• The Double Spade Method: a ‘mini-profile’ visual soil evaluation technique

      Emmet-Booth, J.P.; Forristal, P.D.; Fenton, Owen; Bondi, G.; Holden, N.M (2021-11-23)
      Visual Soil Evaluation (VSE) methods are established for soil quality assessment and focus on the examination of soil structure and associated anthropogenic impacts. VSE techniques, of which numerous types exist, are successfully used internationally both in soil research and as sustainable soil management tools. Techniques are generally categorised into profile and spade methods. Profile methods examine entire soil profiles in soil-pits to depths of ~ 1.5 m, exploring interactions between inherent soil features and anthropic management at specific sample points. Spade methods examine the upper soil profile, often by extracting sample blocks of topsoil by spade and focus on anthropic impacts. The VESS method (Guimarães et al., 2011) is a widely used spade method and involves assessment of soil sample blocks to 25 cm depth. However, in arable soils, important structural features may occur just below this depth such as plough pans, which VESS may not capture. The SubVESS method (Ball et al., 2015) follows principles of VESS but allows assessment to ~ 1 m depth. However, the later involves soil-pit excavation by mechanical means, which may be destructive, costly, time consuming and limit replication. When used in on-farm situations by farmers or advisors, full soil-pit excavation may not be desirable. Here we describe a method previously outlined (Emmet-Booth et al. 2018) called the Double Spade Method (DS) designed to examine miniprofiles in soil pits to 40 cm depth, therefore capturing potential structural features below the VESS assessment depth, without requiring full soil-pit excavation.
    • Exploring the sensitivity of visual soil evaluation to traffic-induced soil compaction

      Emmet-Booth, J.P.; Holden, N.M.; Fenton, Owen; Bondi, G; Forristal, P.D.; Irish Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; 13/S/468 (Elsevier, 2019-10-24)
      Visual Soil Evaluation (VSE) techniques are useful for assessing the impact of land management, particularly the identification and remediation of soil compaction. Despite an increasing body of VSE research, comparatively few studies have explored the sensitivity of VSE for capturing experimentally imposed compaction to estimate sensitivity and limit of detection. The aim of this research was to examine the ability of VSE techniques to indicate soil structure at different soil profile depths and to measure the associated soil productive function (yield) response to imposed compaction. A two-year experiment was conducted on sites with loam and sandy soils. Varying levels of wheeled traffic were imposed on plots in a randomised block design, prior to sowing winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Quantitative crop and soil measurements were taken throughout the season in conjunction with VSE techniques, which assessed to 25 cm (VESS), 40 cm (Double Spade) and 80 cm (SubVESS) depth. Graduated changes were observed by soil and some crop quantitative measurements as traffic treatment varied. VESS and Double Spade successfully identified a graduated treatment effect at all sites to 40 cm depth, although diagnosis translated into a yield response for the loam but not the sandy soil. Correlation between VESS Sq scores and crop yield were found. SubVESS gave mixed signals and indicated impacts lower in the profile in certain instances. These impacts were not captured by quantitative soil measurements.This work highlights the capacity for VSE techniques to indicate soil structural damage, which may cause a crop yield response, therefore allowing appropriate soil management strategies to be deployed before yield penalties occur.
    • Ireland’s Rural Environment: Research Highlights from Johnstown Castle

      O hUallachain, Daire; Fenton, Owen; Foley, M (Teagasc, 2013)
      This booklet gives a flavour of the current research in Teagasc Johnstown Castle Research Centre and introduces you to the staff involved. It covers the areas of Nutrient Efficiency, Gaseous emissions, Agricultural Ecology, Soils and Water quality.
    • Teagasc submission made in response to the Consultation Paper on Interim Review of Ireland’s Nitrates Derogation 2019

      Spink, John; Buckley, Cathal; Burgess, Edward; Daly, Karen M.; Dillon, Pat; Fenton, Owen; Horan, Brendan; Humphreys, James; Hyde, Tim; McCarthy, Brian; et al. (Teagasc, 2019-06-04)
      This submission was made in response to the consultation process run jointly by the Department of Housing, Planning, Community and Local Government (DHPCLG) and the Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine (DAFM) inviting views and comments on proposals for the Interim Review of Ireland’s Nitrates Derogation Programme in 2019. It has been prepared by Teagasc’s Water Quality Working Group in consultation with the Gaseous Emissions Working Group. These working groups have members drawn from both the Knowledge Transfer and Research Directorates of Teagasc. It was prepared following consultation with colleagues across Teagasc using their collective knowledge and expertise in agri-environmental science and practice and the implementation of the Good Agricultural Practice (GAP) and Nitrates Derogation Regulations.