The survival of added escherichia coli O157:H7 in natural mineral water and its products and the development of a rapid method for enumeration of the heterotrophic bacteria in natural mineral water
KeywordEscherichia coli O157:H7
MetadataShow full item record
StatisticsDisplay Item Statistics
CitationThe survival of added escherichia coli O157:H7 in natural mineral water and its products and the development of a rapid method for enumeration of the heterotrophic bacteria in natural mineral water. The National Food Centre Research Report No. 30. Marie Kerr et al. Dublin; Teagasc, 2000. ISBN 1841701904
AbstractThe consumption of natural mineral water is rapidly growing and outpacing all other beverages on a global scale. In Europe, bottled water already has a bigger market share than carbonated soft drinks. Yet there is only a limited availability of information on the microbiological safety and quality of bottled natural mineral waters sold within the European Community. As natural mineral water does not receive any bacteriocidal treatment prior to bottling, the risk of pathogen contamination is a public health concern. Pathogen contamination may occur as a result of over exploitation of natural mineral water resources i.e. over abstraction by commercial bottling companies may lead to disturbance of the water table causing contaminated surface water to be drawn down into ground water supplies (Green and Green 1994). Such contamination was implicated in an outbreak of cholera associated with the consumption of bottled natural mineral water in Portugal in 1974 (Blake et al. 1977). The transport and dissemination of E. coli and enterococci in a limestone aquifer had been demonstrated by Personné et al. (1998), confirmation that E. coli can survive the transitory period from the surface to underground water supplies, thus raising the question of E. coli O157:H7 with its low infective dose < 10 cells (Willshaw et al. 1994 and Tilden et al. 1996) surviving the transitory period from surface to a natural mineral water aquifer.
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Surface and Groundwater Interactions Location of a sub-surface remediation trench.Fenton, Owen (Teagasc, 2006-12-01)The Water Framework Directive aims to achieve at least “good status” of all surface and groundwater bodies by 2015. In 2009 programmes of measures to achieve this status must be implemented. In 2012 water quality response to these measures will be examined at river basin catchment level. The adoption of the Water Framework Directive from the 1st January 2007 restricts the amount of nutrients which can be applied to agricultural land. A nutrient discharge to a waterbody has a negative impact on the environment and may lead to eutrophication. A broad strategy exists at European level to minimise nutrient loss to a waterbody. This strategy examines the source/pressure, pathway and receptor approach for nutrient transport. Such nutrient management strategies try to minimise nutrient loss while maintaining productivity. Nitrogen usage is now associated with environmental degradation even at lower levels than the maximum allowable concentration (11.3 mg NO3-N L-1). A further strategy proposes that nutrient management and increased utilisation of nutrients alone will fail to recognise nutrient loss even at high levels of efficiency. This strategy attempts to use remediation (Nitrate) and control technologies (Phosphorous) to intercept nutrients before discharge. Another function would be to further reduce concentrations presently at allowable levels. This introduces an interceptor phase into the nutrient transfer model. Groundwater characterisation leads to a better understanding of the nutrient source and pathway to a groundwater or surface water receptor. The interactions between surface runoff, sub-surface drainage (man made) and groundwater are important when dealing with the source pathway receptor concept. Interactions between shallow groundwater and surface water should also be considered. The deeper groundwater body and surface water interactions should also be characterised. A monitoring network incorporating surface, subsurface and groundwater elements was created on the Teagasc Environmental Research Centre, Wexford. A sub-surface drainage system was characterised and water quality monitored. Some breaches of the maximum admissible levels (MAC) of nitrate in groundwater were found in two separate locations (Dairy and Beef farms). A review of remediation options proposed a sub-surface denitrification trench to remediate excess nutrient loss on site. The location of such a permeable reactive barrier in the field to intercept a nitrate plume was investigated. The following investigations were carried out: • A review of “Groundwater remediation systems for the treatment of agricultural wastewater to satisfy the requirements of the Water Framework Directive” was carried out. This proposes options for Ireland. • The groundwater characterisation of the Dairy Farm in Teagasc, Environmental Research Centre, Wexford. • The groundwater and subsurface drainage system characterisation of a 4.2 ha field site on the Beef Farm in Teagasc, Environmental Research Centre, Wexford. • A methodology for the location of in-field remediation techniques was established.
A review of remediation and control systems for the treatment of agricultural waste water in Ireland to satisfy the requirements of the water framework directiveFenton, Owen; Healy, Mark G.; Schulte, Rogier P. (Royal Irish Academy, 28/08/2008)In Ireland agricultural activities have been identified as major sources of nutrient input to receiving waters, and it has been estimated that these activities contribute 75.3% of the N and 33.4% of the P found in these waters. The strategy at European level focuses on the prevention of nutrient loss by improved farm management. However, it does not focus on nutrient remediation or incidental nutrient loss from farmyard manures to surface water and groundwater. This review describes the impact of agriculture on the environment in Ireland and examines emerging technologies for agricultural waste-water treatment. An integrated approach at pretreatment and field stages for nitrate (NO3) remediation and P control is recommended.
Modelling phosphorus loss from agricultural catchments : a comparison of the performance of SWAT, HSPF and SHETRAN for the Clarianna catchmentNasr, Ahmed Elssidig; Bruen, Michael; Parkin, Geoff; Birkinshaw, Steve; Moles, Richard; Byrne, Paul (IWA Publishing, 02/07/2012)Much research in Europe at present has been directed at generating and assessing modelling tools for use in catchment management, driven by the requirements and schedule of the Water Framework Directive. A logical first step is to assess the suitability of existing models for this task so that any resources used in generating new models can be targeted at actual modelling needs. Crucial questions, relating to the model structure and complexity and spatial and temporal scales required must also be addressed. This paper reports a comparison of the performance and suitability of three "off-the-shelf" distributed catchment models, each with a different level of complexity, applied to modelling phosphorous losses from the Clarianna catchment in Ireland. In this paper, the performance of three such models (SWAT, HSPF and SHETRAN/GOPC) is compared, both in estimating discharges and phosphorous loads in the Clarianna catchment. The flow comparison has showed that the HSPF model was the best in simulating the mean daily discharges. However, the best calibration results for daily total phosphorus loads in the study catchment has been achieved by the SWAT model.