease NH3-N loss, but NBPT caused a 78.5% reduction and, when combined with DCD, a 74% reduction compared with urea alone. Mean spring and summer losses from urea were similar, although spring losses were more variable with both the lowest and highest losses. Maximum NH3-N loss usually occurred on the second day after application. These data highlight the potential of stabilized urea to alter urea NH3-N loss outcomes in temperate grassland, the need for caution when using season as a loss risk guide and that urea hydrolysis in temperate grassland initiates quickly. Micrometeorological measurements focused specifically on urea are needed to determine absolute NH3-N loss levels in Irish temperate grassland.
    • Ammonium thiosulphate as an environmentally friendly tool for reducing N inputs.

      Murphy, Matthew D. (Teagasc, 1998-09-01)
      The overall objective of the EU funded project was to evaluate the ability of ammonium thiosulphate (ATS) to act as an inhibitor of urease and nitrification processes and as a source of plant nutrient S when added to solid and liquid fertilisers and to slurries. These initial experiments have shown the need for further research on (a) applying ATS directly to the soil rather than to the herbage surface, and (b) adding ATS to the slurry in the storage tank simultaneously with slurry excretion.
    • Analysis and evaluation of the teat-end vacuum condition in different automatic milking systems

      Ströbel, U.; Rose-Meierhöfer, S.; Öz, H.; Entorf, A.C.; Popp, L.; Brunsch, R. (Teagasc (Agriculture and Food Development Authority), Ireland, 2011)
      The number of automatic milking systems (AMSs) installed worldwide shows an increasing trend. In comparison to the preliminary models, new versions employ more sophisticated sensor technology than ever before. The originally developed AMSs were characterised by larger vacuum fluctuations and vacuum reductions than conventional milking systems. The objective of this study was to find out whether this situation still holds or if an improvement has occurred. The vacuum behaviour at the teat end of an artificial teat during simulated milking was measured in a study that involved different AMS types (AMS A, B and C). Each system was tested over a range of flow rates (0.8 to 8.0 L/min). The wet-test method was used and teat-end vacuum behaviour was recorded. At a flow rate of 4.8 L/min, the lowest vacuum fluctuation (6.4 kPa in b-phase) was recorded for AMS A, while the lowest vacuum reduction (3.5 kPa in the b-phase) was obtained for AMS B. AMS C yielded higher values for vacuum reduction and vacuum fluctuation. Consequently, it was concluded that AMS A and B, in terms of construction and operational setting (vacuum level), are more appropriate than AMS C. Nevertheless, high values for vacuum reduction or fluctuation have a negative effect on the teat tissue. Hence, one of the future challenges in milk science is to develop a control system that is able to allow fine adjustments to the vacuum curve at the teat end.
    • Analysis of DRB1 exon 2 genotyping by STR size analysis in Suffolk and Texel sheep breeds

      Sayers, Gearoid; Mitchel, S; Ryan, Marion T; Stear, M.J.; Hanrahan, James P; Sweeney, Torres (Teagasc (Agriculture and Food Development Authority), Ireland, 2004)
      Alleles of the DRB1 exon 2 locus of the major histocompatibility complex have recently been associated with genetic resistance to gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep. While sequence-based typing is the standard method for allele discrimination, a rapid, high throughput method for DRB1 exon 2 genotyping is required if such information is to be incorporated into national breeding programmes. Previous studies have highlighted a simple tandem repeat (STR) located within intron 2 of the DRB1 gene, which could potentially be used to accurately assess the allele present within the adjacent exon 2. The aims of this study were firstly to compare two methods of STR analysis, Genescan™ and autoradiography, and secondly to investigate if STR analysis of DRB1 intron 2 could be used to accurately assess the profile of DRB1 exon 2. Six DRB1 exon 2 alleles were identified by sequence-based typing in Suffolk (n = 31) and eight in Texel (n = 60) sheep. The results indicated that Genescan™ was a more accurate method of STR analysis than autoradiography. The expected 1:1 correspondence between STR size, analysed by Genescan™ and DRB1 exon 2 allele, determined by sequence-based typing, was not observed. However, the correspondence was found to be degenerate, whereby some alleles were associated with two STR sizes. Thus, irrespective of the STR size identified, STR analysis by Genescan™ identified the correct allele in all cases within both populations of animals studied. However, the Genescan™ method of allele identification cannot be used for Suffolk × Texel crossbred progeny or in other breeds where the relationship between STR size and DRB1 exon 2 allele is not known.
    • Analysis of Johne’s disease ELISA status and associated performance parameters in Irish dairy cows

      Kennedy, A. E; Byrne, N.; Garcia, A. B; O’Mahony, J.; Sayers, Riona (2016-03-02)
      Background Infection with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) has been associated with reductions in milk production in dairy cows and sub optimal fertility. The aim of this study was to highlight the production losses associated with testing MAP ELISA positive in Irish dairy cows. Secondary objectives included investigation of risk factors associated with testing MAP ELISA positive. A survey of management practices on study farms was also conducted, with examination of associations between management practices and herd MAP status. Blood samples were collected from 4188 breeding animals on 22 farms. Samples were ELISA tested using the ID Screen Paratuberculosis Indirect Screening Test. Production parameters examined included milk yield, milk fat, milk protein, somatic cell count, and calving interval. The association between MAP ELISA status and production data was investigated using multi-level mixed models. Logistic regression was used to identify risk factors for testing JD blood ELISA positive at individual cow level and to identify associations between farm management practices and herd MAP status. Results Data were available for 3528 cows. The apparent prevalence recorded was 7.4 %. Mixed model analysis revealed no statistically significant association between testing MAP ELISA positive and dairy cow production parameters. Risk factors associated with testing positive included larger sized herds being over twice more likely to test positive than smaller herds (OR 2.4 P = <0.001). Friesians were less likely to test positive relative to other breeds. A number of study farmers were engaged in management practices that have previously been identified as high risk for MAP transmission e.g., 73.1 % pooled colostrum and 84.6 % of study farmers used the calving area to house sick animals throughout the year. No significant associations however, were identified between farm management practices and herd MAP status. Conclusion No production losses were identified; however an apparent prevalence of 7.4 % was recorded. With the abolition of EU milk quotas herd size in Ireland is expanding, as herds included in this study were larger than the national average, results may be indicative of future JD levels if no JD control programmes are implemented to minimise transmission.
    • Animal Transport: Developing optimum animal handling procedures and effective transport strategies in the food production chain to improve animal welfare and food quality

      Earley, Bernadette; Murray, Margaret; Prendiville, Daniel J. (Teagasc, 2007-01-01)
      A series of studies were performed to investigate the effect of transport on liveweight, physiological and haematological responses of cattle. The first study was carried out over a 6 week period in the Spring of 2004. Eighty-four continental x bulls (mean weight (s.d.) 367 (35) kg), naïve to transport, were randomly assigned to one of six journey (J) times of 0, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24h transport at a stocking density of 1.02m2/bull. Blood samples were collected by jugular venipuncture before, immediately after and at 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12 and 24h and bulls were weighed before, immediately after, and at 4, 12 and 24h. Bulls travelling for 6h (280 km), 9h (435 km), 12h (582 km), 18h (902 km) and 24h (1192 km) lost 4.7, 4.5, 5.7 (P=0.05), 6.6 (P=0.05) and 7.5 (P=0.05) percentage liveweight compared with baseline. During the 24h recovery period liveweight was regained to pre-transport levels. Lymphocyte percentages were lower (P=0.001) and neutrophil percentages were higher (P=0.05) in all animals. Blood protein and creatine kinase, glucose and NEFA concentrations were higher (P=0.05) in the bulls following transport and returned to baseline within 24h. In conclusion, liveweight and some physiological and haematological responses of bulls returned to pre-transport levels within 24h having had access to feed and water. Transport of bulls from 6 – 24hours did not impact negatively on animal welfare.
    • Animal Transport: Developing optimum animal handling procedures and effective transport strategies in the food production chain to improve animal welfare and food quality.

      Earley, Bernadette; Murray, Margaret; Prendiville, Daniel J. (Teagasc, 2007-01-01)
      A series of studies were performed to investigate the effect of transport on liveweight, physiological and haematological responses of cattle.