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T-Stór is Teagasc’s Open Access Repository, maintained by the Teagasc Library Service. Stór is the Gaelic word for Repository or Store or Warehouse, and T-Stór is an online “store” of Teagasc Research outputs and related documents. T-Stór collects preserves and makes freely available scholarly communication, including peer-reviewed articles, working papers and conference papers created by Teagasc researchers. Where material has already been published it is made available subject to the open-access policies of the original publishers. About Teagasc
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Red clover: A promising pasture legume for IrelandRed clover is considered a very productive but short lived perennial legume. Previous research has shown attractive yields for red clover in the first year after establishment (O’Kiely et al., 2006). This experiment quantified the impacts of cultivar, companion grass, harvest schedule and nitrogen fertiliser on crop yield in the sixth year after establishment, and compared these to grass receiving inorganic N fertiliser.
Irish dairy farmers’ engagement with animal health surveillance services: Factors influencing sample submissionA high-quality animal health surveillance service is required to inform policy and decision-making in food-animal disease control, to substantiate claims regarding national animal health status and for the early detection of exotic or emerging diseases. In Ireland, the Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine provides partially subsidized testing of farm animal samples and postmortem examinations to the Irish agriculture sector (farmers) at 6 regional veterinary laboratories (RVL) throughout the country. Diagnoses and data from these submissions are recorded and reported monthly and annually to enable animal health monitoring and disease surveillance. In a passive surveillance model, both the veterinary practitioner and the farmer play a vital role in sample submission by determining which cases are sent to the laboratory for postmortem or diagnostic testing. This paper identified factors influencing Irish dairy farmers' decisions to submit carcasses to RVL. Behavioral determinants of the submission of samples where veterinary professionals are concerned has been studied previously; however, limited work has studied determinants among farmers. This study conducted qualitative analyses of decisions of Irish dairy farmers relevant to diagnostic sample submission to an RVL and to examine the herd-level characteristics of farmers that submitted cases to an RVL. The biographical narrative interpretive method was used to interview 5 case-study farmers who were classified nonsubmitters, medium, or high submitters to the postmortem service based on the proportion of on-farm mortalities submitted to the laboratory service in 2016. The data obtained from these interviews were supplemented and triangulated through dairy farmer focus groups. The data were thematically analyzed and described qualitatively. In addition, quantitative analysis was undertaken. Data for herds within the catchment area of a central RVL were extracted, and a multivariable logistic regression model was constructed to examine the relationship between herds from which carcasses were submitted to the laboratory and those from which none were submitted. Results from the analysis show that the farmer's veterinary practitioner was the primary influence on submission of carcasses to the laboratory. Similarly, the type of incident, logistical issues with transporting carcasses to the laboratory, influence of peers, presence of alternative private laboratories, and a fear of government involvement were key factors emerging from the case-study interview and focus group data. Herd size was identified in both the qualitative and quantitative analysis as a factor determining submission. In the logistic regression model, herd size and increased levels of expansion were positively correlated with the odds of submission, whereas distance from the laboratory was negatively associated with odds of submission. These results identify the main factors influencing the use of diagnostic services for surveillance of animal health, signaling how services may be made more attractive by policy makers to a potentially wider cohort of users.
Prebiotic administration modulates gut microbiota and faecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations but does not prevent chronic intermittent hypoxia-induced apnoea and hypertension in adult ratsBackground Evidence is accruing to suggest that microbiota-gut-brain signalling plays a regulatory role in cardiorespiratory physiology. Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), modelling human sleep apnoea, affects gut microbiota composition and elicits cardiorespiratory morbidity. We investigated if treatment with prebiotics ameliorates cardiorespiratory dysfunction in CIH-exposed rats. Methods Adult male rats were exposed to CIH (96 cycles/day, 6.0% O2 at nadir) for 14 consecutive days with and without prebiotic supplementation (fructo- and galacto-oligosaccharides) beginning two weeks prior to gas exposures. Findings CIH increased apnoea index and caused hypertension. CIH exposure had modest effects on the gut microbiota, decreasing the relative abundance of Lactobacilli species, but had no effect on microbial functional characteristics. Faecal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations, plasma and brainstem pro-inflammatory cytokine concentrations and brainstem neurochemistry were unaffected by exposure to CIH. Prebiotic administration modulated gut microbiota composition and diversity, altering gut-metabolic (GMMs) and gut-brain (GBMs) modules and increased faecal acetic and propionic acid concentrations, but did not prevent adverse CIH-induced cardiorespiratory phenotypes. Interpretation CIH-induced cardiorespiratory dysfunction is not dependant upon changes in microbial functional characteristics and decreased faecal SCFA concentrations. Prebiotic-related modulation of microbial function and resultant increases in faecal SCFAs were not sufficient to prevent CIH-induced apnoea and hypertension in our model. Our results do not exclude the potential for microbiota-gut-brain axis involvement in OSA-related cardiorespiratory morbidity, but they demonstrate that in a relatively mild model of CIH, sufficient to evoke classic cardiorespiratory dysfunction, such changes are not obligatory for the development of morbidity, but may become relevant in the elaboration and maintenance of cardiorespiratory morbidity with progressive disease. Funding Department of Physiology and APC Microbiome Ireland, University College Cork, Ireland. APC Microbiome Ireland is funded by Science Foundation Ireland, through the Government's National Development Plan.
Phenotypic relationships between milk protein percentage and reproductive performance in three strains of Holstein Friesian cows in IrelandThe relationship between milk protein percentage and fertility in seasonal calving, dairy cattle in Ireland was quantified using a total of 584 lactation records, collected over a five-year period from experiments comparing three strains of Holstein-Friesian cows under three different feeding systems. Logistic regression analyses showed that increased protein percentage during early lactation was positively associated with the probability of a cow becoming pregnant to its first service (P <0.05). Similarly, protein percentage during the lactation had a positive (P <0.01) association with overall pregnancy rate. The results suggest that negative energy balance in early lactation or during the whole lactation causes a shortage of glucose to the udder, this restricts the synthesis of milk protein in the udder and causes a lower milk protein percentage. During negative energy balance there is also a concurrent reduction of IGF-І, LH and oestradiol secretion, which consequently delay ovarian follicular development, and hence impairs reproductive performance. In conclusion, cows with higher milk protein percentage during early lactation have a greater likelihood of becoming pregnant earlier in the breeding season, and have a higher conception rate.
Microbiota and Neurodevelopmental Trajectories: Role of Maternal and Early-Life NutritionPregnancy and early life are characterized by marked changes in body microbial composition. Intriguingly, these changes take place simultaneously with neurodevelopmental plasticity, suggesting a complex dialogue between the microbes that inhabit the gastrointestinal tract and the brain. The purpose of this chapter is to describe the natural trajectory of microbiota during pregnancy and early life, as well as review the literature available on its interaction with neurodevelopment. Several lines of evidence show that the gut microbiota interacts with diet, drugs and stress both prenatally and postnatally. Clinical and preclinical studies are illuminating how these disruptions result in different developmental outcomes. Understanding the role of the microbiota in neurodevelopment may lead to novel approaches to the study of the pathophysiology and treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders.