The survival of added escherichia coli O157:H7 in natural mineral water and its products and the development of a rapid method for enumeration of the heterotrophic bacteria in natural mineral water
KeywordEscherichia coli O157:H7
MetadataShow full item record
StatisticsDisplay Item Statistics
CitationThe survival of added escherichia coli O157:H7 in natural mineral water and its products and the development of a rapid method for enumeration of the heterotrophic bacteria in natural mineral water. The National Food Centre Research Report No. 30. Marie Kerr et al. Dublin; Teagasc, 2000. ISBN 1841701904
AbstractThe consumption of natural mineral water is rapidly growing and outpacing all other beverages on a global scale. In Europe, bottled water already has a bigger market share than carbonated soft drinks. Yet there is only a limited availability of information on the microbiological safety and quality of bottled natural mineral waters sold within the European Community. As natural mineral water does not receive any bacteriocidal treatment prior to bottling, the risk of pathogen contamination is a public health concern. Pathogen contamination may occur as a result of over exploitation of natural mineral water resources i.e. over abstraction by commercial bottling companies may lead to disturbance of the water table causing contaminated surface water to be drawn down into ground water supplies (Green and Green 1994). Such contamination was implicated in an outbreak of cholera associated with the consumption of bottled natural mineral water in Portugal in 1974 (Blake et al. 1977). The transport and dissemination of E. coli and enterococci in a limestone aquifer had been demonstrated by Personné et al. (1998), confirmation that E. coli can survive the transitory period from the surface to underground water supplies, thus raising the question of E. coli O157:H7 with its low infective dose < 10 cells (Willshaw et al. 1994 and Tilden et al. 1996) surviving the transitory period from surface to a natural mineral water aquifer.
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Characterisation of dairy soiled water in a survey of 60 Irish dairy farmsMinogue, Denis; French, Padraig; Bolger, Thomas; Murphy, Paul N. C. (Teagasc (Agriculture and Food Development Authority), Ireland, 2016-01-13)Dairy farming in Ireland generates an effluent known as dairy soiled water (DSW), which consists of a relatively dilute mixture of cow faeces, urine, spilt milk and detergents that is typically applied to grassland. However, relatively little is known about the volumes generated, nutrient content and management factors that influence volume and concentration. Sixty dairy farms that had a separate storage tank for storing DSW were selected for this study. The spatial distribution of the farms reflected the spatial distribution of dairy cows across the 26 counties of the Republic of Ireland, with each farm representing between 10,000 and 20,000 dairy cows. Samples were analysed for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), ammonium N (NH4-N), total nitrogen (TN), potassium (K), phosphorus (molybdate-reactive and total) (MRP and TP) and dry matter (DM) content. Management characteristics and parlour properties were quantified. Factors influencing volume and concentration of DSW were determined using mixed model multiple regression analysis. On average, 9784 l (standard error 209 l) of DSW, including rainfall, was produced cow−1 year−1 and this contained significant quantities of total N, P and K (587, 80 and 568 mg l−1, respectively). A typical Irish dairy farm stocked at 1.9 cows ha−1 could therefore supply approximately 13, 2 and 12 kg ha−1 of total N, P and K, respectively, across the farm, annually to meet some of the nutrient requirements for herbage production and potentially replace some of the synthetic fertilizer use. Seventy one percent of samples were within the regulated concentration limits of soiled water for BOD (<2500 mg l−1), rising to 87% during the closed period for slurry spreading (mid October to mid-late January), while 81% were within the concentration limits for DM (<1% DM), rising to 94% during the closed period. The efficiency of a milking parlour (cows per unit, time taken) plays a key role in determining the volume of DSW generated. This, in turn, also influences the concentration of nutrients and other chemicals. Large variability was found in nutrient concentrations and this presents a challenge for effective nutrient management to maximise the fertilizer replacement value of DSW.
Modelling the Marginal Abatement Cost of Mitigating Nitrogen Loss from Agricultural LandChyzheuskaya, Aksana; O'Donoghue, Cathal; Buckley, Cathal; Ryan, Mary; green, stuart; Gibson, Mark (Teagasc, Oak Park, Carlow, Ireland, 2012)With the deadline identified by the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) approaching in 2015 there is increasing pressure on policymakers to introduce new regulations to achieve water quality targets. Agriculture is one of the contributors of diffuse pollution entering watercourses and will come under pressure to reduce pollutant loads. This paper produces Marginal Abatement Cost (MAC) Curves for eight policy measures that could potentially reduce nitrate leaching from agricultural land on Irish dairy farms. These include: 1) reduction of fertiliser application by 10%; 2) reduction of fertiliser application by 20%; 3) livestock unit reduction to limit organic N to 170 kg ha-1; 4) reduction of livestock units by 20%; 5) change of feed mix to reduce cow dietary N intake; 6) fencing off watercourses to introduce a buffer zone; 7) improved dairy cow genetic merit by introducing higher performing dairy breeds; 8) more efficient slurry application. Results from this study indicate that there will be reductions in farm gross margins across nearly all policy measures. However, MAC and the ranking of MAC vary across individual farms and aggregate MAC does not reflect the heterogeneity of impacts across individual farms. This paper shows that any measure introduced in a “one size fits all command-control” fashion will not yield efficient economic results.
Surface and Groundwater Interactions Location of a sub-surface remediation trench.Fenton, Owen (Teagasc, 2006-12-01)The Water Framework Directive aims to achieve at least “good status” of all surface and groundwater bodies by 2015. In 2009 programmes of measures to achieve this status must be implemented. In 2012 water quality response to these measures will be examined at river basin catchment level. The adoption of the Water Framework Directive from the 1st January 2007 restricts the amount of nutrients which can be applied to agricultural land. A nutrient discharge to a waterbody has a negative impact on the environment and may lead to eutrophication. A broad strategy exists at European level to minimise nutrient loss to a waterbody. This strategy examines the source/pressure, pathway and receptor approach for nutrient transport. Such nutrient management strategies try to minimise nutrient loss while maintaining productivity. Nitrogen usage is now associated with environmental degradation even at lower levels than the maximum allowable concentration (11.3 mg NO3-N L-1). A further strategy proposes that nutrient management and increased utilisation of nutrients alone will fail to recognise nutrient loss even at high levels of efficiency. This strategy attempts to use remediation (Nitrate) and control technologies (Phosphorous) to intercept nutrients before discharge. Another function would be to further reduce concentrations presently at allowable levels. This introduces an interceptor phase into the nutrient transfer model. Groundwater characterisation leads to a better understanding of the nutrient source and pathway to a groundwater or surface water receptor. The interactions between surface runoff, sub-surface drainage (man made) and groundwater are important when dealing with the source pathway receptor concept. Interactions between shallow groundwater and surface water should also be considered. The deeper groundwater body and surface water interactions should also be characterised. A monitoring network incorporating surface, subsurface and groundwater elements was created on the Teagasc Environmental Research Centre, Wexford. A sub-surface drainage system was characterised and water quality monitored. Some breaches of the maximum admissible levels (MAC) of nitrate in groundwater were found in two separate locations (Dairy and Beef farms). A review of remediation options proposed a sub-surface denitrification trench to remediate excess nutrient loss on site. The location of such a permeable reactive barrier in the field to intercept a nitrate plume was investigated. The following investigations were carried out: • A review of “Groundwater remediation systems for the treatment of agricultural wastewater to satisfy the requirements of the Water Framework Directive” was carried out. This proposes options for Ireland. • The groundwater characterisation of the Dairy Farm in Teagasc, Environmental Research Centre, Wexford. • The groundwater and subsurface drainage system characterisation of a 4.2 ha field site on the Beef Farm in Teagasc, Environmental Research Centre, Wexford. • A methodology for the location of in-field remediation techniques was established.