Céad Mile Fáilte go T-Stór (Welcome to T- Stór)

T-Stór is Teagasc’s Open Access Repository, maintained by the Teagasc Library Service. Stór is the Gaelic word for Repository or Store or Warehouse, and T-Stór is an online “store” of Teagasc Research outputs and related documents. T-Stór collects preserves and makes freely available scholarly communication, including peer-reviewed articles, working papers and conference papers created by Teagasc researchers. Where material has already been published it is made available subject to the open-access policies of the original publishers. About Teagasc

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Animal & Grassland Research & Innovation Programme [875]
Crops, Environment & Land Use Programme [469]
Food Programme [875]
Rural Economy & Development Programme [228]
Irish Journal of Agricultural & Food Research [304]
Other [270]
  • Effect of divergence in residual methane emissions on feed intake and efficiency, growth and carcass performance, and indices of rumen fermentation and methane emissions in finishing beef cattle

    Smith, Paul E; Waters, Sinead M; Kenny, David A; Kirwan, Stuart F; Conroy, Stephen; Kelly, Alan K; FACCE ERA-GAS; European Union; Teagasc Walsh Scholarship Programme; 16/RD/ERAGAS/1RUMENPREDICT-ROI2017; et al. (Oxford University Press, 2021-10-01)
    Residual expressions of enteric emissions favor a more equitable identification of an animal’s methanogenic potential compared with traditional measures of enteric emissions. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of divergently ranking beef cattle for residual methane emissions (RME) on animal productivity, enteric emissions, and rumen fermentation. Dry matter intake (DMI), growth, feed efficiency, carcass output, and enteric emissions (GreenFeed emissions monitoring system) were recorded on 294 crossbred beef cattle (steers = 135 and heifers = 159; mean age 441 d (SD = 49); initial body weight (BW) of 476 kg (SD = 67)) at the Irish national beef cattle performance test center. Animals were offered a total mixed ration (77% concentrate and 23% forage; 12.6 MJ ME/kg of DM and 12% CP) ad libitum with emissions estimated for 21 d over a mean feed intake measurement period of 91 d. Animals had a mean daily methane emissions (DME) of 229.18 g/d (SD = 45.96), methane yield (MY) of 22.07 g/kg of DMI (SD = 4.06), methane intensity (MI) 0.70 g/kg of carcass weight (SD = 0.15), and RME 0.00 g/d (SD = 0.34). RME was computed as the residuals from a multiple regression model regressing DME on DMI and BW (R2 = 0.45). Animals were ranked into three groups namely high RME (>0.5 SD above the mean), medium RME (±0.5 SD above/below the mean), and low RME (>0.5 SD below the mean). Low RME animals produced 17.6% and 30.4% less (P < 0.05) DME compared with medium and high RME animals, respectively. A ~30% reduction in MY and MI was detected in low versus high RME animals. Positive correlations were apparent among all methane traits with RME most highly associated with (r = 0.86) DME. MY and MI were correlated (P < 0.05) with DMI, growth, feed efficiency, and carcass output. High RME had lower (P < 0.05) ruminal propionate compared with low RME animals and increased (P < 0.05) butyrate compared with medium and low RME animals. Propionate was negatively associated (P < 0.05) with all methane traits. Greater acetate:propionate ratio was associated with higher RME (r = 0.18; P < 0.05). Under the ad libitum feeding regime deployed here, RME was the best predictor of DME and only methane trait independent of animal productivity. Ranking animals on RME presents the opportunity to exploit interanimal variation in enteric emissions as well as providing a more equitable index of the methanogenic potential of an animal on which to investigate the underlying biological regulatory mechanisms.
  • Multiclonal human origin and global expansion of an endemic bacterial pathogen of livestock

    Yebra, Gonzalo; Harling-Lee, Joshua D.; Lycett, Samantha; Aarestrup, Frank M.; Larsen, Gunhild; Cavaco, Lina M.; Seo, Keun Seok; Abraham, Sam; Norris, Jacqueline M.; Schmidt, Tracy; et al. (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2022-12-05)
    Most new pathogens of humans and animals arise via switching events from distinct host species. However, our understanding of the evolutionary and ecological drivers of successful host adaptation, expansion, and dissemination are limited. Staphylococcus aureus is a major bacterial pathogen of humans and a leading cause of mastitis in dairy cows worldwide. Here we trace the evolutionary history of bovine S. aureus using a global dataset of 10,254 S. aureus genomes including 1,896 bovine isolates from 32 countries in 6 continents. We identified 7 major contemporary endemic clones of S. aureus causing bovine mastitis around the world and traced them back to 4 independent host-jump events from humans that occurred up to 2,500 y ago. Individual clones emerged and underwent clonal expansion from the mid-19th to late 20th century coinciding with the commercialization and industrialization of dairy farming, and older lineages have become globally distributed via established cattle trade links. Importantly, we identified lineage-dependent differences in the frequency of host transmission events between humans and cows in both directions revealing high risk clones threatening veterinary and human health. Finally, pangenome network analysis revealed that some bovine S. aureus lineages contained distinct sets of bovine-associated genes, consistent with multiple trajectories to host adaptation via gene acquisition. Taken together, we have dissected the evolutionary history of a major endemic pathogen of livestock providing a comprehensive temporal, geographic, and gene-level perspective of its remarkable success.
  • Bioinformatic approaches for studying the microbiome of fermented food

    Walsh, Liam H.; Coakley, Mairéad; Walsh, Aaron M.; O’Toole, Paul W.; Cotter, Paul; European Union; Science Foundation Ireland; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; Enterprise Ireland; 818368; et al. (Informa UK Limited, 2022-10-26)
    High-throughput DNA sequencing-based approaches continue to revolutionise our understanding of microbial ecosystems, including those associated with fermented foods. Metagenomic and metatranscriptomic approaches are state-of-the-art biological profiling methods and are employed to investigate a wide variety of characteristics of microbial communities, such as taxonomic membership, gene content and the range and level at which these genes are expressed. Individual groups and consortia of researchers are utilising these approaches to produce increasingly large and complex datasets, representing vast populations of microorganisms. There is a corresponding requirement for the development and application of appropriate bioinformatic tools and pipelines to interpret this data. This review critically analyses the tools and pipelines that have been used or that could be applied to the analysis of metagenomic and metatranscriptomic data from fermented foods. In addition, we critically analyse a number of studies of fermented foods in which these tools have previously been applied, to highlight the insights that these approaches can provide.
  • Transcriptome characterization and differentially expressed genes under flooding and drought stress in the biomass grasses Phalaris arundinacea and Dactylis glomerata

    Klaas, Manfred; Haiminen, Niina; Grant, Jim; Cormican, Paul; Finnan, John; Arojju, Sai Krishna; Utro, Filippo; Vellani, Tia; Parida, Laxmi; Barth, Susanne; et al. (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2019-06-26)
    Background and Aims Perennial grasses are a global resource as forage, and for alternative uses in bioenergy and as raw materials for the processing industry. Marginal lands can be valuable for perennial biomass grass production, if perennial biomass grasses can cope with adverse abiotic environmental stresses such as drought and waterlogging. Methods In this study, two perennial grass species, reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea) and cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata) were subjected to drought and waterlogging stress to study their responses for insights to improving environmental stress tolerance. Physiological responses were recorded, reference transcriptomes established and differential gene expression investigated between control and stress conditions. We applied a robust non-parametric method, RoDEO, based on rank ordering of transcripts to investigate differential gene expression. Furthermore, we extended and validated vRoDEO for comparing samples with varying sequencing depths. Key Results This allowed us to identify expressed genes under drought and waterlogging whilst using only a limited number of RNA sequencing experiments. Validating the methodology, several differentially expressed candidate genes involved in the stage 3 step-wise scheme in detoxification and degradation of xenobiotics were recovered, while several novel stress-related genes classified as of unknown function were discovered. Conclusions Reed canary grass is a species coping particularly well with flooding conditions, but this study adds novel information on how its transcriptome reacts under drought stress. We built extensive transcriptomes for the two investigated C3 species cocksfoot and reed canary grass under both extremes of water stress to provide a clear comparison amongst the two species to broaden our horizon for comparative studies, but further confirmation of the data would be ideal to obtain a more detailed picture.

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