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T-Stór is Teagasc’s Open Access Repository, maintained by the Teagasc Library Service. Stór is the Gaelic word for Repository or Store or Warehouse, and T-Stór is an online “store” of Teagasc Research outputs and related documents. T-Stór collects preserves and makes freely available scholarly communication, including peer-reviewed articles, working papers and conference papers created by Teagasc researchers. Where material has already been published it is made available subject to the open-access policies of the original publishers. About Teagasc
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Comparative grazing behaviour of lactating suckler cows of contrasting genetic merit and genotypeThe objective of this study was to determine if differences in grazing behaviour exist between lactating suckler cows diverse in genetic merit for the national Irish Replacement index and of two contrasting genotypes. Data from 103 cows: 41 high and 62 low genetic merit, 43 beef and 60 beef x dairy (BDX) cows were available over a single grazing season in 2015. Milk yield, grass dry matter intake (GDMI), cow live weight (BW) and body condition score (BCS) were recorded during the experimental period, with subsequent measures of production efficiency extrapolated. Grazing behaviour data were recorded twice in conjunction with aforementioned measures, using Institute of Grassland and Environmental Research headset behaviour recorders. The effect of genotype and cow genetic merit during mid- and late-lactation on grazing behaviour phenotypes, milk yield, BW, BCS and GDMI were estimated using linear mixed models. Genetic merit had no significant effect on any production parameters investigated, with the exception that low genetic merit had a greater BCS than high genetic merit cows. Beef cows were heavier, had a greater BCS but produced less milk per day than BDX. The BDX cows produced more milk per 100 kg BW and per unit intake and had greater GDMI, intake per bite and rate of GDMI per 100 kg BW than beef cows. High genetic merit cows spent longer grazing and took more bites per day but had a lower rate of GDMI than low genetic merit cows, with the same trend found when expressed per unit of BW. High genetic merit cows spent longer grazing than low genetic merit cows when expressed on a per unit intake basis. Absolute rumination measures were similar across cow genotype and genetic merit. When expressed per unit BW, BDX cows spent longer ruminating per day compared to beef. However, on a per unit intake basis, beef cows ruminated longer and had more mastications than BDX. Intake per bite and rate of intake was positively correlated with GDMI per 100 kg BW. The current study implies that despite large differences in grazing behaviour between cows diverse in genetic merit, few differences were apparent in terms of production efficiency variables extrapolated. Conversely, differences in absolute grazing and ruminating behaviour measurements did not exist between beef cows of contrasting genotype. However, efficiency parameters investigated illustrate that BDX will subsequently convert herbage intake more efficiently to milk production.
Fluorescence-based analyser as a rapid tool for determining soluble protein content in dairy ingredients and infant milk formulaAbstract: Milk protein, in particular native whey protein, is of interest to dairy manufacturers as a measure of functional and nutritional quality. However, quantification of soluble whey protein (SP) is time consuming; giving rise to the need to develop rapid, accurate, and portable at-line process analytical technology. In this study, the performance of a fluorescence-based analyser(F) (Amaltheys II, Spectralys Innovations, France) was evaluated for quantification of SPF and whey protein nitrogen index (WPNI)F in skim milk, whey protein concentrate and infant formula powders. Rehydration of powders prior to analysis was a key factor for ensuring repeatability and reproducibility. A comparison of the analyser with reference methods for SPF and WPNIF resulted in coefficient of determination (R2) > 0.993 for both SPKjeldahl method and WPNIGEA. The results show the fluorescence-based analyser to be rapid, compact, and accurate device, suited for providing reliable support to dairy ingredient and infant formula manufacturers. Industrial relevance: The fluorescence based analysis investigated in this article is suitable for application in the dairy industry where it can be used as a rapid, at-line PAT tool for both liquid and powder samples. The technology has the potential to replace well-established methods for measurement of soluble protein. The main benefit to industry is the ability to respond more rapidly to variations in soluble protein without compromising on the accuracy associated with more time consuming methods.
Multi-scale structure, pasting and digestibility of adlay (Coixlachryma-jobi L.) seed starchThe hierarchical structure, pasting and digestibility of adlay seed starch (ASS) were investigated compared with maize starch (MS) and potato starch (PS). ASS exhibited round or polyglonal morphology with apparent pores/channels on the surface. It had a lower amylose content, a looser and more heterogeneous C-type crystalline structure, a higher crystallinity, and a thinner crystalline lamellae. Accordingly, ASS showed a higher slowly digestible starch content combined with less resistant starch fractions, and a decreased pasting temperature, a weakened tendency to retrogradation and an increased pasting stability compared with those of MS and PS. The ASS structure-functionality relationship indicated that the amylose content, double helical orders, crystalline lamellar structure, and surface pinholes should be responsible for ASS specific functionalities including pasting behaviors and in vitro digestibility. ASS showed potential applications in health-promoting foods which required low rearrangement during storage and sustainable energy-providing starch fractions.
Emulsifying properties of hemp proteins: Effect of isolation techniqueHemp protein was isolated from hemp seed meal using two different isolation procedures: alkali extraction/isoelectric precipitation (HPI) and micellization (HMI). The ability of these proteins to form and stabilize 10% (w/w) sunflower oil-in-water emulsions (at pH = 3.0) was studied at three different concentrations, 0.25, 0.75 and 1.5% (w/w), by monitoring emulsion droplet size distribution, microstructural and morphological properties, rheological behaviour and stability against flocculation, coalescence and creaming. In addition, hemp proteins were analysed for water solubility, denaturation degree and surface/interfacial activity. HMI protein, which was found to be less denatured after isolation, exhibited higher solubility and slightly higher surface/interfacial activity than HPI protein. HMI emulsions possessed a smaller volume mean droplet diameter (d4,3 = 1.92–3.42 μm in 2% SDS) than HPI emulsions (d4,3 = 2.25–15.77 μm in 2% SDS). While HMI stabilized emulsions were characterized with individual droplets covered by protein film, both confocal laser scanning microscopy and flocculation indices indicated occurrence of bridging flocculation in HPI stabilized emulsions. Protein aggregation, which induced flocculation of the droplets, contributed to higher apparent viscosity of HPI stabilized emulsions compared to HMI stabilized emulsions. Interestingly, emulsions stabilized with 1.5% (w/w) HPI exhibited much better creaming and coalescence stability than other emulsions due to the formation of a weak transient network of floccules and higher continuous phase viscosity which both suppressed the movement of the droplets.
Separation of Oligosaccharides from Lotus Seeds via Medium-pressure Liquid Chromatography Coupled with ELSD and DADLotus seeds were identified by the Ministry of Public Health of China as both food and medicine. One general function of lotus seeds is to improve intestinal health. However, to date, studies evaluating the relationship between bioactive compounds in lotus seeds and the physiological activity of the intestine are limited. In the present study, by using medium pressure liquid chromatography coupled with evaporative light-scattering detector and diode-array detector, five oligosaccharides were isolated and their structures were further characterized by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In vitro testing determined that LOS3-1 and LOS4 elicited relatively good proliferative effects on Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. These results indicated a structure-function relationship between the physiological activity of oligosaccharides in lotus seeds and the number of probiotics applied, thus providing room for improvement of this particular feature. Intestinal probiotics may potentially become a new effective drug target for the regulation of immunity.