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T-Stór is Teagasc’s Open Access Repository, maintained by the Teagasc Library Service. Stór is the Gaelic word for Repository or Store or Warehouse, and T-Stór is an online “store” of Teagasc Research outputs and related documents. T-Stór collects preserves and makes freely available scholarly communication, including peer-reviewed articles, working papers and conference papers created by Teagasc researchers. Where material has already been published it is made available subject to the open-access policies of the original publishers. About Teagasc
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Effects of castration and slaughter age on the fatty acid composition of ovine muscle and adipose tissue from two breedsFatty acids (g/100 g total fatty acids) in M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) and total branched chain fatty acids (μg/g fat) in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) of rams and castrates from Scottish Blackface (SB) or Texel × Scottish Blackface (T × SB) lambs, slaughtered at mean ages of 196, 242, 293, 344 or 385 days were determined. Lambs were fed pasture prior to a 36-day finishing period on a barley/maize-based concentrate ration. The intramuscular fat content (IMF; %) was higher (P < 0.001) in castrates than in rams and in SB compared to T × SB lambs (P < 0.001). The proportions of c9-C18:1 and total monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) were higher (P < 0.001) in LTL of castrates than rams. The proportions of C18:2n-6 and total n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were lower (P = 0.001) in LTL of castrates compared to rams related to differences in IMF content. The proportions of C14:0, C16:0, c9-C18:1 and total MUFA were higher (P < 0.05), while the proportions of C18:2n-6, C20:4n-6, C20:5n-3, total PUFA, n-6 and n-3 PUFA were lower (P < 0.05), in SB than in T × SB lambs, which was related to differences in IMF content. There was a higher (P < 0.001) proportion of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) c9,t11-C18:2 in LTL from SB compared to T × SB. The effects of slaughter age on the proportions of fatty acids in LTL did not show a clear trend. The concentration of 4-methylnonanoic acid was higher (P = 0.002) in SAT of rams than castrates, particularly in older lambs. Despite the differences in the muscle fatty acid composition due to gender, slaughter age or breed of lambs, the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFA (≤3.11) was within the dietary recommendation of <4.0 for human health.
Effects of lipids on the water sorption, glass transition and structural strength of carbohydrate-protein systemsEncapsulant systems are gaining wide practical interest due to their functional and nutritional properties. This paper was focusing on understanding structural relaxations in that systems near glass transition temperature. Freeze-dried trehalose-whey protein isolate-sunflower oil systems with various ratios of the last were used as a carbohydrate-protein-lipid food model. The Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer (GAB) water sorption relationship was used as a tool to model water sorption isotherms. The glass transition temperature was obtained by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Structural α-relaxation temperatures were measured by dynamical mechanical analyses (DMA), dielectric analysis (DEA) and combined to cover a broad range for strength assessment. The microstructure was characterized by optical light microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The C1 and C2 constants for Williams-Landel-Ferry (WLF) equation and structural strength parameter were calculated for each system. The effect of sunflower oil and water contents on strength of carbohydrate-protein system was analyzed. Strength shows decreasing with increasing of lipid concentration in the mixtures and more complex dependence on the water content in a system.
Associations between colostrum management, passive immunity, calf-related hygiene practices, and rates of mortality in preweaning dairy calvesCalves are particularly vulnerable to health issues before weaning and experience high rates of mortality. Poor colostrum quality or substandard colostrum management, combined with poor hygiene, can increase disease susceptibility, contributing to elevated mortality rates. This study aimed to assess colostrum and calf management together with subsequent mortality rates in preweaning calves. Forty-seven Irish spring-calving, pasture-based dairy herds were enrolled in the study. To investigate whether colostrum and hygiene practices change as the calving season progresses, each farm was visited in both the first and last 6 wk of the calving season. The concentration of IgG in 250 colostrum samples and 580 calf serum samples was determined by radial immunodiffusion assay. Mean colostrum IgG concentration was 85 mg/mL, and mean calf serum IgG concentration was 30.9 and 27.1 mg/mL, respectively, in the first and last 6 wk of the calving season. Smaller herd size and younger age at sampling were associated with higher calf serum IgG concentration. Dairy breed calves were associated with higher serum IgG concentrations compared with beef breed calves; no association was detected based on sex. For feeding equipment hygiene, we assessed the presence of protein residues and found that hygiene levels tended to worsen from the first to the final 6 wk of the calving season. We found no association between feeding equipment hygiene and herd size or 28-d calf mortality rate. Colostrum and calf management practices were not associated with either calf serum IgG concentration or 28-d calf mortality rate. We found that IgG concentration in colostrum produced in Irish dairy herds was generally good, although large variation existed, emphasizing the need for assessment of colostrum before feeding. Results also suggested that hygiene practices associated with calf rearing can be improved, particularly in the latter half of the calving season.
Anti-Müllerian hormone in grazing dairy cows: Identification of factors affecting plasma concentration, relationship with phenotypic fertility, and genome-wide associationsThe objectives of this study were to (1) characterize the distribution and variability of plasma anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) concentration; (2) evaluate factors associated with phenotypic variation in plasma AMH; (3) examine the associations between categories of plasma AMH and reproductive outcomes [pregnancy to first artificial insemination (P/AI), and pregnancy rates within 21, 42, and 84 d after the mating start date (MSD)]; (4) estimate pedigree and genomic heritability for plasma AMH; and (5) identify and validate SNP associated with phenotypic variation in plasma AMH. Plasma AMH concentration (pg/mL) was determined from a blood sample collected (mean ± standard deviation) 10 ± 2 d after first insemination at detected estrus (IDE) in 2,628 first- and second-parity Irish dairy cows. Overall, plasma AMH had a positively skewed distribution with mean (± standard deviation), median, minimum, and maximum concentrations of 326 ± 231, 268, 15, and 2,863 pg/mL, respectively. Plasma AMH was greatest for Jersey, followed by Holstein × Jersey, Holstein × Norwegian Red, and Holstein cows (410, 332, 284, and 257 pg/mL, respectively). Second-parity cows had greater plasma AMH than first-parity cows (333 vs. 301 pg/mL, respectively). Samples collected at 7 and 8 d after first IDE had lesser plasma AMH than those collected on d 9, 10, 11, 12, and 13 after first IDE (291 and 297 vs. 317, 319, 331, 337, and 320 pg/mL). Plasma AMH was not associated with either body condition score at first IDE or the interval from calving to MSD. Cows were categorized into low (≤150 pg/mL; n = 526; lowest 20%), intermediate (>150 to ≤461 pg/mL; n = 1,576; intermediate 60%), and high AMH (>461 pg/mL; n = 526; highest 20%) groups based on plasma AMH, and associations with reproductive outcomes were tested. Cows with high and intermediate plasma AMH had 1.42- and 1.51-times-greater odds of becoming pregnant within 84 d after the MSD than those with low plasma AMH (90.3 and 90.8 vs. 86.8%, respectively); however, P/AI and pregnancy rate within 21 and 42 d after the MSD did not differ among AMH categories. Plasma AMH was moderately heritable (pedigree heritability of 0.40 ± 0.06 and genomic heritability of 0.45 ± 0.05), and 68 SNP across Bos taurus autosomes 7 and 11 were associated with phenotypic variation in plasma AMH. Out of 68 SNP, 42 were located in a single quantitative trait locus on Bos taurus autosome 11 that harbored 6 previously identified candidate genes (NR5A1, HSPA5, CRB2, DENND1A, NDUFA8, and PTGS) linked to fertility-related phenotypes in dairy cows.
Evaluation of the n-alkane technique for estimating herbage dry matter intake of dairy cows offered herbage harvested at two different stages of growth in summer and autumnThe n-alkane technique for estimating herbage dry matter intake (DMI) of dairy cows was investigated in this experiment. Eight Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were offered perennial ryegrass ad libitum that had been harvested at two different herbage masses and during two different seasons, in order to assess the effect of herbage mass and season on the accuracy of the n-alkane technique. Two pre-harvested herbage mass treatments (low, target 1500 kg DM/ha versus high, target 4000 kg DM/ha, measured above 4 cm), were investigated in a crossover factorial arrangement within each of two seasons (summer versus autumn), in Ireland. Each season consisted of two periods, each 12 days in length. Cows were housed in individual metabolism stalls to allow for accurate determination of measured DMI. Herbage DMI was estimated, with the n-alkane technique, by dosing cows twice daily with a C32 n-alkane. Pre-harvest herbage mass and season did not affect the n-alkane estimated DMI, although lack of season and herbage mass effects may have been masked by variation that occurred between swards within the same herbage mass and season. However, there were a number of differences between summer and autumn in the fecal recovery rates of a number of n-alkanes suggesting that the effect of season requires further investigation prior to the application of recovery rates from literature values when investigating diet selection and botanical composition. Overall, the n-alkane technique provided good estimates of DMI; the discrepancy had a standard deviation due to sward of 1.2 and 1.0 kg DM/cow per day, and hence potential bias of up to twice this, and a measurement error standard deviation of 1.3 and 1.0 kg DM/cow per day, for the C33/C32 and C31/C32 n-alkane pair methods respectively. Two n-alkane pairs were tested, and C33/C32 n-alkane provided the most precise estimates of DMI, compared with the C31/C32 n-alkane pair. This research provides some strong evidence for future use of the n-alkane technique including that the accuracy of the technique has not been influenced by contemporary changes to herbage management, is not affected by seasonal changes, and overall is an accurate and precise technique for estimating DMI.