• Enduring Behavioral Effects Induced by Birth by Caesarean Section in the Mouse

      Morais, Livia H.; Golubeva, Anna V.; Moloney, Gerard M; Stanton, Catherine; Dinan, Timothy G.; Cryan, John F.; Science Foundation Ireland; European Union; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; Science without Borders; et al. (2020-08-20)
      Birth by Caesarean (C)-section impacts early gut microbiota colonization and is associated with an increased risk of developing immune and metabolic disorders. Moreover, alterations of the microbiome have been shown to affect neurodevelopmental trajectories. However, the long-term effects of C-section on neurobehavioral processes remain unknown. Here, we demonstrated that birth by C-section results in marked but transient changes in microbiome composition in the mouse, in particular, the abundance of Bifidobacterium spp. was depleted in early life. Mice born by C-section had enduring social, cognitive, and anxiety deficits in early life and adulthood. Interestingly, we found that these specific behavioral alterations induced by the mode of birth were also partially corrected by co-housing with vaginally born mice. Finally, we showed that supplementation from birth with a Bifidobacterium breve strain, or with a dietary prebiotic mixture that stimulates the growth of bifidobacteria, reverses selective behavioral alterations in C-section mice. Taken together, our data link the gut microbiota to behavioral alterations in C-section-born mice and suggest the possibility of developing adjunctive microbiota-targeted therapies that may help to avert long-term negative consequences on behavior associated with C-section birth mode.
    • Enduring neurobehavioral effects induced by microbiota depletion during the adolescent period

      Lach, Gilliard; Fülling, Christine; Bastiaanssen, Thomaz F. S.; Fouhy, Fiona; Donovan, Aoife N. O’; Ventura-Silva, Ana Paula; Stanton, Catherine; Dinan, Timothy G.; Cryan, John F.; Science Foundation Ireland; et al. (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020-11-06)
      The gut microbiota is an essential regulator of many aspects of host physiology. Disruption of gut microbial communities affects gut-brain communication which ultimately can manifest as changes in brain function and behaviour. Transient changes in gut microbial composition can be induced by various intrinsic and extrinsic factors, however, it is possible that enduring shifts in the microbiota composition can be achieved by perturbation at a timepoint when the gut microbiota has not fully matured or is generally unstable, such as during early life or ageing. In this study, we investigated the effects of 3-week microbiota depletion with antibiotic treatment during the adolescent period and in adulthood. Following a washout period to restore the gut microbiota, behavioural and molecular hallmarks of gut-brain communication were investigated. Our data revealed that transient microbiota depletion had long-lasting effects on microbiota composition and increased anxiety-like behaviour in mice exposed to antibiotic treatment during adolescence but not in adulthood. Similarly, gene expression in the amygdala was more severely affected in mice treated during adolescence. Taken together these data highlight the vulnerability of the gut microbiota during the critical adolescent period and the long-lasting impact manipulations of the microbiota can have on gene expression and behaviour in adulthood.
    • The gut microbiome influences the bioavailability of olanzapine in rats

      Cussotto, Sofia; Walsh, Jacinta; Golubeva, Anna V.; Zhdanov, Alexander V.; Strain, Conall R.; Fouhy, Fiona; Stanton, Catherine; Dinan, Timothy G.; Hyland, Niall P.; Clarke, Gerard; et al. (The Lancet, 2021-04-02)
      Background The role of the gut microbiome in the biotransformation of drugs has recently come under scrutiny. It remains unclear whether the gut microbiome directly influences the extent of drug absorbed after oral administration and thus potentially alters clinical pharmacokinetics. Methods In this study, we evaluated whether changes in the gut microbiota of male Sprague Dawley rats, as a result of either antibiotic or probiotic administration, influenced the oral bioavailability of two commonly prescribed antipsychotics, olanzapine and risperidone. Findings The bioavailability of olanzapine, was significantly increased (1.8-fold) in rats that had undergone antibiotic-induced depletion of gut microbiota, whereas the bioavailability of risperidone was unchanged. There was no direct effect of microbiota depletion on the expression of major CYP450 enzymes involved in the metabolism of either drug. However, the expression of UGT1A3 in the duodenum was significantly downregulated. The reduction in faecal enzymatic activity, observed during and after antibiotic administration, did not alter the ex vivo metabolism of olanzapine or risperidone. The relative abundance of Alistipes significantly correlated with the AUC of olanzapine but not risperidone. Interpretation Alistipes may play a role in the observed alterations in olanzapine pharmacokinetics. The gut microbiome might be an important variable determining the systemic bioavailability of orally administered olanzapine. Additional research exploring the potential implication of the gut microbiota on the clinical pharmacokinetics of olanzapine in humans is warranted. Funding This research is supported by APC Microbiome Ireland, a research centre funded by Science Foundation Ireland (SFI), through the Irish Government's National Development Plan (grant no. 12/RC/2273 P2) and by Nature Research-Yakult (The Global Grants for Gut Health; Ref No. 626891).