Ammonia emissions from urea, stabilized urea and calcium ammonium nitrate: insights into loss abatement in temperate grassland
AuthorForrestal, Patrick J.
Laughlin, R. J.
Chambers, B. J.
Richards, Karl G.
MetadataShow full item record
StatisticsDisplay Item Statistics
CitationForrestal, P.J., Harty, M., Carolan, R., Lanigan, G.J., Watson, C.J., Laughlin, R.J., McNeill, G., Chambers, B. and Richards, K.G. 2016. Ammonia emissions from urea, stabilised urea and calcium ammonium nitrate: insights into loss abatement in temperate grassland. Soil Use and Management. 32: 92-100. doi: 10.1111/sum.12232
AbstractFertilizer nitrogen (N) contributes to ammonia (NH3) emissions, which European Union member states have committed to reduce. This study focused on evaluating NH3-N loss from a suite of N fertilizers over multiple applications, and gained insights into the temporal and seasonal patterns of NH3-N loss from urea in Irish temperate grassland using wind tunnels. The fertilizers evaluated were calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN), urea and urea with the N stabilizers N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT), dicyandiamide (DCD), DCD+NBPT and a maleic and itaconic acid polymer (MIP). 200 (and 400 for urea only) kg N/ha/yr was applied in five equal applications over the growing season at two grassland sites (one for MIP). Mean NH3-N losses from CAN were 85% lower than urea and had highly variable loss (range 45% points). The effect of DCD on NH3 emissions was variable. MIP did not decrease NH3-N loss, but NBPT caused a 78.5% reduction and, when combined with DCD, a 74% reduction compared with urea alone. Mean spring and summer losses from urea were similar, although spring losses were more variable with both the lowest and highest losses. Maximum NH3-N loss usually occurred on the second day after application. These data highlight the potential of stabilized urea to alter urea NH3-N loss outcomes in temperate grassland, the need for caution when using season as a loss risk guide and that urea hydrolysis in temperate grassland initiates quickly. Micrometeorological measurements focused specifically on urea are needed to determine absolute NH3-N loss levels in Irish temperate grassland.
FunderDepartment of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme
Grant NumberRSF13S430; 11S138