• A method for assessing liner performance during the peak milk flow period

      Penry, J. F.; Upton, John; Leonardi, S.; Thompson, P. D.; Reinemann, D. J. (Elsevier, 2017-11-06)
      The objective of this study was to develop a method to quantify the milking conditions under which circulatory impairment of teat tissues occurs during the peak flow period of milking. A secondary objective was to quantify the effect of the same milking conditions on milk flow rate during the peak flow rate period of milking. Additionally, the observed milk flow rate was a necessary input to the calculation of canal area, our quantitative measure of circulatory impairment. A central composite experimental design was used with 5 levels of each of 2 explanatory variables (system vacuum and pulsator ratio), creating 9 treatments including the center point. Ten liners, representing a wide range of liner compression (as indicated by overpressure), were assessed, with treatments applied using a novel quarter-milking device. Eight cows (32 cow-quarters) were used across 10 separate evening milkings, with quarter being the experimental unit. The 9 treatments, with the exception of a repeated center point, were randomly applied to all quarters within each individual milking. Analysis was confined to the peak milk flow period. Milk flow rate (MFR) and teat canal cross sectional area (CA) were normalized by dividing individual MFR, or CA, values by their within-quarter average value across all treatments. A multiple explanatory variable regression model was developed for normalized MFR and normalized CA. The methods presented in this paper provided sufficient precision to estimate the effects of vacuum (both at teat-end and in the liner mouthpiece), pulsation, and liner compression on CA, as an indicator of teat-end congestion, during the peak flow period of milking. Liner compression (as indicated by overpressure), teat-end vacuum, vacuum in the liner mouthpiece, milk-phase time, and their interactions are all important predictors of MFR and teat-end congestion during the peak milk flow period of milking. Increasing teat-end vacuum and milk-phase time increases MFR and reduces CA (indicative of increased teat-end congestion). Increasing vacuum in the liner mouthpiece also acts to reduce CA and MFR. Increasing liner compression reduces the effects of teat-end congestion, resulting in increased MFR and increased CA at high levels of teat-end vacuum and milk-phase time. These results provide a better understanding of the balance between milking speed and milking gentleness.