In December 2016, Teagasc restructured the Food Research Programme, creating a new department - Food Quality & Sensory Science. The articles in this collection include those authored by members of this department while they were in previous departments.

Recent Submissions

  • Physicochemical Characteristics of Protein-Enriched Restructured Beef Steaks with Phosphates, Transglutaminase, and Elasticised Package Forming

    Baugreet, Sephora; Kerry, Joseph P.; Allen, Paul; Gallagher, Eimear; Hamill, Ruth; Irish Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme; 11/F/045 (Hindawi Limited, 2018)
    Restructured beef steaks were formulated by adding protein-rich ingredients (pea protein isolate (PPI), rice protein (RP), and lentil flour (LF) (at 4 and 8%)), phosphate (0.2%), and two binding agents: 1% (TG) and 0.15% (TS). The effects of their addition on the physicochemical properties of the beef steaks were investigated. Protein content of the RP8TG sample was significantly higher than that of the control in both the raw and cooked state. Raw LF4TS exhibited greater () a values than the control; however, after the cooking process, L, a, and b values were similar for all treatments. Textural assessment showed that elevating protein level increased () hardness, chewiness, cohesiveness, and gumminess in cooked restructured steaks. LF addition reduced all textural values assessed, indicating a strong plant protein effect on texture modification. The commercial binder produced a better bind in combination with protein ingredients. This facilitated the production of uniformed restructured beef steaks from low-value beef muscles with acceptable quality parameters using a novel process technology.
  • Evolution of the bovine milk fatty acid profile – From colostrum to milk five days post parturition

    O'Callaghan, Tom; O'Donovan, Michael; Murphy, John; Sugrue, Katie; Mannion, David; McCarthy, William P.; Timlin, Mark; Kilcawley, Kieran; Hickey, Rita M.; Tobin, John T. (Elsevier BV, 2020-05)
    Milk was collected from each of 18 cows (presenting an even spread of 1st, 2nd and 3rd lactation): colostrum on the day of calving and subsequent morning milk 1–5 days post parturition. Days post parturition significantly affected the fatty acid profile of colostrum and transition milk samples. The colostrum fatty acid profile was distinctly different from that of mature milk, with significantly higher levels of polyunsaturated and saturated fatty acids. Parity of the cow had a significant effect on the fatty acid profile of colostrum and transition milk samples; conjugated linoleic acid was significantly higher in cows entering their 1st lactation than in those in their 3rd lactation, while multiparous cows produced significantly higher concentrations of C16:0. The changing composition of the fatty acid profile can be classed into three distinct phases: colostrum (D0), transition milk (D1 and D2 post parturition) and mature milk (D3–D5).
  • Towards More Sustainable Meat Products: Extenders as a Way of Reducing Meat Content

    Pintado, Tatiana; Delgado-Pando, Gonzalo (MDPI AG, 2020-08-03)
    The low efficiency of animal protein (meat products) production is one of the main concerns for sustainable food production. However, meat provides high-quality protein among other compounds such as minerals or vitamins. The use of meat extenders, non-meat substances with high protein content, to partially replace meat, offers interesting opportunities towards the reformulation of healthier and more sustainable meat products. The objective of this review is to give a general point of view on what type of compounds are used as meat extenders and how they affect the physicochemical and sensory properties of reformulated products. Plant-based ingredients (pulses, cereals, tubers and fruits) have been widely used to replace up to 50% of meat. Mushrooms allow for higher proportions of meat substitution, with adequate results in reduced-sodium reformulated products. Insects and by-products from the food industry are novel approaches that present an opportunity to develop more sustainable meat products. In general, the use of meat extenders improves the yield of the products, with slight sensory modifications. These multiple possibilities make meat extenders’ use the most viable and interesting approach towards the production of healthier meat products with less environmental impact.
  • Fate of beta-glucan, polyphenols and lipophilic compounds in baked crackers fortified with different barley-milled fractions

    Gangopadhyay, Nirupama; O'Shea, Norah; Brunton, Nigel P.; Gallagher, Eimear; Harrison, Sabine M.; Rai, Dilip K.; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; FIRM 11/SF/317 (Elsevier BV, 2019-07-18)
    Four types of crackers were prepared, whereby wheat flour was substituted with different percentages of barley flour and bran. These formulations were compared to a 100% wheat flour (control) cracker with respect to β-glucan, polyphenols and lipophilic bioactives. Incorporation of barley fractions enriched the β-glucan, and phenolic content, as well as in vitro antioxidant capacities of the crackers. However, some polyphenols including procyanidin C and ferulic acid could not be detected in the crackers owing to the probable degradation of these compounds during baking. The β-glucan, flavanols (catechin and procyanidin B), as well as fatty acids and sterols were least affected; while the α-tocotrienols showed degradation following the baking process. Overall, barley fractions can serve as valued ingredients for enhancing the health-salutary components of fortified crackers or the products thereof.
  • Assessing the effect of Maillard reaction with dextran on the techno-functional properties of collagen-based peptides obtained from bovine hides

    Anzani, Cecilia; Álvarez, Carlos; Mullen, Anne Maria; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; Cluster Agrifood; FI.A CTN01_00230_450760 (Elsevier BV, 2020-01)
    The recovery of food processing co-products, in the meat sector, has become a hot topic. Based on previous studies, the enzymatic hydrolysis of bovine hides was proposed as a suitable and efficient recovery methodology to produce protein hydrolysates to be used in the food industry. It was found, however, that maximizing recovery yield lead to hydrolysates presenting very poor functional properties. Maillard reaction has been shown to modify the techno-functional properties of proteins without adding chemical agents. The glycation reaction occurred successfully as proved from the analysis of the free amino groups and the size exclusion chromatography (SEC). However, the glycated hydrolysates did not show an improvement in any of the techno-functional properties here assayed: foaming, gelling and emulsifying capacity. This lack of improvement was attributed to the low molecular weight of the peptides (less than 6.5 kDa in average, being the 60% of them lower than 3 kDa) required for recovering proteins from hides in high yields (>85%). When compared to non-hydrolysed collagen, the number of free amino groups per molecule in the hydrolysate is much lower, meaning that interactions between protein-protein and protein-matrix interactions are less evident.
  • A Comprehensive Review on Lipid Oxidation in Meat and Meat Products

    Domínguez, Rubén; Pateiro, Mirian; Gagaoua, Mohammed; Barba, Francisco J.; Zhang, Wangang; Lorenzo, José M. (MDPI AG, 2019-09-25)
    Meat and meat products are a fundamental part of the human diet. The protein and vitamin content, as well as essential fatty acids, gives them an appropriate composition to complete the nutritional requirements. However, meat constituents are susceptible to degradation processes. Among them, the most important, after microbial deterioration, are oxidative processes, which affect lipids, pigments, proteins and vitamins. During these reactions a sensory degradation of the product occurs, causing consumer rejection. In addition, there is a nutritional loss that leads to the formation of toxic substances, so the control of oxidative processes is of vital importance for the meat industry. Nonetheless, despite lipid oxidation being widely investigated for decades, the complex reactions involved in the process, as well as the different pathways and factors that influenced them, make that lipid oxidation mechanisms have not yet been completely understood. Thus, this article reviews the fundamental mechanisms of lipid oxidation, the most important oxidative reactions, the main factors that influence lipid oxidation, and the routine methods to measure compounds derived from lipid oxidation in meat.
  • Performances of full cross-validation partial least squares regression models developed using Raman spectral data for the prediction of bull beef sensory attributes

    Zhao, Ming; Nian, Yingqun; Allen, Paul; Downey, Gerard; Kerry, Joseph P.; O’Donnell, Colm P.; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme (Elsevier BV, 2018-04-23)
    The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled “Application of Raman spectroscopy and chemometric techniques to assess sensory characteristics of young dairy bull beef” [1]. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) models were developed on Raman spectral data pre-treated using Savitzky Golay (S.G.) derivation (with 2nd or 5th order polynomial baseline correction) and results of sensory analysis on bull beef samples (n = 72). Models developed using selected Raman shift ranges (i.e. 250–3380 cm−1, 900–1800 cm−1 and 1300–2800 cm−1) were explored. The best model performance for each sensory attributes prediction was obtained using models developed on Raman spectral data of 1300–2800 cm−1.
  • Correlating Volatile Lipid Oxidation Compounds with Consumer Sensory Data in Dairy Based Powders during Storage

    Clarke, Holly J.; O’Sullivan, Maurice G.; Kerry, Joseph P.; Kilcawley, Kieran; Teagasc Walsh Scholarship Programme; 2016071 (MDPI AG, 2020-04-20)
    Lipid oxidation (LO) is a recognised problem in dairy powders due to the formation of volatile odour compounds that can negatively impact sensory perception. Three commercial dairy powders, fat-filled whole milk powder (FFWMP), skim milk powder (SMP), and infant milk formula (IMF), stored under different conditions (21 °C, 37 °C, or 25 °C with 50% humidity), were evaluated by consumer acceptance studies, ranked descriptive sensory analysis, and LO volatile profiling using headspace solid phase microextraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-SPME GCMS) over 16 weeks. Significant (p = 0.001) differences in the concentration of LO compounds and sensory perception were evident between sample types in the different storage conditions. The sensory acceptance scores for FFWMP and SMP remained stable throughout storage in all conditions, despite the increased perception of some LO products. The IMF sample was perceived negatively in each storage condition and at each time point. Overall increases in hexanal, heptanal, and pentanal correlated with “painty”, “oxidised”, “cooked”, and “caramelised” attributes in all samples. The concentration of some LO volatiles in the IMF was far in excess of those in FFWMP and SMP. High levels of LO volatiles in IMF were presumably due to the addition of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the formulation.
  • Evaluation of the Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Porcine Liver Protein Hydrolysates Obtained Using Alcalase, Bromelain, and Papain

    Borrajo, Paula; Pateiro, Mirian; Gagaoua, Mohammed; Franco, Daniel; Zhang, Wangang; Lorenzo, José Manuel; INIA; RTA 2017-00024-CO4-04 (MDPI AG, 2020-03-27)
    In order to make the by-products generated from the porcine industry more valuable, pig livers were used in this trial to obtain protein hydrolysates. Three proteases (alcalase, bromelain, and papain) were utilized for enzymatic hydrolysis with two different durations, 4 and 8 hours. Ultrafiltration process was used for the recovery of the extracts, employing three different membrane pore sizes (30, 10, and 5 kDa). The porcine livers contained considerable amounts of protein (19.0%), considering they are almost composed of water (74.1%). The antioxidant activity of the obtained hydrolysates was investigated using four antioxidant methods (2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, 2-2′-Azino-di-[3-ethylbenzthiazoline sulfonate] (ABTS) radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP), and oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay (ORAC)). Antibacterial properties were also measured against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Results indicated that the three studied factors (type of enzyme, membrane pore size, and time) significantly affected the parameters evaluated. Hydrolysates obtained at 8 hours with alcalase had the best antioxidant properties. The 30 kDa alcalase extracts exhibited the highest DPPH (562 µg Trolox/g), FRAP (82.9 µmol Fe2+/100 g), and ORAC (53.2 mg Trolox/g) activities, while for ABTS the 10 kDa alcalase showed the higher values (1068 mg ascorbic acid/100 g). Concerning the antibacterial activity, 30 kDa hydrolysates obtained with bromelain for 4 hours exhibited the highest antimicrobial capacity, providing an inhibition of 91.7%.
  • Self-association of bovine β-casein as influenced by calcium chloride, buffer type and temperature

    Li, Meng; Auty, Mark; Crowley, Shane V.; Kelly, Alan L.; O'Mahoney, James A.; Brodkorb, Andre; Irish Dairy Levy Research Trust; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme; MDDT 6261 (Elsevier, 2018-09-25)
    The aim of this study was to investigate the aggregation behaviour of a pure β-casein (β-CNpure) and a β-casein concentrate (β-CNconc) as a function of temperature, buffer type (pH 6.8) and the presence of CaCl2. The particle size distribution and turbidity of β-casein (β-CN) dispersions were measured by dynamic light-scattering (DLS) and UV/vis spectroscopy between 4 and 55 °C. Upon heating (4–55 °C), the particle size of both β-CN samples increased, indicating self-association via hydrophobic interactions. It was shown that the self-association of β-CN increased with increasing β-CN concentration and that β-CNpure self-associated at significantly lower concentration than β-CNconc. Both turbidity and particle size measurements showed that the β-CN samples had similar aggregation behaviour in water and imidazole buffer (pH 6.8) but differed in sodium phosphate buffer (pH 6.8), especially at higher ionic calcium concentrations. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy revealed very little change in the secondary structure of β-CN during heating (4–55 °C). The microstructure of β-CN aggregates was monitored during heating from 10 to 55 °C, followed by cooling to 10 °C, using polarised light microscopy. Spherical and heterogeneous aggregates were observed when heated at temperatures above 37 °C, which were reversible upon cooling. This study confirmed that β-CN undergoes self-association on heating that reverses upon cooling, with the aggregation process being highly dependent on the purity of β-CN, the solvent type and the presence of ionic calcium.
  • Systematic review of novel processing technologies and ingredients for the reduction of phosphate additives in processed meat.

    Thangavelu, K. P.; Kerry, Joseph P.; Tiwari, Brijesh K; McDonnell, Ciara K; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme (Elsevier, 2019-10-11)
    Background: Phosphate additives are used in many processed foods as stabilisers and emulsifiers. They are present in up to 65% of processed meat products. However, consumer preferences for more natural and less processed foods has resulted in the growth of clean label trends, meaning shorter ingredient declarations using fewer ingredients that are unfamiliar to the consumer. Due to the unique characteristics of phosphates, their removal, while maintaining product quality, is challenging. Scope and Approach: In this review, phosphate additive-types are discussed, with particular emphasis on their application in processed meat products. Through homeostasis, excess phosphate is readily excreted by individuals with healthy kidney function, but it is acknowledged that there is now a desire to find more acceptable ingredient alternatives. The use of alternative, non-synthetic, ingredients in processed meats such as starch, proteins, seaweeds, hydrocolloids and fibres, as potential phosphate replacers are discussed. Such ingredients may not impart the same quality attributes in meat products as provided by phosphates when used singly, however, adopting hurdle approaches of combining alternative ingredients with novel processing technologies, such as power ultrasound and high pressure processing, may provide the meat industry with alternatives. Key findings and conclusions: The key finding of this review is that the interaction between novel technologies and ingredients has not been studied extensively, yet there is evidence for their combined potential. For future studies, non-synthetic ingredients like fibres and starches could be combined with novel processing technologies to improve the interaction between meat proteins and alternative ingredients.
  • Assessment of RNAlater® as a Potential Method to Preserve Bovine Muscle Proteins Compared with Dry Ice in a Proteomic Study

    Zhu, Yao; Mullen, Anne Maria; Rai, Dilip K.; Kelly, Alan L.; Sheehan, David; Cafferky, Jamie; Hamill, Ruth; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme; NFFQ0017 (MDPI, 2019-02-05)
    RNAlater® is regarded as a potential preservation method for proteins, while its effect on bovine muscle proteins has rarely been evaluated. Bovine muscle protein samples (n = 12) collected from three tender (Warner–Bratzler shear force: 30.02–31.74 N) and three tough (Warner–Bratzler shear force: 54.12–66.25 N) Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) samples, preserved using two different sampling preservation methods (RNAlater® and dry ice), at two post mortem time points (day 0 and day 14), were characterized using one-dimensional electrophoresis. Fourteen bands with molecular weights ranging from 15 to 250 kDa were verified, both in the dry ice and RNAlater® storage groups, at each time point, using image analysis. A shift from high to low molecular weight fragments, between day 0 and day 14, indicated proteolysis of the muscle proteins during post mortem storage. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analyses and database searching resulted in the identification of 10 proteins in four bands. Protein profiles of muscle preserved in RNAlater® were similar to those of muscle frozen on dry ice storage, both at day 0 and day 14. The results demonstrate that RNAlater® could be a simple and efficient way to preserve bovine muscle proteins for bovine muscle proteomic studies
  • Effect of Breed and Gender on Meat Quality of M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum Muscle from Crossbred Beef Bulls and Steers

    Cafferky, Jamie; Hamill, Ruth; Allen, Paul; O’Doherty, John V.; Cromie, Andrew; Sweeney, Torres; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; 11/SF/311 (MDPI, 2019-05-21)
    Abstract The objective of this study was to determine whether sire breed and/or castration had an effect on meat quality of M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) muscle from crossbred bulls and steers and to investigate the relationship amongst the traits examined. Warner–Bratzler shear force (WBSF), intramuscular fat (IMF)%, cook-loss%, drip-loss%, colour (L*, a*, b*) and ultimate pH (upH) were determined in the LTL muscle from eight beef sire breeds representative of the Irish herd (Aberdeen Angus, Belgian Blue, Charolais, Hereford, Limousin, Parthenaise, Salers and Simmental). The results indicate that IMF%, cook-loss% and drip-loss% were associated with breed (p < 0.05); while WBSF, IMF% and cook-loss% differ between genders (p < 0.05). Steer LTL had a greater IMF% and exhibited reduced WBSF and cook-loss% in comparison to the bull LTL (p < 0.05). This study provides greater insight into how quality traits in beef are influenced by breed and gender and will support the industry to produce beef with consistent eating quality.
  • Mechanical and Biochemical Methods for Rigor Measurement: Relationship with Eating Quality

    Álvarez García, Carlos; Morán, Lara; Keenan, Derek F.; Mullen, Anne Maria; Delgado-Pando, Gonzalo; Basque Government; IT944-16 (Hindawi, 2019-06-13)
    Meat quality parameters are affected by a complex series of interacting chemical, biochemical, physical, and physiological components that determine not only the suitability for consumption and the conditions for further processing and storage but also consumer acceptability. Deep understanding and careful manipulation of these intrinsic and extrinsic factors have to be taken in account to ensure high quality of meat, with better technological properties and increased safety for consumers. Among meat quality characteristics, meat tenderness has been perceived as the most important factor governing consumer acceptability. Therefore, being able to early predict meat texture and other related parameters in order to guarantee consistent eating quality to the final consumer is one of the most sought-after goals in the meat industry. Accurate measurements of both the biochemical and mechanical characteristics that underpin muscle and its transformation into meat are key factors to an improved understanding of meat quality, but also this early-stage measurements may be useful to develop methods to predict final meat texture. It is the goal of this review to present the available research literature on the historical and contemporary analyses that could be applied in early postmortem stages (pre-rigor and rigor) to determine the biochemical and physical characteristics of the meat that can potentially impact the eating quality.
  • Assessment of physico-chemical traits related to eating quality of young dairy bull beef at different ageing times using Raman spectroscopy and chemometrics

    Nian, Yingqun; Zhao, Ming; O'Donnell, Colm P.; Downey, Gerard; Kerry, Joseph P.; Allen, Paul; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme (Elsevier, 2017-06-27)
    Raman spectroscopy and chemometrics were investigated for the prediction of eating quality related physico-chemical traits of Holstein-Friesian bull beef. Raman spectra were collected on the 3rd, 7th and 14th days post-mortem. A frequency range of 1300–2800 cm− 1 was used for partial least squares (PLS) modelling. PLS regression (PLSR) models for the prediction of WBSF and cook loss achieved an R2CV of 0.75 with RMSECV of 6.82 N and an R2CV of 0.77 with RMSECV of 0.97%w/w respectively. For the prediction of intramuscular fat, moisture and crude protein content, R2CV values were 0.85, 0.91 and 0.70 with RMSECV of 0.52%w/w, 0.39%w/w and 0.38%w/w respectively. An R2CV of 0.79 was achieved for the prediction of both total collagen and hydroxyproline content, while for collagen solubility the R2CV was 0.88. All samples (100%) from 15- and 19-month old bulls were correctly classified using PLS discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), while 86.7% of samples from different muscles (longissimus thoracis, semitendinosus and gluteus medius) were correctly classified. In general, PLSR models using Raman spectra on the 3rd day post-mortem had better prediction performance than those on the 7th and 14th days. Raman spectroscopy and chemometrics have potential to assess several beef physical and chemical quality traits.
  • Sensory optimisation of salt-reduced corned beef for different consumer segments

    Conroy, Paula M.; O'Sullivan, Maurice; Hamill, Ruth; Kerry, Joseph; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; 11/F/045 (Elsevier, 2019-03-21)
    The study objectives were to determine assessors' (n = 256) preference for corned beef, produced with sequential reductions in NaCl concentrations and to determine if preference was affected by assessor age. The use of a salt replacer such as potassium lactate was also assessed. The youngest age cohort disliked samples containing the highest level of NaCl, whereas the oldest age cohort did not detect differences between samples. The most negatively perceived sample was the control, suggesting that NaCl levels added to commercial corned beef are currently too high for consumer acceptance. All age cohorts, with the exception of the 65–74 age cohort, accepted corned beef samples possessing NaCl levels closest to the FSAI target (1.63 g/100 g). No major sensory differences were noted between samples with and without potassium lactate by the ≥65 age cohort. Potassium lactate may be added to corned beef without affecting sensory attributes, whilst enhancing nutritional content. Assessors of varying age groups have differing preferences for certain NaCl levels and salt replacers.
  • Using induced chlorophyll production to monitor the physiological state of stored potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    Garnett, Jessica; Wellner, Nikolaus; Mayes, Andrew G; Downey, Gerard; Kemsley, E.K.; Teagasc Walsh fellowship Programme; Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council, U.K.; 2014028 (Elsevier, 2018-08-04)
    A Visible/Near-infrared (Vis/NIR) spectrometer equipped with a fibre-optic probe was used to stimulate and measure chlorophyll production in potato tubers, at low levels that produce no visible greening in the skin. Subtle responses to changes in the light stimulus were also tracked. When used with a static experimental setup, these measurements are precise. However, the technique is very sensitive to the exact geometry of the tuber-probe arrangement, and careful positioning of the probe is crucial. Complementary studies established that tissue under the apical buds (‘eyes’) has greater capacity to produce chlorophyll than other locations on the tuber surface. A long-term study of multiple tubers suggested that different cultivars behave differently in terms of the rate of chlorophyll production. These behavioural differences may be related to the batch dormancy status; validating this potential relationship is the focus of ongoing work.
  • Opportunities and perspectives for utilisation of co-products in the meat industry

    Lynch, Sarah A.; Mullen, Anne Maria; O'Neill, Eileen; Drummond, Liana; Álvarez García, Carlos; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; 11/F/043 (Elsevier, 2018-06-19)
    Meat co-products are the non-meat components arising from meat processing/fabrication and are generated in large quantities on a daily basis. Co-products are considered as low added-value products, and in general it is difficult for industries to divert efforts into increasing their value. While many of these products can be edible those not used for human consumption or pet food is usually processed to be used as animal feed, fertilizer or fuel. However, to a large extent meat co-products are an excellent source of high nutritive value protein, minerals and vitamins and hence may be better diverted to contribute to alleviate the increasing global demand for protein. In this review the current uses, legislation and potential techniques for meat co-products processing are reviewed with the aim of showing a route to improve meat industry sustainability, profitability and better usage of available resources.
  • Impact on the physical and sensory properties of salt-and fat-reduced traditional Irish breakfast sausages on various age cohorts acceptance

    Conroy, Paula M.; O'Sullivan, Maurice; Hamill, Ruth; Kerry, Joseph; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; 11/F/045 (Elsevier, 2018-05-02)
    The properties of varying salt and fat levels in traditional breakfast sausages were investigated. Sausages were produced with fat levels of: 30%, 20% and 15%. Fat was replaced with pea extract. Salt levels employed were: 2.5%, 1.1% and 0.0%. A reduced sodium salt which contains 45% less sodium than standard salt was used. Sensory analysis was conducted on consumers (n = 228): 18–40 yrs., 41–64 yrs. and 65–85 yrs. The 18–40 yr. olds preferred sausages containing 20% fat, 41–64 yr. olds preferred sausages with 15% fat, 65+ age group preferred sausages containing 30% fat. The 18–40 yr. olds preferred high salt samples, 41–64 yr. olds displayed no salt preference, while the 65+ age group preferred high salt sausages. Sausage formulation choice was found to be driven by texture for the younger age cohort, flavour for the middle age cohort and visual aspects from the oldest age cohort. There is a need to understand how meat products might be reformulated different age palates.
  • Optimisation of plant protein and transglutaminase content in novel beef restructured steaks for older adults by central composite design

    Baugreet, Sephora; Kerry, Joesph; Brodkorb, Andre; Gomez, Carolina; Auty, Mark; Allen, Paul; Hamill, Ruth; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; 11/F/045 (Elsevier, 2018-03-29)
    With the goal of optimising a protein-enriched restructured beef steak targeted at the nutritional and chemosensory requirements of older adults, technological performance of thirty formulations, containing plant-based ingredients, pea protein isolate (PPI), rice protein (RP) and lentil flour (LF) with transglutaminase (TG) to enhance binding of meat pieces, were analysed. Maximal protein content of 28% in cooked product was achieved with PPI, RP and LF. Binding strength was primarily affected by TG, while textural parameters were improved with LF inclusion. Optimal formulation (F) to obtain a protein-enriched steak with lowest hardness values was achieved with TG (2%), PPI (8%), RP (9.35%) and LF (4%). F, F1S (optimal formulation 1 with added seasoning) and control restructured products (not containing plant proteins or seasonings) were scored by 120 consumers' aged over-65 years. Controls were most preferred (P < .05), while F1S were least liked by the older consumers. Consumer testing suggests further refinement and optimisation of restructured products with plant proteins should be undertaken.

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