The survival of added escherichia coli O157:H7 in natural mineral water and its products and the development of a rapid method for enumeration of the heterotrophic bacteria in natural mineral water
KeywordEscherichia coli O157:H7
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CitationThe survival of added escherichia coli O157:H7 in natural mineral water and its products and the development of a rapid method for enumeration of the heterotrophic bacteria in natural mineral water. The National Food Centre Research Report No. 30. Marie Kerr et al. Dublin; Teagasc, 2000. ISBN 1841701904
AbstractThe consumption of natural mineral water is rapidly growing and outpacing all other beverages on a global scale. In Europe, bottled water already has a bigger market share than carbonated soft drinks. Yet there is only a limited availability of information on the microbiological safety and quality of bottled natural mineral waters sold within the European Community. As natural mineral water does not receive any bacteriocidal treatment prior to bottling, the risk of pathogen contamination is a public health concern. Pathogen contamination may occur as a result of over exploitation of natural mineral water resources i.e. over abstraction by commercial bottling companies may lead to disturbance of the water table causing contaminated surface water to be drawn down into ground water supplies (Green and Green 1994). Such contamination was implicated in an outbreak of cholera associated with the consumption of bottled natural mineral water in Portugal in 1974 (Blake et al. 1977). The transport and dissemination of E. coli and enterococci in a limestone aquifer had been demonstrated by Personné et al. (1998), confirmation that E. coli can survive the transitory period from the surface to underground water supplies, thus raising the question of E. coli O157:H7 with its low infective dose < 10 cells (Willshaw et al. 1994 and Tilden et al. 1996) surviving the transitory period from surface to a natural mineral water aquifer.
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Characterisation of dairy soiled water in a survey of 60 Irish dairy farmsMinogue, Denis; French, Padraig; Bolger, T.; Murphy, P. N. C. (Teagasc (Agriculture and Food Development Authority), Ireland, 2016-01-13)Dairy farming in Ireland generates an effluent known as dairy soiled water (DSW), which consists of a relatively dilute mixture of cow faeces, urine, spilt milk and detergents that is typically applied to grassland. However, relatively little is known about the volumes generated, nutrient content and management factors that influence volume and concentration. Sixty dairy farms that had a separate storage tank for storing DSW were selected for this study. The spatial distribution of the farms reflected the spatial distribution of dairy cows across the 26 counties of the Republic of Ireland, with each farm representing between 10,000 and 20,000 dairy cows. Samples were analysed for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), ammonium N (NH4-N), total nitrogen (TN), potassium (K), phosphorus (molybdate-reactive and total) (MRP and TP) and dry matter (DM) content. Management characteristics and parlour properties were quantified. Factors influencing volume and concentration of DSW were determined using mixed model multiple regression analysis. On average, 9784 l (standard error 209 l) of DSW, including rainfall, was produced cow−1 year−1 and this contained significant quantities of total N, P and K (587, 80 and 568 mg l−1, respectively). A typical Irish dairy farm stocked at 1.9 cows ha−1 could therefore supply approximately 13, 2 and 12 kg ha−1 of total N, P and K, respectively, across the farm, annually to meet some of the nutrient requirements for herbage production and potentially replace some of the synthetic fertilizer use. Seventy one percent of samples were within the regulated concentration limits of soiled water for BOD (<2500 mg l−1), rising to 87% during the closed period for slurry spreading (mid October to mid-late January), while 81% were within the concentration limits for DM (<1% DM), rising to 94% during the closed period. The efficiency of a milking parlour (cows per unit, time taken) plays a key role in determining the volume of DSW generated. This, in turn, also influences the concentration of nutrients and other chemicals. Large variability was found in nutrient concentrations and this presents a challenge for effective nutrient management to maximise the fertilizer replacement value of DSW.
A Farm Scale integrated constructed wetland to treat farmyard dirty water.Dunne, E.; Culleton, Noel; O'Donovan, G.; Harrington, R. (Teagasc, 2005-01-01)In Ireland, the use of constructed wetlands to manage agricultural waters such as farm yard dirty water has been primarily based on an ecosystems approach. Integrated constructed wetlands, which are a design specific approach of conventional surface flow constructed wetlands, were first used in the Anne Valley, Waterford, Ireland (Harrington and Ryder, 2002). At present, 13 farms in the Anne Valley catchment use integrated constructed wetlands to manage farmyard dirty water (Harrington et al., 2004). Fundamental to their design is water quality improvement, landscape fit (designing the wetland into the topography of the landscape) and that the wetland provides an ecological habitat within the agricultural landscape. Typically, integrated constructed wetlands have greater land area requirements than conventional surface flow constructed wetlands in order to provide for these other fundamental ecological services. Few studies (Ryan, 1990) have addressed the issue of quality and quantity of farmyard dirty generated at farm-scales in Ireland. No studies were readily available documenting the effectiveness of a farm-scale constructed or integrated constructed wetland in Ireland to remove nutrients such as phosphorus (P) from dairy farmyard dirty water on a mass basis. To address such, the main objectives of this research were to (i) determine the quality and quantity of farmyard dirty water generated at a farm-scale (ii) determine the effectiveness of three treatment cells of an integrated constructed wetland to treat farmyard dirty, using the difference between input and output mass loadings, (iii) investigate if there were seasonal effects in the wetland’s performance to retain phosphorus, and (iv) assess the impact of the integrated constructed wetland on the receiving environment by monitoring soil-water parameter concentrations up gradient, down gradient and within the wetland system using piezometers at different soil depths.
Multi-criteria and Decision Support Systems in support of the Water Framework Directive in IrelandBruen, Michael; Nasr, Ahmed Elssidig (2012-07-02)The current challenge in the implementation of the Water Framework Directive in Ireland is to introduce programmes of measures that will address the targeted environmental objectives in each River Basin District (RBD). Introduction of such programmes requires that proposed measures be thoroughly evaluated and that decisions will involve multiple criteria and must include stakeholders preferences and opinions. Decision Support Systems (DSS) facilitate this process. Many such systems have been developed and used in relation to water quality. In addition to their technical, modeling, benefits, DSS can also form the basis of systems to communicate options, benefits and damages to stakeholders and to receive feedback on their attitudes and preferences. Such systems could also be involved in facilitating the subsequent negotiations and resulting compromises. In Ireland, a new research project, Wincoms, has commenced which will address these aspects and will provide recommendations for suitable systems to be used in Ireland.