Development and Evaluation of Caseins/Caseinates for use as Ingredients in Food Products
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CitationMehra, R., Walsh, D., O'Kennedy, B., Kelly, P., Development and Evaluation of Caseins/Caseinates for use as Ingredients in Food Products, End of Project Reports, Teagasc, 1998.
AbstractThe overall objective of this project was to investigate the effects of key processing steps in the industrial production of acid casein on the characteristics and functionality of sodium caseinate with particular emphasis on analytical/functionality testing and seasonal/lactational effects on the original milk. The main conclusions were as follows: The most significant result indicates that drying and concentration after washing of the acid casein curd are responsible for alterations in the structure of casein, which result in sodium caseinates with different properties. This was confirmed in the case of two acid casein plants investigated which showed similar results even though using different washing and drying technologies. This difference due to the drying step may be further amplified depending upon whether commercial sodium caseinate is manufactured from acid casein in the dried or wet curd state. The analytical and functional testing methodology adapted in our laboratory proved effective in predicting the effects of processing steps on the functionality of sodium caseinate. In particular, the ability to detect the presence of aggregate formation was particularly important. The database generated subsequently helped an acid casein manufacturer in modifying its process(es) to manufacture experimental sodium caseinate for specific food end-uses. Progress was greatly facilitated by the collaboration of individual manufacturers in the sourcing of problem samples from previously manufactured codes, and facilitating access to process plant during production. In a commercial application of the database, confidential work was undertaken on behalf of a client. Experimentally-produced sodium caseinate ingredients were evaluated using our adapted functionality testing methods and based on the results, the company was able to modify its process(es) to produce sodium caseinates with functionality for specific food end-users. It was concluded that while processing parameters in the production of acid casein can have a significant effect on the functional behaviour of the resultant sodium caseinate, the ability to assess this change in functional behaviour, through relevant functional testing, was equally important.
CollectionsFood Programme End of Project Reports
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Novel Milk Protein Ingredients.Kelly, Philip M; O'Kennedy, Brendan; Cribbin, M. (Teagasc, 2001-05-01)The manufacture of casein/caseinates containing whey protein is immediately attractive due to its potential to enhance product yield. However, some technologies capable of producing these products are ineligible for manufacturing subsidy because of restrictions pertaining to relevant EU regulations. Other emerging technologies require refinement and process design before implementation at industrial level. Furthermore, the implications of incorporating virtually the entire complement of whey protein in what is essentially a caseinate ingredient needs to be investigated carefully in terms of the versatility of use in a wide range of food formulations. The development is significant in the context of U.S. market changes - traditionally, an important outlet for Irish casein exports amounting to 20,000 - 27,000 t per annum. Ireland accounts for ~ 30% of EU casein/caseinate production with the greater proportion in Rennet form (27,000 t) and the remainder (18,000 t) as Acid casein. In recent years, a new market for a related casein ingredient - milk protein concentrate (MPC) opened up in the US, and accounted for total imports of 40,000 t in 1998, 10,000 t of which were exported from Ireland. However, this market is more restricted due to regulatory changes introduced in response to the perceived threat of MPC imports to the US dairy industry. Since casein, or its derivative products such as milk proteinate (EU Annex III compliant), are not perceived to be in competition with local milk supplies and dairy ingredients, it is now hoped that Irish casein manufacturers may be able to reclaim recently lost markets through the introduction of an innovative proteinate ingredient which is expected to command a premium in nutrition applications e.g. in sports, infant formula and nutraceutical products. With a choice of emerging new technologies for the production of novel casein-related ingredients, the dairy industry has an opportunity to decide on what is appropriate for the defence of its market share and at the same time benefit from simultaneous compliance with relevant regulatory supports (EU) and market access rules (USA). Hence the main aims of this project were: * To investigate new technologies for the isolation of casein and casein/whey protein combinations in the course of developing new milk protein ingredients, and * To compare the performance in selected food formulations of novel milk protein ingredients namely milk proteinates, milk protein concentrates, native phosphocasein and classical Annex III casein products.
A note on the evaluation of a beta-casein variant in bovine breeds by allele-specific PCR and relevance to β-casomorphinKeating, A.F.; Smith, T.J.; Ross, R Paul; Cairns, M.T. (Teagasc, Oak Park, Carlow, Ireland, 2008)Two genetic variants of the bovine β-casein gene (A1 and B) encode a histidine residue at codon 67, resulting in potential liberation of a bioactive peptide, β-casomorphin, upon digestion. An allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR) was evaluated to distinguish between the β-casomorphin-releasing variants (A1 and B) and the non-releasing variants. AS-PCR successfully distinguished β-casein variants in 41 of 42 animals as confirmed by sequence analysis. Overall, while the incidence of the homozygous A1 and B animals (i.e., homozygous for the histidine residue; 21.4%) was lower than that for animals without the histidine residue (30.9% respectively), 69% of animals carried at least one allele for the histidine residue at codon 67.
High Pressure Processing of Dairy FoodsDonnelly, W.J.; Beresford, Tom; Lane, C.N.; Walsh-O'Grady, D.; O'Connor, P.; Fitzgerald, R.J.; Murphy, P.M.; O'Reilly, C.; Morgan, S.M.; Ross, R.Paul; Kelly, A. (Teagasc, 2000-09-01)The term High Pressure Processing (HPP) is used to describe the technology whereby products are exposed to very high pressures in the region of 50 - 800 MPa (500 - 8000 Atmospheres). The potential application of HPP in the food industry has gained popularity in recent years, due to developments in the construction of HPP equipment which makes the technology more affordable. Applying HPP to food products results in modifications to interactions between individual components, rates of enzymatic reactions and inactivation of micro-organisms. The first commercial HPP products appeared on the market in 1991 in Japan, where HPP is now being used commercially for products such as jams, sauces, fruit juices, rice cakes and desserts. The pioneering research into the application of HPP to milk dates back to the end of the 19th century. Application of HPP to milk has been shown to modify its gel forming characteristics as well as reducing its microbial load. HPP offers the potential to induce similar effects to those generated by heat on milk protein. Recent reports have also indicated that HPP could accelerate the ripening of cheese. Much of the Irish cheese industry is based on the production of Cheddar cheese, the ripening time for which can vary from 4 - 12 months or more, depending on grade. A substantial portion of the cost associated with Cheddar manufacture is therefore attributed to storage under controlled conditions during ripening. Thus, any technology which may accelerate the ripening of Cheddar cheese while maintaining a balanced flavour and texture is of major economic significance. While food safety is a dominant concern, consumers are increasingly demanding foods that maintain their natural appearance and flavour, while free of chemical preservatives. HPP offers the food industry the possibility of achieving these twin goals as this technology can lead to reduced microbial loads without detrimentally effecting the nutritional or sensory qualities of the product. The development of food ingredients with novel functional properties offers the dairy industry an opportunity to revitalise existing markets and develop new ones. HPP can lead to modifications in the structure of milk components, in particular protein, which may provide interesting possibilities for the development of high value nutritional and functional ingredients. Hence these projects set out to investigate the potential of HPP in the dairy industry and to identify products and processes to which it could be applied.