• Grazing of dairy cows on pasture versus indoor feeding on total mixed ration: Effects on low-moisture part-skim Mozzarella cheese yield and quality characteristics in mid and late lactation

      Gulati, Arunima; Galvin, Norann; Hennessy, Deirdre; McAuliffe, Stephen; O'Donovan, Michael; McManus, Jennifer J.; Fenelon, Mark; Guinee, Timothy P.; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, Ireland; Dairy Levy Research Trust; et al. (Elsevier for American Dairy Science Association, 2018-08-16)
      This study investigated the effects of 3 dairy cow feeding systems on the composition, yield, and biochemical and physical properties of low-moisture part-skim Mozzarella cheese in mid (ML; May–June) and late (LL; October–November) lactation. Sixty spring-calving cows were assigned to 3 herds, each consisting of 20 cows, and balanced on parity, calving date, and pre-experimental milk yield and milk solids yield. Each herd was allocated to 1 of the following feeding systems: grazing on perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) pasture (GRO), grazing on perennial ryegrass and white clover (Trifolium repens L.) pasture (GRC), or housed indoors and offered total mixed ration (TMR). Mozzarella cheese was manufactured on 3 separate occasions in ML and 4 in LL in 2016. Feeding system had significant effects on milk composition, cheese yield, the elemental composition of cheese, cheese color (green to red and blue to yellow color coordinates), the extent of flow on heating, and the fluidity of the melted cheese. Compared with TMR milk, GRO and GRC milks had higher concentrations of protein and casein and lower concentrations of I, Cu, and Se, higher cheese-yielding capacity, and produced cheese with lower concentrations of the trace elements I, Cu, and Se and higher yellowness value. Cheese from GRO milk had higher heat-induced flow and fluidity than cheese from TMR milk. These effects were observed over the entire lactation period (ML + LL), but varied somewhat in ML and LL. Feeding system had little, or no, effect on gross composition of the cheese, the proportions of milk protein or fat lost to cheese whey, the texture of the unheated cheese, or the energy required to extend the molten cheese. The differences in color and melt characteristics of cheeses obtained from milks with the different feeding systems may provide a basis for creating points of differentiation suited to different markets.
    • Integration of high and low field 1H NMR to analyse the effects of bovine dietary regime on milk metabolomics and protein-bound moisture characterisation of the resulting mozzarella cheeses during ripening

      Boiani, Mattia; Sundekilde, Ulrik; Bateman, Lorraine M.; McCarthy, Daniel G.; Maguire, Anita R.; Gulati, Arunima; Guinee, Timothy P.; Fenelon, Mark; Hennessy, Deirdre; Fitzgerald, Richard J.; et al. (Elsevier, 2018-10-11)
      The influence of dairy cow feeding regime was investigated using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Two different NMR analytical systems were deployed: high field 1H NMR to investigate the influence on milk metabolomics and low field NMR to characterise proton relaxation linked to changes in the state of mozzarella cheese moisture during ripening. The metabolomics results showed that grass-based feeding increased the concentration of a biological marker that signifies near-organic milk production conditions. On the other hand, the investigation of cheese moisture distribution showed that grass-based diets reached final moisture partitioning in a shorter time, which implied the formation of a more compact protein structure in the cheese matrix. These results indicate that pasture-based dairying may be differentiated in terms of the provenance of milk produced along with the accrual of additional benefits during ripening of the resulting mozzarella cheeses.
    • Outdoor grazing of dairy cows on pasture versus indoor feeding on total mixed ration: Effects on gross composition and mineral content of milk during lactation

      Gulati, Arunima; Galvin, Norann; Lewis, Eva; Hennessy, Deirdre; O'Donovan, Michael; McManus, Jennifer J.; Fenelon, Mark; Guinee, Timothy P.; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; Dairy Levy Trust Co-Operative Society Limited; et al. (Elsevier, 2017-08-15)
      The influence of feeding system and lactation period on the gross composition, macroelements (Ca, P, Mg, and Na), and trace elements (Zn, Fe, Cu, Mo, Mn, Se, and Co) of bovine milk was investigated. The feeding systems included outdoor grazing on perennial ryegrass pasture (GRO), outdoor grazing on perennial ryegrass and white clover pasture (GRC), and indoors offered total mixed ration (TMR). Sixty spring-calving Holstein Friesian dairy cows were assigned to 3 herds, each consisting of 20 cows, and balanced with respect to parity, calving date, and pre-experimental milk yield and milk solids yield. The herds were allocated to 1 of the 3 feeding systems from February to November. Milk samples were collected on 10 occasions over the period June 17 to November 26, at 2 or 3 weekly intervals, when cows were on average 119 to 281 d in lactation (DIL). The total lactation period was arbitrarily sub-divided into 2 lactation periods based on DIL, namely mid lactation, June 17 to September 9 when cows were 119 to 203 DIL; and late lactation, September 22 to November 26 when cows were 216 to 281 DIL. With the exception of Mg, Na, Fe, Mo, and Co, all other variables were affected by feeding system. The GRO milk had the highest mean concentrations of total solids, total protein, casein, Ca, and P. The TMR milk had the highest concentrations of lactose, Cu, and Se, and lowest level of total protein. The GRC milk had levels of lactose, Zn, and Cu similar to those of GRO milk, and concentrations of TS, Ca, and P similar to those of TMR milk. Lactation period affected all variables, apart from the concentrations of Fe, Cu, Mn, and Se. On average, the proportion (%) of total Ca, P, Zn, Mn, or Se that sedimented with the casein on high-speed ultracentrifugation at 100,000 × g was ≥60%, whereas that of Na, Mg, or Mo was ≤45% total. The results demonstrate how the gross composition and elemental composition of milk can be affected by different feeding systems.
    • Pasture Feeding Changes the Bovine Rumen and Milk Metabolome

      O’Callaghan, Tom; Vázquez-Fresno, Rosa; Serra-Cayuela, Arnau; Dong, Edison; Mandal, Rupasri; Hennessy, Deirdre; McAuliffe, Stephen; Dillon, Pat; Wishart, David; Stanton, Catherine; et al. (MDPI AG, 2018-04-06)
      The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of two pasture feeding systems—perennial ryegrass (GRS) and perennial ryegrass and white clover (CLV)—and an indoor total mixed ration (TMR) system on the (a) rumen microbiome; (b) rumen fluid and milk metabolome; and (c) to assess the potential to distinguish milk from different feeding systems by their respective metabolomes. Rumen fluid was collected from nine rumen cannulated cows under the different feeding systems in early, mid and late lactation, and raw milk samples were collected from ten non-cannulated cows in mid-lactation from each of the feeding systems. The microbiota present in rumen liquid and solid portions were analysed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, while 1H-NMR untargeted metabolomic analysis was performed on rumen fluid and raw milk samples. The rumen microbiota composition was not found to be significantly altered by any feeding system in this study, likely as a result of a shortened adaptation period (two weeks’ exposure time). In contrast, feeding system had a significant effect on both the rumen and milk metabolome. Increased concentrations of volatile fatty acids including acetic acid, an important source of energy for the cow, were detected in the rumen of TMR and CLV-fed cows. Pasture feeding resulted in significantly higher concentrations of isoacids in the rumen. The ruminal fluids of both CLV and GRS-fed cows were found to have increased concentrations of p-cresol, a product of microbiome metabolism. CLV feeding resulted in increased rumen concentrations of formate, a substrate compound for methanogenesis. The TMR feeding resulted in significantly higher rumen choline content, which contributes to animal health and milk production, and succinate, a product of carbohydrate metabolism. Milk and rumen-fluids were shown to have varying levels of dimethyl sulfone in each feeding system, which was found to be an important compound for distinguishing between the diets. CLV feeding resulted in increased concentrations of milk urea. Milk from pasture-based feeding systems was shown to have significantly higher concentrations of hippuric acid, a potential biomarker of pasture-derived milk. This study has demonstrated that 1H-NMR metabolomics coupled with multivariate analysis is capable of distinguishing both rumen-fluid and milk derived from cows on different feeding systems, specifically between indoor TMR and pasture-based diets used in this study.