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T-Stór is Teagasc’s Open Access Repository, maintained by the Teagasc Library Service. Stór is the Gaelic word for Repository or Store or Warehouse, and T-Stór is an online “store” of Teagasc Research outputs and related documents. T-Stór collects preserves and makes freely available scholarly communication, including peer-reviewed articles, working papers and conference papers created by Teagasc researchers. Where material has already been published it is made available subject to the open-access policies of the original publishers. About Teagasc
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Ash dieback in Ireland – A review of European management options and case studies in remedial silviculture(Society of Irish Foresters, 2018)Ash dieback, caused by Hymenoscyphus fraxineus, is developing rapidly across the island of Ireland. Ireland’s ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) woodlands, particularly first rotation plantations, are quite unique and are at particular risk of very rapid decline. Urgent action is required in order to minimise the economic, ecological and social impact of the disease. However, for this to happen forest owners require guidance regarding potential positive management interventions. This article outlines the wider, mainly European, experience of remedial silviculture. It presents three case studies on existing remedial silviculture trials in Ireland. In the absence of silvicultural research data specific to the evolving situation with ash dieback, this article explores the potential benefits of positive practical actions which may minimise the impact of the disease. Despite the seriousness of the situation, such silvicultural activity may even result in a positive economic outcome. It is hoped that by beginning to document potential mitigatory management options, this paper may bring some reassurance to owners and managers of ashdominated woodlands.
The fatty acid profile and stable isotope ratios of C and N of muscle from cattle that grazed grass or grass/clover pastures before slaughter and their discriminatory potential(Teagasc (Agriculture and Food Development Authority), Ireland, 2018-11-09)Consumption of grazed pasture compared to concentrates results in higher concentrations, in beef muscle, of fatty acids considered to be beneficial to human health. Little information is available on the influence of the type of grazed forage. Our objectives were to determine 1) the effect of inclusion of white clover in a grazing sward on the fatty acid profile of beef muscle and 2) the potential of the fatty acid profile and stable isotope ratios of C and N to discriminate between beef from cattle that grazed grass-only or grass/clover swards before slaughter. A total of 28 spring-born Charolais steers grazed from March until slaughter in October, either on a perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) sward that received approximately 220 kg N/ha or a perennial ryegrass–white clover (Trifolium repens L.) sward that received 50 kg N/ha. The longissimus muscle from cattle finished on grass/clover had a higher (P < 0.05) proportion of C18:2 and C18:3 but a lower (P < 0.05) proportion of conjugated linoleic acid and δ15N value than animals finished on the grass-only sward. Discriminant analysis using the fatty acid data showed that, after cross-validation, 80.7% of grass/clover and 86.1% of grass-only muscle samples were correctly classified. Discriminant analysis using the stable isotope data showed that, after cross-validation, 95.7% of grass/clover and 86.5% of grass-only muscle samples were correctly classified. Inclusion of white clover in pasture is likely to have little effect on healthiness of meat for consumers. However, changes in fatty acids and stable isotopes can be used to distinguish between grass/clover-fed and grass-only-fed beef.
Effects of mycorrhizal inoculation and digestate fertilisation on triticale biomass production using fungicide-coated seeds(Teagasc (Agriculture and Food Development Authority), Ireland, 2018-09-07)Crop fertilisation management using organic wastes and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) inoculation can play a crucial role in the sustainability of agroecosystems. However, in conventional agricultural systems, agrochemicals like fungicides could reduce the positive effect of AMF. The aim of this study was to evaluate the agronomic (biomass production) and environmental (soil CO2 emission) effects of AMF inoculation and digestate spreading on triticale cultivation using commercial seeds coated with fungicide. The field experiment was conducted in 2014–2015 at the University of Padua’s experimental farm (Italy), adopting a split-plot design, where the main plot factor was AMF inoculation (inoculated vs. uninoculated) and the subplot factor was fertilisation treatment (no fertilisation (NF), digestate liquid fraction (DL), digestate solid fraction (DS), mineral fertilisation (MF)). Low AMF root colonization was observed, likely due to the effect of fungicide; the only significant effect of AMF inoculation was a lower shoot density. Dry biomass production was significantly higher in the MF treatment (21.8 ± 1.04 Mg/ha) and lower in the NF treatment (14.5 ± 0.73 Mg/ha) compared to DS and DL treatments, which were not significantly different with an average yield of 17.2 ± 2.10 Mg/ha. During the cropping season, soil CO2 emissions were not significantly affected by either AMF inoculation or fertilisation treatment. The median value of soil CO2 emissions was 447.3 mg/m2 per hour.
Evaluating the effect of storage conditions on milk microbiological quality and composition(Teagasc (Agriculture and Food Development Authority), Ireland, 2018-07-19)In this study, the effect of storage temperature (2 or 4°C) on the composition of milk and microbiological load was investigated over 96 h. Milk samples were collected from farm bulk milk tanks after one complete milking and stored at 2 or 4°C over 96 h. Total bacterial count (TBC), psychrotrophic bacterial count (PBC) and proteolytic bacterial count (PROT) were affected by storage time and temperature and varied significantly between farms (P < 0.05). The levels of TBC, PBC and PROT bacterial count increased from 4.37 to 6.15 log cfu/mL, 4.34 to 6.44 log cfu/mL and 3.72 to 4.81 log cfu/mL, respectively, when the milk was stored for 96 h at 2°C. The milk samples stored at 4°C had higher increases in these bacterial counts after 72 h in comparison to milk samples stored at 2°C. The casein fraction content was lower in milk samples stored at 4°C, which could be due to high levels of PROT bacteria or enzyme activity in these samples. Milk stored for 96 h at 2°C has less impact on composition or processability parameters compared to milk stored at 4°C.
Effect of biostimulants on cold resistance and productivity formation in winter rapeseed and winter wheat(Teagasc (Agriculture and Food Development Authority), Ireland, 2018-10)The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of biostimulants on the resistance to freezing under laboratory-controlled cold conditions and on the growth, development, overwintering and productivity of winter rapeseed and winter wheat in natural field experiments. The effect of free amino acids, macroelements and microelements that contain biostimulants Ruter AA, Terra Sorb and Razormin was tested on cultivars of rapeseed, ‘Hornet H’, and winter wheat, ‘Skagen’ and ‘Kovas’, applying morphometrical methods. We found that biostimulants applied to rapeseed at BBCH 13–14 stage and to wheat at BBCH 14–15 stage under controlled cold stress conditions increased the freezing tolerance of seedlings. Biostimulants more actively increased the freezing resistance of rapeseed seedlings at –5°C compared to that of wheat seedlings. The temperature of –7°C was mortal to rape seedlings, while the resistance of wheat seedlings increased under the influence of the tested biostimulants compared to that of the control seedlings. In natural field experiments, these biostimulants produced a significant effect on plant growth in autumn, acclimation to the cold, plant overwintering, vegetation renewal and, due to this, formation of productivity elements. The effects of Razormin (200 mL/ha), Terra Sorb (2 L/ha) and Ruter AA (1 L/ha) were significantly higher on growth parameters of winter wheat compared to the productivity of winter rapeseed.