• Body and carcass measurements, carcass conformation and tissue distribution of high dairy genetic merit Holstein, standard dairy genetic merit Friesian and Charolais x Holstein-Friesian male cattle

      McGee, Mark; Keane, Michael G.; Neilan, R.; Moloney, Aidan P; Caffrey, Patrick J. (Teagasc, Oak Park, Carlow, Ireland, 2007)
      The increased proportion of Holstein genes in the dairy herd may have undesirable consequences for beef production in Ireland. A total of 72 spring-born calves, (24 Holstein (HO), 24 Friesian (FR) and 24 Charolais X Holstein-Friesian (CH)) were reared from calfhood to slaughter. Calves were artificially reared indoors and spent their first summer at pasture following which they were assigned to a 3 breeds (HO, FR and CH) 2 production systems (intensive 19-month bull beef and extensive 25-month steer beef) 2 slaughter weights (560 and 650 kg) factorial experiment. Body measurements of all animals were recorded at the same time before the earliest slaughter date. After slaughter, carcasses were graded and measured and the pistola hind-quarter was separated into fat, bone and muscle. HO had significantly higher values for withers height, pelvic height and chest depth than FR, which in turn had higher values than CH. HO had a longer back and a narrower chest than either FR or CH, which were not significantly different. Carcass length and depth, pistola length, and leg length were 139.2, 134.4 and 132.0 (s.e. 0.81), 52.1, 51.3 and 47.7 (s.e. 0.38), 114.4, 109.0 and 107.0 (s.e. 0.65) and 76.7, 71.9 and 71.4 (s.e. 0.44) cm for HO, FR and CH, respectively. Breed differences in pistola tissue distribution between the joints were small and confined to the distal pelvic limb and ribs. There were relatively small breed differences in the distribution of pistola muscle weight between individual muscles. Body measurements were significantly greater for animals on the intensive system (bulls) than the extensive system (steers) in absolute terms, but the opposite was so when they were expressed relative to live weight. The only significant difference in relative carcass measurements between the production systems was for carcass depth, which was lower for the intensive compared with the extensive system. Increasing slaughter weight significantly increased all carcass measurements in absolute terms but reduced them relative to weight. It is concluded that there were large differences between the breed types in body and carcass measurements, and hence in carcass shape and compactness but differences in tissue distribution were small.
    • A comparison of finishing strategies to fixed slaughter weights for Holstein Friesian and Belgian Blue × Holstein Friesian steers

      Keane, Michael G. (Teagasc, Oak Park, Carlow, Ireland, 2010)
      Cattle finishing strategies may involve feeding a high energy diet throughout or following a period of moderate growth. The objective of this study was to compare Holstein Friesian (HF) and Belgian Blue × Holstein Friesian (BB) steers (24 per breed type, initial live weight 434 and 431 kg for HF and BB, respectively) finished to 560 kg or 620 kg target slaughter weight, on either a concentrate diet ad libitum from the start of the finishing period (C), or on a concentrate diet ad libitum following an 84-day period on grass silage (SC). Slaughter weights were similar for HF and BB, but kill-out proportion, carcass weight and carcass conformation class were superior (P < 0.001), and carcass fat score was inferior (P < 0.001), for BB. Total concentrate, dry matter and net energy intakes were higher (P < 0.001) for HF, and efficiency of utilization of net energy for carcass-weight gain was lower (P < 0.01). Mean daily live-weight gain was higher for C than SC (P < 0.001) and for slaughter at 560 kg than at 620 kg (P < 0.05). Killout proportion was higher for C than SC (P < 0.05) and for 620 kg compared to 560 kg slaughter weight (P < 0.001). Measures of fatness were unaffected by feeding treatment but all were higher (P < 0.01) for the 620 kg slaughter weight. Net energy required per unit carcass-weight gain was higher for C than SC (P < 0.001) and for 620 kg than for 560 kg slaughter weight (P < 0.001). When slaughtered at 620 kg live weight there was no difference between the feeding treatments in net energy required per unit carcass-weight gain. While both breed types had similar live-weight gain BB had 9% greater (P < 0.01) carcass-weight gain and were 14% more efficient (P < 0.01) in converting feed energy to carcass weight. Neither breed type had commercially acceptable carcasses at 560 kg slaughter weight when finished on SC.
    • Comparison of pasture and concentrate finishing of Holstein Friesian, Aberdeen Angus × Holstein Friesian and Belgian Blue × Holstein Friesian steers

      Keane, Michael G.; Moloney, Aidan P (Teagasc, Oak Park, Carlow, Ireland, 2010)
      Crossbreeding Holstein Friesian dairy cows with both early and late maturing beef breed bulls is common in Ireland. This study concerned the comparison of spring-born Holstein Friesian (HF), Aberdeen Angus × Holstein Friesian (AA) and Belgian Blue × Holstein Friesian (BB) steers slaughtered directly off pasture in the autumn or following a period of concentrate finishing indoors. Male calves (18 per breed type) were reared together until August of their second year when they were assigned to a 3 (breed type) × 3 (finishing strategy) factorial experiment. The three finishing strategies were (i) pasture only for 94 days to slaughter (PE), (ii) concentrate ad libitum indoors for 94 days to slaughter (CE), and (iii) pasture only for 94 days followed by concentrate ad libitum indoors for 98 days to slaughter (PC). For HF, AA, and BB, mean carcass weight, carcass conformation score and carcass fat score values were 275, 284 and 301 (s.e. 5.1) kg, 1.75, 2.42 and 2.89 (s.e. 0.11), and 2.48, 2.89 and 2.17 (s.e. 0.11), respectively. Pasture alone supported live-weight and carcass-weight gains of approximately 800 g/day and 400 g/day, respectively. Live-weight and carcass-weight gains on concentrate ad libitum were approximately 1400 and 870 g/day, respectively. For PE, CE and PC, mean carcass weight, carcass conformation score and carcass fat score values were 244, 287 and 329 (s.e. 5.1) kg, 1.81, 2.56 and 2.69 (s.e. 0.11), and 1.83, 2.71 and 3.01 (s.e. 0.11), respectively. It is concluded that none of the breed types reached an acceptable carcass weight on PE and only HF had acceptable carcass finish. All breed types were acceptably finished on both concentrate finishing strategies.
    • Comparison of sugar-beet pulp and barley with and without soya bean meal as supplements to silage for growing steers

      Keane, Michael G.; National Development Plan 2000–2006 (Teagasc (Agriculture and Food Development Authority), Ireland, 2005)
      The optimum live-weight gain for growing steers in winter depends on the cost of feed and subsequent compensatory growth. The objectives of this experiment were: (1) to determine the response in growing steers to increasing levels of molassed sugar-beet pulp (MSBP) as a supplement to grass silage, (2) to compare MSBP and barley, and (3) to ascertain if there was a response to the inclusion of soya bean meal as a protein source with both MSBP and barley. Weanling steers (n = 154) were assigned to the following treatments: (1) silage only, (2) silage plus a low level of MSBP, (3) silage plus a low level of MSBP plus soya bean meal, (4) silage plus a high level of MSBP, (5) silage plus a high level of MSBP plus soya bean meal, (6) silage plus a high level of barley, and (7) silage plus a high level of barley plus soya bean meal. Low MSBP, high MSBP and barley levels were 1.5 kg, 3.0 kg and 3.0 kg per head daily, respectively. Where soya bean meal was included it replaced 0.2 kg/day (low) or 0.4 kg/day (high) of MSBP or barley. The duration of the treatments was 125 days (winter) after which the animals grazed together for 148 days. Silage intake decreased linearly (P < 0.001) with increasing MSBP level. Addition of soya bean meal had no effect on silage intake with low MSBP or barley but increased (P < 0.05) intake with high MSBP. Live-weight gain increased both linearly (P < 0.001) and quadratically (P < 0.01) with increasing MSBP. There was a significant live-weight response to the addition of soya bean meal which was greater at the high than at the low MSBP level and was greater for MSBP than barley. Across all treatments, growth rate at pasture was inversely related to growth rate in winter. Final live weights for the treatments as listed were 376, 395, 411, 400, 430, 427 and 428 (s.e. 14.2) kg. It is concluded that there was a curvilinear live-weight gain response to increasing MSBP level. There was no end-of-grazingseason live-weight response to the inclusion of soya bean meal with barley but there was with MSBP, particularly at the high level. MSBP with soya bean meal was equivalent to a similar quantity of barley.
    • Effects of breed type, silage harvest date and pattern of offering concentrates on intake, performance and carcass traits of finishing steers

      Cummins, B.; Keane, Michael G.; O'Kiely, Padraig; Kenny, David A.; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme (Teagasc, Oak Park, Carlow, Ireland, 2007)
      The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects and interactions of breed type, silage harvest date and pattern of offering concentrates on intake, performance and carcass traits of finishing steers. Seventy-two steers (36 Friesian and 36 beef cross) were blocked on weight within breed type and assigned to a pre-experimental slaughter group or to one of 4 dietary treatments in a 2 (breed type) 2 (early- or late- cut silage) 2 (flat rate or varied pattern of offering concentrates) factorial arrangement of treatments. The flat-rate feeding pattern was silage ad libitum plus 5 kg concentrates per head daily to slaughter. The varied feeding pattern was silage only for 79 days followed by concentrates ad libitum to slaughter. All animals were slaughtered together after 164 days when the groups on the two feeding patterns had consumed the same total quantity of concentrates. Friesians had a higher (P < 0.001) silage dry matter (DM) intake and a higher (P < 0.01) total DM intake than the beef crosses. Live-weight gain was similar for both breed types but the beef-cross animals had a higher (P < 0.001) kill-out proportion, higher (P < 0.01) carcass gain, and better (P < 0.001) carcass conformation than the Friesians. The beef-cross type also had a higher (P < 0.001) proportion of muscle and a lower (P < 0.001) proportion of bone in the carcass. Silage harvest date had no effect on silage or total DM intakes but the early-cut silage did result in higher (P < 0.01) carcass gain. Animals on the varied feeding pattern consumed less (P < 0.01) silage DM and less (P < 0.001) total DM than those on the flat rate feeding pattern. Live-weight gain and carcass gain were similar for the two feeding patterns. It is concluded that Friesians had a higher intake, but had lower carcass gain than the beef-cross type. Animals on the early-cut silage had higher carcass gain than those on the late-cut silage. The varied feeding pattern resulted in lower DM intake but efficiency of feed energy utilisation was similar for both feeding patterns. Interactions were generally not statistically significant.
    • Effects of feeding management and breed type on muscle chemical composition and relationships between carcass and muscle compositional traits in steers

      Keane, Michael G.; Moloney, Aidan P (Teagasc, Oak Park, Carlow, Ireland, 2008)
      There is little published information on the chemical composition of muscle from beef steers produced in Irish production systems. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of feeding management and breed type on m. longissimus chemical composition of steers, and to examine relationships between selected carcass traits and measures of carcass and muscle composition. A total of 117 steers (65 Friesians and 52 Charolais  Friesians) were assigned on weight within breed type to a pre-experimental slaughter group and to one of 12 finishing groups (6 feeding treatments by 2 finishing periods). The 6 feeding treatments were: (1) silage only offered ad libitum (SO), (2) and (3) SO plus a low concentrate level, (4) and (5) SO plus a high concentrate level, (6) concentrates ad libitum. In Treatments 2 and 4, the silage and concentrates were offered separately whereas in Treatments 3 and 5 they were offered as a total mixed ration (TMR). The two finishing periods were 105 and 175 days. Mean low, high and ad libitum concentrate levels were proportionately 0.415, 0.732 and 0.927, respectively, of daily dry matter intake. Carcass weight, fat depth, fat proportion in the rib joint and m. longissimus lipid concentration all increased (P < 0.01) asymptotically with increasing concentrate level. Carcass fat class (P < 0.07), perinephric plus retroperitoneal fat weight (P < 0.001), fat depth (P < 0.06), fat proportion in the rib joint (P < 0.001) and m. longissimus lipid concentration (P < 0.001) were higher for Friesians than for Charolais crosses. Carcass weight increased (P < 0.001) with increased duration of the finishing period, as did carcass fat class (P < 0.06), fat proportion in the rib joint (P < 0.001) and m. longissimus lipid concentration (P < 0.001). Method of feeding had no effect on any of the traits measured.
    • Effects of finishing strategy on performance of Belgian Blue × Friesian and Limousin × Friesian steers.

      Keane, Michael G. (Teagasc, Oak Park, Carlow, Ireland, 2010)
      Belgian Blue and Limousin bulls are used for cross-breeding with Holstein Friesian dairy cows in Ireland. In beef winter-finishing enterprises, a preliminary feeding period sometimes precedes the finishing period. The optimum feeding level for this period has not been established. The objective of this study was to compare lifetime performance of Belgian Blue × Holstein Friesian (BB) and Limousin × Holstein Friesian (LM) steers and to determine the effects of three finishing strategies on performance and carcass traits. Fortyeight spring-born male calves (24 BB and 24 LM), the progeny of Limousin and Belgian Blue bulls out of Holstein Friesian cows, were reared together to slaughter. At about 19 months of age they were assigned to one of three finishing strategies involving grass silage ad libitum plus 0, 3 or 6 kg concentrates per head daily for 112 days (preliminary period) followed by concentrates ad libitum to slaughter at 610 kg live weight. Slaughter weight and carcass weight did not differ between the breed types but BB had a higher kill-out proportion, better carcass conformation and lower carcass fatness. Live-weight gains during the preliminary period were 431, 914 and 1134 g/day (s.e. 31.8; P < 0.001) for the 0, 3 and 6 kg/day concentrate levels, respectively. Overall gains for the combined preliminary and finishing periods for the treatments in the same order were 945, 1101 and 1081 g/day (s.e. 36.1; P < 0.01). There were few differences between the finishing treatments in slaughter weight, carcass weight or carcass traits. It is concluded that general productivity is similar for BB and LM but BB have superior carcass traits. Where a preliminary feeding period precedes a finishing period on ad libitum concentrates, animals fed a low level of supplementary concentrates require less feed energy to reach a fixed slaughter weight than those fed none or a higher level of supplementary concentrates.
    • Effects of genetic merit for carcass weight, breed type and slaughter weight on performance and carcass traits of beef × dairy steers

      Keane, Michael G.; Dunne, Peter G.; Kenny, David A.; Berry, Donagh (Cambridge University Press, 2010-09)
      Crossbreeding of Holstein–Friesian dairy cows with both early maturing (e.g. Aberdeen Angus (AA)) and late maturing (e.g. Belgian Blue (BB)) beef breeds is commonly practised. In Ireland, genetic merit for growth rate of beef sires is expressed as expected progeny difference for carcass weight (EPDCWT). The objective of this study was to compare the progeny of Holstein–Friesian cows, sired by AA and BB bulls of low (L) and high (H) EPDCWT for performance and carcass traits. A total of 118 spring-born male progeny from 20 (9 AA and 11 BB) sires (8 L and 12 H) were managed together from shortly after birth to about 19 months of age. They were then assigned to one of two mean slaughter weights (560 kg (light) or 620 kg (heavy)). Following slaughter, carcasses were graded for conformation class and fat class, the 6th to 10th ribs joint was dissected as an indicator of carcass composition, and samples of subcutaneous fat and musculus longissimus were subjected to Hunterlab colour measurements. A sample of m. longissimus was also chemically analysed. Slaughter and carcass weights per day of age for AAL, AAH, BBL and BBH were 747, 789, 790 and 805 (s.e. 10.5) g, and 385, 411, 427 and 443 (s.e. 4.4) g, respectively. Corresponding carcass weight, kill-out proportion, carcass conformation class (scale 1 to 5) and carcass fat class (scale 1 to 5) values were 289, 312, 320 and 333 (s.e. 4.0) kg, 516, 522, 542 and 553 (s.e. 3.5) g/kg, 2.5, 2.4, 3.0 and 3.1 (s.e. 0.10), and 3.4, 3.5, 2.9 and 2.8 (s.e. 0.11). There were few breed type3genetic merit interactions. Delaying slaughter date increased slaughter weight, carcass weight and all measures of fatness. It also reduced the proportion of carcass weight in the hind quarter and the proportions of bone and muscle in the ribs joint. None of these effects accompanied the increase in carcass weight due to higher EPDCWT. It is concluded that BB have superior production traits to AA. Selection of sires for higher EPDCWT increases growth rate, kill-out proportion and carcass weight of progeny with little effect on carcass or muscle traits. The extra carcass weight due to higher EPDCWT is more valuable commercially than a comparable carcass weight increment from a delay in slaughter date because it comprises a higher proportion of muscle.
    • Effects of supplementary concentrate level with grass silage, and separate or total mixed ration feeding, on performance and carcass traits of finishing steers

      Caplis, J.; Keane, Michael G.; Moloney, Aidan P; O'Mara, Frank P.; National Development Plan 2000–2006 (Teagasc (Agriculture and Food Development Authority), Ireland, 2005)
      Concentrates are a major component of feed costs in winter finishing of beef cattle. The objectives of this study were (1) to determine the response to increasing levels of supplementary concentrates with grass silage, and (2) to determine the effects of feeding silage and concentrates separately or as a total mixed ration (TMR). A total of 117 finishing steers (mean initial live weight 538 (s.d. 35.5) kg) were assigned to a pre-experimental slaughter group of 9 animals and to 6 feeding treatments of 18 animals each. The feeding treatments were (1) silage only offered ad libitum (SO), (2) SO plus a low level of concentrates offered separately (LS), (3) SO plus a low level of concentrates offered as a TMR (LM), (4) SO plus a medium level of concentrates offered separately (MS), (5) SO plus a medium level of concentrates offered as a TMR (MM), and (6) concentrates ad libitum plus a restricted silage allowance (AL). Low and medium concentrate target levels were 3 and 6 kg dry matter (DM) per head daily. When silage (210g/kg DM, 758 g/kg in vitro DM digestibility, pH 3.7) and concentrates were fed separately, the daily concentrate allowance was given in one morning feed. The animals were individually fed for a mean period of 132 days. After slaughter, carcasses were weighed and graded and a rib (6th to 10th) joint was dissected into its component tissues. Silage DM intake decreased (P < 0.001) but total DM intake increased (P < 0.001) with increasing concentrate level. Average live-weight gains for SO, LS, LM, MS, MM and AL was 0.34, 0.86, 0.86, 1.02, 1.00 and 1.12 (s.e. 0.064) kg/day, respectively. Corresponding carcass weight gains were 0.25, 0.58, 0.58, 0.71, 0.68 and 0.82 (s.e. 0.028)kg/day. All measures of fatness increased (P < 0.05), bone proportion of the rib joint decreased (P < 0.001), and muscle proportion was not significantly affected by dietary concentrate level. There were no significant interactions between concentrate level and method of feeding. Compared with offering the feeds separately, feeding as a TMR increased silage DM intake by proportionately 0.06 (P < 0.05) and total DM intake by proportionately 0.04 (P < 0.05). Method of feeding had no significant effect on performance, slaughter or carcass traits. It is concluded that silage intake decreased and total intake increased with increasing concentrate level. Live-weight and carcass-weight gains also increased with increasing concentrate level. Feeding a TMR had no effect on animal performance or carcass traits compared with separate feeding.
    • Enhancing muscle fatty acid profile by pasture finishing within a dairy-origin calf-to-steer beef production system and its potential to authenticate the dietary history of the cattle

      Moloney, Aidan; Keane, Michael G.; Monahan, F. J.; O'Callaghan, Tom (Teagasc, 2021-11-18)
      The influence of modifying a traditional 24-mo dairy steer calf to beef production system on the fatty acid composition of the longissimus muscle and its potential to authenticate beef provenance was examined. Fifty-four male calves (n = 18 per sire breed), progeny of Holstein-Friesian cows mated with Holstein-Friesian (HF), Aberdeen Angus (AA) and Belgian Blue (BB) bulls were at pasture from March until August of their second year when they were assigned to a 3 (breed types) × 3 (finishing strategies) factorial experiment. The three finishing strategies were (i) pasture only for a further 94 d prior to slaughter (21 mo of age) (Grass), (ii) concentrates ad libitum indoors for 94 d prior to slaughter (21 mo of age) (EC) and (iii) pasture only for a further 94 d followed by concentrates ad libitum indoors for 98 d prior to slaughter (24 mo of age) (LC). Compared to EC, muscle from Grass had a lower intramuscular fat concentration and omega-6: omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratio and higher proportion of conjugated linoleic acid. A longer period at pasture pre-concentrate finishing increased the concentration of omega-3 PUFA which was still lower than in Grass. To maximise the omega-3 PUFA concentration, a late-maturing breed is more appropriate while to maximise conjugated linoleic acid, an early-maturing breed is more appropriate and both should be finished on grass. Chemometric analysis confirmed that the fatty acid profile can authenticate “Grass-Finished” beef per se and has potential to distinguish “Concentrate-Finished” beef based on the length of grazing prior to finishing, but not distinguish between sire breeds.
    • Evaluation of the Progeny of Beef Sires Differing in Genetic Merit

      Keane, Michael G.; Diskin, Michael G. (Teagasc, 2005-11-01)
      The objectives of the project were (i) to compare progeny of bulls of high and low growth genetic index, for growth, feed intake, slaughter traits and carcass traits, (ii) to partition the extra live weight of progeny of high growth index bulls into carcass and non-carcass parts, and (iii) to partition any extra carcass weight of progeny from high growth index bulls into its component fat, muscle and bone fractions.
    • Evaluation of the Progeny of Beef Sires Differing in Genetic Merit

      Keane, Michael G.; Diskin, Michael G.; European Union (Teagasc, 2005-11-01)
      The Irish Cattle Breeding Federation (ICBF) publishes breeding values (BVs) for beef bulls. Historically, BVs were expressed in index form relative to the base population. Sometime ago this changed to expression in units of measurement of trait. This change occurred in the course of this project and was accompanied by some re-ranking of bulls. BVs are published for growth, carcass grades and calving traits. Growth BV is expressed as carcass weight but there is no indication if this results from higher live weight gain or from a higher kill-out proportion and there is no indication of any consequences for feed intake or efficiency. • The objectives of the project were (i) to compare progeny of bulls of high and low growth genetic index, for growth, feed intake, slaughter traits and carcass traits, (ii) to partition the extra live weight of progeny of high growth index bulls into carcass and non-carcass parts, and (iii) to partition any extra carcass weight of progeny from high growth index bulls into its component fat, muscle and bone fractions
    • Feed intake pattern, behaviour, rumen characteristics and blood metabolites of finishing beef steers offered total mixed rations constituted at feeding or ensiling

      Cummins, B.; O'Kiely, Padraig; Keane, Michael G.; Kenny, David A.; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme (Teagasc, Oak Park, Carlow, Ireland, 2009)
      Two experiments were undertaken. In Experiment 1, behaviour, intake pattern and blood metabolites, were recorded for steers offered total mixed rations (TMR) based on grass silage and concentrates, and constituted either at ensiling (E-TMR) or feedout (F-TMR). Fourteen continental crossbred steers (mean starting weight 505 (s.d. 41.5) kg) were assigned to each of the following eight treatments: grass silage offered ad libitum (SO), E-TMR diets constituted in approximate dry matter (DM) ratios of grass:concentrates of 75:25 (EL), 50:50 (EM) and 25:75 (EH), F-TMR diets constituted in approximate DM ratios of grass silage:concentrates of 75:25 (FL), 50:50 (FM) and 25:75 (FH), and finally concentrates ad libitum (AL). Total DM intake increased linearly (P < 0.001) and the time spent eating and ruminating decreased linearly (P < 0.001) with increasing concentrate proportion. Animals on the F-TMR diets had higher total DM intakes (P < 0.05) and plasma glucose (P < 0.05) and urea (P < 0.001) concentrations than animals on the corresponding E-TMR diets. No effect of method of feed preparation on intake pattern or behaviour was recorded. In Experiment 2, four ruminally cannulated Holstein-Friesian steers of mean initial live weight 630 (s.d. 23.2) kg were used to evaluate rumen characteristics for four of the above diets (FL, EL, FH and EH) in a 4 × 4 latin square design. Higher concentrate diets resulted in lower rumen pH (P < 0.05), higher lactic acid (P < 0.001) and ammonia (P < 0.05) concentrations and lower acetate:propionate (P < 0.05). F-TMR was associated with a higher (P < 0.05) rumen volatile fatty acid concentration but no difference in other rumen fermentation characteristics compared to E-TMR. Concentrate proportion and method of feed preparation had no effect (P > 0.05) on rumen pool sizes but animals consuming the high concentrate diet had a faster (P < 0.05) rumen passage rate of NDF than animals on the low concentrate diet.
    • Meat quality characteristics of high dairy genetic-merit Holstein, standard dairy genetic-merit Friesian and Charolais × Holstein-Friesian steers

      McGee, Mark; Keane, Michael G.; Neilan, R.; Caffrey, P.J.; Moloney, Aidan (Compuscript Ltd.Teagasc, 2021-03-05)
      The increased use of Holstein genetic material in the Irish dairy herd has consequences for beef production. In all, 42 spring-born steers [14 Holsteins (HO), 14 Friesian (FR) and 14 Charolais × Holstein-Friesian (CH)] were reared to slaughter at between 26 and 37 mo of age. Carcass weight was higher and the lipid concentration of m. longissimus thoracis et lumborum was lower (P < 0.05) for CH than the dairy breeds. Overall acceptability tended to be lower (P = 0.055) while tenderness, texture and chewiness were lower (P < 0.05) for CH compared with the dairy breeds. The proportion of C16:1 in the total lipid tended to be lower (P = 0.055) for CH than the dairy breeds. Replacing male offspring of traditional “Irish” Friesian bulls with offspring from a genetically superior (from a dairy perspective) strain of Holstein bull had no commercially important impact on beef nutritional or eating quality.
    • Non-carcass parts and carcass composition of high dairy genetic merit Holstein, standard dairy genetic merit Friesian and Charolais × Holstein-Friesian steers

      McGee, Mark; Keane, Michael G.; Neilan, R.; Moloney, Aidan P; Caffrey, Patrick J. (Teagasc, Oak Park, Carlow, Ireland, 2008)
      The increased use of Holstein genetic material in the dairy herd has consequences for beef production. A total of 24 spring-born calves comprising 8 Holsteins (HO), 8 Friesians (FR) and 8 Charolais × Holstein-Friesians (CH) were reared from calfhood to slaughter. At the end of the second grazing season they were assigned to a 3 (breeds; HO, FR and CH) × 2 (slaughter weights; 620 and 730 kg) factorial experiment and fin¬ished indoors. After slaughter carcasses were classified for conformation and fatness, all organs and non-carcass parts were weighed, and the right side of each carcass was dissected into fat, bone and muscle. Non-carcass parts, carcass weight, kill-out propor¬tion, carcass conformation score and m. longissimus area were 405, 398 and 368 (s.e. 8.31) g/kg empty body weight, 355, 344 and 383 (s.e. 9.4) kg, 509, 520 and 545 (s.e. 8.99) g/kg, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.1 (s.e. 0.16), 7616, 7096 and 9286 (s.e. 223.4) mm2 for HO, FR and CH, respectively. Corresponding proportions of carcass muscle and fat were 631, 614 and 656 (s.e. 8.4), and 165, 200 and 165 (s.e. 10.5) g/kg. Increasing slaughter weight increased the proportion of total non-carcass parts, carcass weight, carcass fat score and fat proportion, and reduced carcass muscle and bone proportions. It is concluded that differences in kill-out proportion between the two dairy breeds was primarily due to the lower proportion of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) in FR, and the higher kill-out proportion of CH was mainly due to lower proportions of GIT, internal organs and internal fat. In terms of beef production, HO and FR were broadly comparable for most traits except carcass conformation score and carcass fat proportion, which were lower for HO. CH was superior to the dairy breeds in all important production traits.
    • A note on muscle composition and colour of Holstein-Friesian, Piedmontese × Holstein-Friesian and Romagnola × Holstein-Friesian steers.

      Keane, Michael G.; Allen, Paul (Teagasc, Oak Park, Carlow, Ireland, 2009)
      Holstein-Friesian (HF), Piedmontese × Holstein-Friesian (PM) and Romagnola × Holstein-Friesian (RO) steers were compared for muscle composition and colour. A total of 120 steers in a 3 breed types (HF, PM and RO) × 2 feeding levels (low and high) × 2 finishing periods (short, S and extended, E) factorial experiment were used. Three samples of m. longissimus were taken for chemical analysis, measurement of drip loss and Hunterlab colour measurements. Muscle moisture and protein concentrations were lower, and lipid concentration was higher for HF than for PM and RO, which were similar. There were no effects of feeding level on chemical composition, but after blooming all colour values except hue were lower for the higher feeding level. The E finishing period reduced moisture, protein, drip-loss, L (lightness), a (redness) and chroma values. It is concluded that PM and RO had similar muscle composition but HF had a higher lipid concentration. Feeding level had few effects on muscle composition, but extended finishing increased all measures of fatness and reduced colour values.
    • Optimising The Response To Supplementary Concentrates By Beef Cattle In Winter

      Keane, Michael G.; Drennan, Michael J; Moloney, Aidan P (Teagasc, 2008-01-01)
      Concentrates are a major component of feed costs in winter finishing of beef cattle. Two separate experiments were carried out to evaluate the response to increasing supplementary concentrate level with grass silage and the effects of feeding the silage and concentrates separately or as a total mixed ration (TMR). In experiment 1, a total of 117 finishing steers (initial live weight 538 kg, s.d. 35.5) were assigned to a preexperimental slaughter group of 9 animals and to 6 feeding treatments of 18 animals each. The feeding treatments were: 1) silage (SO) only offered ad libitum, 2) SO plus a low level of concentrates offered separately (LS), 3) SO plus a low level of concentrates offered as a TMR (LM), 4) SO plus a medium level of concentrates offered separately (MS), 5) SO plus a medium level of concentrates offered as a TMR (MM), and 6) concentrates ad libitum plus a restricted silage allowance (AL). Low and medium target concentrate levels were 3 and 6 kg dry matter (DM) per head daily. When silage and concentrates were fed separately, the daily concentrate allowance was given in one morning feed. The animals were individually fed for a mean period of 132 days. After slaughter, carcasses were weighed and graded and the ribs joint was dissected into its component tissues. Silage DM intake decreased but total DM intake increased with increasing concentrate level. Live weight gains for SO, LS, LM, MS, MM and AL were 0.34, 0.86, 0.86, 1.02, 1.00 and 1.12 (s.e. 0.064) kg/day, respectively. Corresponding carcass weight gains were 0.25, 0.58, 0.58, 0.71, 0.68 and 0.82 (s.e. 0.028) kg/day. All measures of fatness increased, ribs joint bone proportion decreased, and muscle proportion was not significantly affected by dietary concentrate level. There were no significant interactions between concentrate level and method of feeding. Compared with offering the feeds separately, feeding a TMR increased silage DM intake by proportionately 0.06 and total DM intake by proportionately 0.04. Otherwise, method of feeding had no significant effect on performance, slaughter or carcass traits. Mean rumen pH decreased while ammonia concentration tended to increase with increasing concentrate level. Total volatile fatty acids and the acetate to propionate ratio were lowest for SO. Method of feeding had no significant effect on rumen fermentation.
    • Performance and carcass traits of progeny of Limousin sires differing in genetic merit

      Keane, Michael G.; Diskin, Michael G. (Teagasc, Oak Park, Carlow, Ireland, 2007)
      Genetic indices for growth and carcass classification are published for beef sires used in Ireland for artificial insemination (AI). The objective of this study was to compare growth and carcass traits of progeny of Limousin sires of low and high genetic index for growth. A total of 70 progeny (42 males and 28 females) out of predominantly Holstein-Friesian cows by 7 AI Limousin sires were reared together to slaughter. The 7 sires were classified as low (n=3) or high (n=4) index based on their published genetic index for growth. The male progeny were reared entire and all animals were slaughtered at about 20 months of age. Carcasses were classified for conformation and fatness, and a rib joint (ribs 6 to 10) was separated into fat, muscle and bone. Growth rate did not differ significantly between the index groups but tended to be higher for the high index progeny. This higher growth rate, combined with a significantly higher kill out proportion, resulted in carcass weight andcarcass weight per day of age being significantly higher for the high index progeny. Carcass conformation and fat class were not affected by genetic index, nor was the composition of the rib joint. Compared with males, females had a significantly lower growth rate and kill out proportion and, consequently, had a significantly lower carcass weight. The proportions of fat and bone in the rib joint were significantly higher, and the proportion of muscle was significantly lower for females than for males. It is concluded that carcass weight reflected sire group genetic index for growth but feed intake, carcass classification and rib joint composition were not affected.
    • Post-weaning performance and carcass characteristics of steer progency from different suckler cow breed types

      Drennan, Michael J; McGee, Mark; Keane, Michael G. (Teagasc (Agriculture and Food Development Authority), Ireland, 2005-04)
      In two experiments a total of 44 steer progeny of spring-calving Charolais (C) and Hereford × Friesian (HF) suckler cows and C sires were slaughtered at approximately 2 years of age. Following weaning they were offered silage and 1 kg of concentrate per head daily during a 5 month winter after which they spent 7 months at pasture. In Experiment 1, animals were given a silage/concentrate diet during a finishing period of either 95 or 152 days. In Experiment 2, steers were offered either a daily diet of silage plus 6 kg of concentrates or concentrates to appetite plus 5 kg of silage (fresh weight) during the final 140-day finishing period. Following slaughter, an 8-rib pistola from each animal was dissected. For the two experiments combined C and HF progeny had carcass weights of 372 and 385 (s.e. 6.1) kg, proportions of carcass as pistola of 467 and 454 (s.e. 2.8) g/kg and pistola meat proportions of 676 and 642 (s.e. 5.1) g/kg, respectively. All fat traits were lower for the C than HF progeny but there was no difference in carcass conformation score. Increasing slaughter weight increased carcass weight (P < 0.001), kidney plus channel fat weight (P < 0.001), and pistola fat proportion (P < 0.001) and decreased the proportions of carcass as pistola (P < 0.05), pistola meat (P < 0.01), and bone (P < 0.05). In conclusion, breed type had no effect on carcass growth but the C progeny had higher meat yield than the HF. Increasing slaughter weight increased fatness and reduced meat yield.
    • Post-weaning performance and carcass characteristics of steer progeny from different suckler cow breed types

      Drennan, Michael J; McGee, Mark; Keane, Michael G. (Teagasc (Agriculture and Food Development Authority), Ireland, 2005)
      In two experiments a total of 44 steer progeny of spring-calving Charolais (C) and Hereford × Friesian (HF) suckler cows and C sires were slaughtered at approximately 2 years of age. Following weaning they were offered silage and 1 kg of concentrate per head daily during a 5 month winter after which they spent 7 months at pasture. In Experiment 1, animals were given a silage/concentrate diet during a finishing period of either 95 or 152 days. In Experiment 2, steers were offered either a daily diet of silage plus 6 kg of concentrates or concentrates to appetite plus 5 kg of silage(fresh weight)during the final 140-day finishing period. Following slaughter, an 8-rib pistola from each animal was dissected. For the two experiments combined C and HF progeny had carcass weights of 372 and 385 (s.e. 6.1) kg, proportions of carcass as pistola of 467 and 454 (s.e. 2.8) g/kg and pistola meat proportions of 676 and 642 (s.e. 5.1) g/kg, respectively. All fat traits were lower for the C than HF progeny but there was no difference in carcass conformation score. Increasing slaughter weight increased carcass weight (P < 0.001), kidney plus channel fat weight (P < 0.001), and pistola fat proportion(P < 0.001) and decreased the proportions of carcass as pistola (P < 0.05), pistola meat (P < 0.01), and bone (P < 0.05). In conclusion, breed type had no effect on carcass growth but the C progeny had higher meat yield than the HF. Increasing slaughter weight increased fatness and reduced meat yield.