• First evidence of production of the lantibiotic nisin P

      Garcia-Gutierrez, Enriqueta; O’Connor, Paula M.; Saalbach, Gerhard; Walsh, Calum J.; Hegarty, James W.; Guinane, Caitriona M.; Mayer, Melinda J.; Narbad, Arjan; Cotter, Paul D.; Teagasc Walsh Scholarship Programme; et al. (Springer Nature, 2020-02-28)
      Nisin P is a natural nisin variant, the genetic determinants for which were previously identified in the genomes of two Streptococcus species, albeit with no confirmed evidence of production. Here we describe Streptococcus agalactiae DPC7040, a human faecal isolate, which exhibits antimicrobial activity against a panel of gut and food isolates by virtue of producing nisin P. Nisin P was purified, and its predicted structure was confirmed by nanoLC-MS/MS, with both the fully modified peptide and a variant without rings B and E being identified. Additionally, we compared its spectrum of inhibition and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) with that of nisin A and its antimicrobial effect in a faecal fermentation in comparison with nisin A and H. We found that its antimicrobial activity was less potent than nisin A and H, and we propose a link between this reduced activity and the peptide structure.
    • The Lung Microbiome in Young Children with Cystic Fibrosis: A Prospective Cohort Study

      Linnane, Barry; Walsh, Aaron M.; Walsh, Calum J.; Crispie, Fiona; O’Sullivan, Orla; Cotter, Paul D.; McDermott, Michael; Renwick, Julie; McNally, Paul; Science Foundation Ireland; et al. (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2021-02-26)
      The cystic fibrosis (CF) lung harbours a diverse microbiome and reduced diversity in the CF lung has been associated with advancing age, increased inflammation and poorer lung function. Data suggest that the window for intervention is early in CF, yet there is a paucity of studies on the lung microbiome in children with CF. The objective of this study was to thoroughly characterise the lower airway microbiome in pre-school children with CF. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples were collected annually from children attending the three clinical centres. Clinical and demographic data were collated on all subjects alongside BAL inflammatory markers. 16S rRNA gene sequencing was performed on the Illumina MiSeq platform. Bioinformatics and data analysis were performed using Qiime and R project software. Data on 292 sequenced BALs from 101 children with CF and 51 without CF show the CF lung microbiome, while broadly similar to that in non-CF children, is distinct. Alpha diversity between the two cohorts was indistinguishable at this early age. The CF diagnosis explained only 1.1% of the variation between the cohort microbiomes. However, several key genera were significantly differentially abundant between the groups. While the non-CF lung microbiome diversity increased with age, diversity reduced in CF with age. Pseudomonas and Staphylococcus were more abundant with age, while genera such as Streptococcus, Porphyromonas and Veillonella were less abundant with age. There was a negative correlation between alpha diversity and interleukin-8 and neutrophil elastase in the CF population. Neither current flucloxacillin or azithromycin prophylaxis, nor previous oral or IV antibiotic exposure, was correlated with microbiome diversity. Consecutive annual BAL samples over 5 years from a subgroup of children demonstrated diverse patterns of development in the first years of life.