In December 2016, Teagasc restructured the Food Research Programme, creating a new department - Food Quality & Sensory Science. The articles in this collection include those authored by members of this department while they were in previous departments.

Recent Submissions

  • Meta-proteomics for the discovery of protein biomarkers of beef tenderness: An overview of integrated studies

    Picard, Brigitte; Gagaoua, Mohammed; Marie Skłodowska-Curie Grant; Enterprise Ireland; Pôle Aquitain Agro-Alimentation et Nutrition; National Institute of Agronomical Research; National Institute of Origin and Quality; FNADT Massif Central; DATAR Massif Central; ANR GenAnimal; et al. (Elsevier BV, 2020-01)
    This meta-proteomics review focused on proteins identified as candidate biomarkers of beef tenderness by comparing extreme groups of tenderness using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) associated with mass spectrometry (MS). We reviewed in this integromics study the results of 12 experiments that identified protein biomarkers from two muscles, Longissimus thoracis (LT) and Semitendinosus (ST), of different types of cattle: young bulls, steers or cows from beef breeds (Charolais, Limousin, Blond d’Aquitaine), hardy breed (Salers) or mixed breed (PDO Maine-Anjou). Comparative proteomics of groups differing in their tenderness evaluated by instrumental Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) or by sensory analysis using trained panelists, revealed 61 proteins differentially abundant (P < 0.05) between tender and tough groups. A higher number of discriminative proteins was observed for LT (50 proteins) compared to ST muscle (28 proteins). The Gene Ontology annotations showed that the proteins of structure and contraction, protection against oxidative stress and apoptosis, energy metabolism, 70 family HSPs and proteasome subunits are more involved in LT tenderness than in ST. Amongst the list of candidate biomarkers of tenderness some proteins such as HSPB1 are common between the 2 muscles whatever the evaluation method of tenderness, but some relationships with tenderness for others (MYH1, TNNT3, HSPB6) are inversed. Muscle specificities were revealed in this meta-proteomic study. For example, Parvalbumin (PVALB) appeared as a robust biomarker in ST muscle whatever the evaluation method of tenderness. HSPA1B seems to be a robust candidate for LT tenderness (with WBSF) regardless the animal type. Some gender specificities were further identified including similarities between cows and steers (MSRA and HSPA9) in contrast to bulls. The comparison of the 12 proteomic studies revealed strong dissimilarities to identify generic biomarkers of beef tenderness. This integrative analysis allowed better understanding of the biological processes involved in tenderness in two muscles and their variations according to the main factors underlying this quality. It allowed also proposing for the first time a comprehensive list of candidate biomarkers to be evaluated deeply to validate their relationships with tenderness on a large number of cattle and breeds.
  • Antioxidant active packaging systems to extend the shelf life of sliced cooked ham

    Pateiro, Mirian; Domínguez, Rubén; Bermúdez, Roberto; Munekata, Paulo E.S.; Zhang, Wangang; Gagaoua, Mohammed; Lorenzo, José M.; INIA-MINECO; Axencia Galega de Innovación; CYTED; et al. (Elsevier BV, 2019-11)
    The effectiveness of active packaging systems with green tea extract and oregano essential oil was checked for their use in sliced cooked ham. Three packaging systems were evaluated: i) control group without active film, ii) ATGT packed with active film of green tea extract (1%) and iii) ATRX with a mixture of green tea extract and oregano essential oil (1%). The evolution of microbiological, physicochemical (pH, aw, colour and lipid oxidation) and sensory attributes were analysed after 0, 7, 14 and 21 days of refrigerated storage. Microbial populations were below the limits established by the European Regulations (106 UFC/g). The samples packed with ATGT showed the better antimicrobial activity against total viable counts (TVC) and lactic acid bacteria (BAL), while lower counts of Brochothrix thermosphacta was observed in ATRX film (1.48 vs. 1.78 and 2.59 UFC/g for ATRX vs. ATGT and CON, respectively). Regarding colour, low differences were found between the samples packaged with active and control films. Unlike L*, a* and b* parameters showed a progressive diminution throughout the storage in all batches, being the films that contained green tea (ATGT) were the ones that showed the less discolouration at the end of storage (8.86 vs. 8.63 and 7.50 for ATGT vs. CON and ATRX, respectively). The low fat content of this type of product and the use of anaerobic atmosphere for the packaging of cooked ham did not allow to show an antioxidant effect on lipid oxidation (values below 0.15 mg MDA/kg). Finally, the use of ATGT and ATRX did not suppose a modification of the sensorial attributes of the product, being acceptance scores under the acceptance limit during the whole display.
  • Dietary Compounds Influencing the Sensorial, Volatile and Phytochemical Properties of Bovine Milk

    Clarke, Holly J.; Griffin, Carol; Rai, Dilip K.; O’Callaghan, Tom F.; O’Sullivan, Maurice G.; Kerry, Joseph P.; Kilcawley, Kieran N.; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme; 2016071 (MDPI AG, 2019-12-19)
    The main aim of this study was to evaluate the volatile profile, sensory perception, and phytochemical content of bovine milk produced from cows fed on three distinct feeding systems, namely grass (GRS), grass/clover (CLV), and total mixed ration (TMR). Previous studies have identified that feed type can influence the sensory perception of milk directly via the transfer of volatile aromatic compounds, or indirectly by the transfer of non-volatile substrates that act as precursors for volatile compounds. In the present study, significant differences were observed in the phytochemical profile of the different feed and milk samples. The isoflavone formonoetin was significantly higher in CLV feed samples, but higher in raw GRS milk, while other smaller isoflavones, such as daidzein, genistein, and apigenin were highly correlated to raw CLV milk. This suggests that changes in isoflavone content and concentration in milk relate to diet, but also to metabolism in the rumen. This study also found unique potential volatile biomarkers in milk (dimethyl sulfone) related to feeding systems, or significant differences in the concentration of others (toluene, p-cresol, ethyl and methyl esters) based on feeding systems. TMR milk scored significantly higher for hay-like flavor and white color, while GRS and CLV milk scored significantly higher for a creamy color. Milk samples were easily distinguishable by their volatile profile based on feeding system, storage time, and pasteurization.
  • Health Benefits of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) Fermentates

    Mathur, Harsh; Beresford, Tom P.; Cotter, Paul D.; Food for Health Ireland; TC/2018/0025 (MDPI AG, 2020-06-04)
    Consuming fermented foods has been reported to result in improvements in a range of health parameters. These positive effects can be exerted by a combination of the live microorganisms that the fermented foods contain, as well as the bioactive components released into the foods as by-products of the fermentation process. In many instances, and particularly in dairy fermented foods, the microorganisms involved in the fermentation process belong to the lactic acid group of bacteria (LAB). An alternative approach to making some of the health benefits that have been attributed to fermented foods available is through the production of ‘fermentates’. The term ‘fermentate’ generally relates to a powdered preparation, derived from a fermented product and which can contain the fermenting microorganisms, components of these microorganisms, culture supernatants, fermented substrates, and a range of metabolites and bioactive components with potential health benefits. Here, we provide a brief overview of a selection of in vitro and in vivo studies and patents exclusively reporting the health benefits of LAB ‘fermentates’. Typically, in such studies, the potential health benefits have been attributed to the bioactive metabolites present in the crude fermentates and/or culture supernatants rather than the direct effects of the LAB strain(s) involved.
  • Influence of high-pressure processing on quality attributes of haddock and mackerel minces during frozen storage, and fishcakes prepared thereof

    Cropotova, Janna; Mozuraityte, Revilija; Standal, Inger Beate; Ojha, Shikha; Rustad, Turid; Tiwari, Brijesh K; European Union; RCN 259582/E50 (Elsevier BV, 2020-01)
    The study focused on assessing quality parameters of haddock and mackerel minces subjected to a high-pressure treatment (HP) at 200 and 300 MPa and frozen storage at −40 °C. Dry matter, water-holding capacity, protein solubility and oxidation, lipid oxidation, microbiological parameters, low molecular weight metabolites (LMW) and color parameters, were analyzed. The texture of fishcakes prepared on the basis of these fish minces was also studied, showing a decrease in firmness along with an increase in pressure. A marked inhibition of microbial growth was observed in fish minces when increasing the pressure level of HP-treatment. However, no significant effect (p < 0.05) on the content of primary and secondary lipid oxidation products was observed between untreated and 300 MPa-pressurized fish samples. The results suggested that HP-treatment could be successfully applied to both lean and fatty fish samples for reduction of microbial growth with minor changes in product quality. Industrial relevance. The application of high pressure (HP) treatment of 200 and 300 MPa could be successfully applied to both lean and fatty fish species before freezing for reduction of microbial growth. The degree of lipid oxidation is decreasing with an increase in pressure as a result of inactivation of prooxidative endogenous enzymes. Fish minces become slightly lighter and softer after HP-treatment conducted at 200 MPa due to denaturation of proteins, thus enhancing sensory properties of fishcakes prepared thereof.
  • What are the drivers of beef sensory quality using metadata of intramuscular connective tissue, fatty acids and muscle fiber characteristics?

    Listrat, Anne; Gagaoua, Mohammed; Andueza, Donato; Gruffat, Dominique; Normand, Jérome; Mairesse, Guillaume; Picard, Brigitte; Hocquette, Jean-François; Agence de l'Environnement et de la Maîtrise de l'Energie, France; European Union; et al. (Elsevier BV, 2020-10)
    The aim of this integrative study was to investigate the relationships between biochemical traits (total, insoluble and soluble collagens (TCol, ICol, SCol), cross-links (CLs), proteoglycans (TPGs), proportion of fiber types, total lipids (TLips), main fatty acids (FAs) families, the n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated FA (n-6/n-3PUFA) ratio and the sensory attributes scores (tenderness, juiciness, flavor) of two muscles from beef: Rectus abdominis (RA) and Longissimus thoracis (LT). For robust analysis, a database was prepared using samples from three studies from animals raised under different production systems. The analyses were performed either on each study separately or on pooled data per muscle after removing as many experimental effects as possible in each study. The CLs (across the muscles and studies) and, to a lower extent, type IIA muscle fibers (mainly for RA muscles), saturated FAs (SFAs), monounsaturated FAs (MUFAs) (for the LT muscles) were the components the most frequently associated with tenderness. The CLs, type IIA muscle fibers (mainly for the RA muscles), TLips, SFAs, MUFAs, conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) and n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio (mainly for the LT muscles) were the components the most associated with juiciness. The TLips and CLAs (across the muscles and studies), SFAs, MUFAs (mainly for the LT muscles), CLs (mainly for the RA muscles) and TPGs (mainly for the LT muscles) were the components the most associated with flavor liking. The CLs, CLAs, TLips, SFAs, MUFAs, n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio, type IIA and I muscle fibers were the components the most frequently associated with the 3 sensory scores taken together. The SCol, TPGs and type IIX+B muscle fibers were little associated with the sensory scores taken together. The TCol, ICol and PUFAs were components the least associated with sensory scores. The data of this integrative study highlighted for the first time that the CLs were negatively involved in the determination of the three sensory traits mainly in the RA muscle. The muscle fibers in this integrative study had a weak impact on the variations in beef sensory traits. The type IIA and IIX+B muscle fibers were respectively negatively and positively associated with tenderness, negatively associated with juiciness and flavor. The type I muscle fibers were overall positively associated with juiciness and flavor and negatively or positively with tenderness and these associations were muscle and study-dependent. Overall, the TLips and FAs were positively associated with the sensory scores and the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio was negatively associated with them.
  • Influence of particle size on the physicochemical properties and stickiness of dairy powders

    O'Donoghue, Laura T.; Haque, Md Kamrul; Kennedy, Deirdre; Laffir, Fathima R.; Hogan, Sean A.; O'Mahony, James A.; Murphy, Eoin G.; Enterprise Ireland; TC/2014/0016 (Elsevier BV, 2019-11)
    The compositional and physicochemical properties of different whey permeate (WPP), demineralised whey (DWP) and skim milk powder (SMP) size fractions were investigated. Bulk composition of WPP and DWP was significantly (P < 0.05) influenced by powder particle size; smaller particles had higher protein and lower lactose contents. Microscopic observations showed that WPP and DWP contained both larger lactose crystals and smaller amorphous particles. Bulk composition of SMP did not vary with particle size. Surface composition of the smallest SMP fraction (<75 μm) showed significantly lower protein (−9%) and higher fat (+5%) coverage compared with non-fractionated powders. For all powders, smaller particles were more susceptible to sticking. Hygroscopicity of SMP was not affected by particle size; hygroscopicity of semi-crystalline powders was inversely related to particle size. This study provides insights into differences between size fractions of dairy powders, which can potentially impact the sticking/caking behaviour of fine particles during processing.
  • Physical, textural and sensory characteristics of reduced sucrose cakes, incorporated with clean-label sugar-replacing alternative ingredients

    Milner, Laura; Kerry, Joseph P.; O'Sullivan, Maurice G.; Gallagher, Eimear; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine (Elsevier BV, 2020-01)
    High levels of sucrose in foods present a great risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Therefore a low sucrose intake is strongly recommended. Sweet baked products incorporate high levels of sucrose. Sucrose in the original cake formulation was reduced and replaced with apple pomace, whey permeate, oligofructose, polydextrose. An acceptable sucrose reduction of between 21 and 27% was achieved. Cakes containing apple pomace had the lowest specific volume (1.8 cm3/g) and highest crumb firmness (8.60 N) (P < .05). Apple pomace and whey permeate had a significantly decreased L* values of the crust (P < .05). Moisture content of the cake crumb was increased significantly with the addition of oligofructose, whey permeate and polydextrose. All treatments resulted in a significant increase of the water activity of the cake crumb compared to the control (P < .05). Crumb cell structure was maintained as shown by 2-D and confocal imaging. Sensory trials revealed the reformulated cakes were acceptable to panellists.
  • Influence of chaperone-like activity of caseinomacropeptide on the gelation behaviour of whey proteins at pH 6.4 and 7.2.

    Gaspard, Sophie J.; Sharma, Prateek; Fitzgerald, Ciarán; Tobin, John T.; O’Mahony, James A.; Kelly, Alan L.; Brodkorb, Andre; Dairy Research Ireland; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme; European Union; et al. (Elsevier, 2020-08-15)
    The effect of caseinomacropeptide (CMP) on the heat-induced denaturation and gelation of whey proteins (2.5–10%, w/v) at pH 6.4 and 7.2, at a whey protein:CMP ratio of 1:0.9 (w/w), was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), oscillatory rheology (90 °C for 20 min) and confocal microscopy. Greater frequency-dependence in the presence of CMP suggested that the repulsive interactions between CMP and the whey proteins affected the network generated by the non-heated whey protein samples. At pH 6.4 or 7.2, CMP increased the temperature of denaturation of β-lactoglobulin by up to 3 °C and increased the gelation temperature by up to 7 °C. The inclusion of CMP strongly affected the structure of the heat-induced whey protein gels, resulting in a finer stranded structure at pH 6.4 and 7.2. The presence of CMP combined with a lower heating rate (2 °C/min) prevented the formation of a solid gel of whey proteins after heating for 20 min at 90 °C and at pH 7.2. These results show the potential of CMP for control of whey protein denaturation and gelation.
  • Inclusion of Healthy Oils for Improving the Nutritional Characteristics of Dry-Fermented Deer Sausage

    Vargas-Ramella, Márcio; Munekata, Paulo E. S.; Gagaoua, Mohammed; Franco, Daniel; Campagnol, Paulo C. B.; Pateiro, Mirian; Barretto, Andrea Carla da Silva; Domínguez, Rubén; Lorenzo, José M.; CYTED; et al. (MDPI AG, 2020-10-18)
    The influence of partial replacement of animal fat by healthy oils on composition, physicochemical, volatile, and sensory properties of dry-fermented deer sausage was evaluated. Four different batches were manufactured: the control was formulated with animal fat (18.2%), while in the reformulated batches the 50% of animal fat was substituted by olive, canola, and soy oil emulsions immobilized in Prosella gel. The reformulation resulted in a decrease of moisture and fat contents and an increase of protein and ash amount. Moreover, reformulated sausages were harder, darker, and had higher pH values. This fact is related to the lower moisture content in these samples. As expected, the fatty acid composition was changed by the reformulation. The use of soy and canola oils increased polyunsaturated fatty acids and omega-3 content and decreased n-6/n-3 ratio and saturated fatty acids. Thus, the use of these two oils presented the best nutritional benefits. The changes observed in the fatty acids reflected the fatty acid composition of the oils employed in the emulsions. Regarding volatile compounds (VOC), the replacement of animal fat by healthy emulsion gels increased the content of both total VOC and most of individual VOC. However, the lipid-derived VOC did not show this trend. Generally speaking, the control samples presented similar or higher VOC derived from lipid oxidation processes, which could be related to the natural antioxidant compounds present in the vegetable oils. Finally, all reformulated sausages presented higher consumer acceptability than control samples. In fact, the sausage reformulated with soy oil emulsion gel was the most preferred. Thus, as a general conclusion, the reformulation of deer sausages with soy emulsion gel improves both composition and sensory quality of the final product, which could be an excellent strategy to the elaboration of healthy fermented sausages.
  • Current Trends in Proteomic Advances for Food Allergen Analysis

    López-Pedrouso, María; Lorenzo, José M.; Gagaoua, Mohammed; Franco, Daniel; Programa Iberoamericano de Ciencia y Tecnología para el Desarrollo; Axencia Galega de Innovación, Xunta de Galicia, Spain; 119RT0568; IN607A2019/01 (MDPI AG, 2020-08-25)
    Food allergies are a global food challenge. For correct food labelling, the detection and quantification of allergens are necessary. However, novel product formulations and industrial processes produce new scenarios, which require much more technological developments. For this purpose, OMICS technologies, especially proteomics, seemed to be relevant in this context. This review summarises the current knowledge and studies that used proteomics to study food allergens. In the case of the allergenic proteins, a wide variety of isoforms, post-translational modifications and other structural changes during food processing can increase or decrease the allergenicity. Most of the plant-based food allergens are proteins with biological functions involved in storage, structure, and plant defence. The allergenicity of these proteins could be increased by the presence of heavy metals, air pollution, and pesticides. Targeted proteomics like selected/multiple reaction monitoring (SRM/MRM) have been very useful, especially in the case of gluten from wheat, rye and barley, and allergens from lentil, soy, and fruit. Conventional 1D and 2-DE immunoblotting have been further widely used. For animal-based food allergens, the widely used technologies are 1D and 2-DE immunoblotting followed by MALDI-TOF/TOF, and more recently LC-MS/MS, which is becoming useful to assess egg, fish, or milk allergens. The detection and quantification of allergenic proteins using mass spectrometry-based proteomics are promising and would contribute to greater accuracy, therefore improving consumer information.
  • Proteomic biomarkers of beef colour

    Gagaoua, Mohammed; Hughes, Joanne; Terlouw, E.M. Claudia; Warner, Robyn D.; Purslow, Peter P.; Lorenzo, José M.; Picard, Brigitte; European Union; Enterprise Ireland; 713654; et al. (Elsevier BV, 2020-07)
    Background Implementation of proteomics over the last decade has been an important step toward a better understanding of the complex biological systems underlying the conversion of muscle to meat. These sophisticated analytical tools have helped to reveal the biochemical pathways involved in fresh meat colour and have identified key protein biomarkers. Scope and approach Until recently, there have been no detailed or critical studies on the role of protein biomarkers in determining meat colour. This review presents an integromics of recent muscle proteomic studies to investigate pathways and mechanisms of beef colour. A database was created from 13 independent proteomic-based studies including data on five muscles and a list of 79 proteins which were significantly correlated with colour traits. The database was subjected to a multistep analysis including Gene Ontology annotations, pathway analysis and literature mining. This report discusses the key protein biomarkers and the biological pathways associated with fresh beef colour. Biomarkers were prioritised by the frequency of identification and the need for future validation experiments is discussed. Key findings and conclusions This review identifies six pathways involved in beef colour including energy metabolism, heat shock and oxidative stress, myofibril structure, signalling, proteolysis and apoptosis. The data-mining of the list of the putative biomarkers showed that certain proteins, such as β-enolase (ENO3), Peroxiredoxin 6 (PRDX6), HSP27 (HSPB1), Phosphoglucomutase 1 (PGM1), Superoxide Dismutase [Cu-Zn] (SOD1) and μ-calpain (CAPN1) were consistently reported by multiple studies as being differentially expressed and having a significant role in beef colour. This integromics work proposes a list of 27 putative biomarkers of beef colour for validation using adapted high-throughput methods.
  • Proteomic biomarkers of beef colour

    Gagaoua, Mohammed; Hughes, Joanne; Terlouw, E.M. Claudia; Warner, Robyn D.; Purslow, Peter P.; Lorenzo, José M.; Picard, Brigitte; Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant agreement; Meat Technology Ireland; 713654; et al. (Elsevier, 2020-05-28)
    Background Implementation of proteomics over the last decade has been an important step toward a better understanding of the complex biological systems underlying the conversion of muscle to meat. These sophisticated analytical tools have helped to reveal the biochemical pathways involved in fresh meat colour and have identified key protein biomarkers. Scope and approach Until recently, there have been no detailed or critical studies on the role of protein biomarkers in determining meat colour. This review presents an integromics of recent muscle proteomic studies to investigate pathways and mechanisms of beef colour. A database was created from 13 independent proteomic-based studies including data on five muscles and a list of 79 proteins which were significantly correlated with colour traits. The database was subjected to a multistep analysis including Gene Ontology annotations, pathway analysis and literature mining. This report discusses the key protein biomarkers and the biological pathways associated with fresh beef colour. Biomarkers were prioritised by the frequency of identification and the need for future validation experiments is discussed. Key findings and conclusions This review identifies six pathways involved in beef colour including energy metabolism, heat shock and oxidative stress, myofibril structure, signalling, proteolysis and apoptosis. The data-mining of the list of the putative biomarkers showed that certain proteins, such as β-enolase (ENO3), Peroxiredoxin 6 (PRDX6), HSP27 (HSPB1), Phosphoglucomutase 1 (PGM1), Superoxide Dismutase [Cu-Zn] (SOD1) and μ-calpain (CAPN1) were consistently reported by multiple studies as being differentially expressed and having a significant role in beef colour. This integromics work proposes a list of 27 putative biomarkers of beef colour for validation using adapted high-throughput methods.
  • What are the drivers of beef sensory quality using metadata of intramuscular connective tissue, fatty acids and muscle fiber characteristics?

    Listrat, Anne; GAGAOUA, Mohammed; Andueza, Donato; Gruffat, Dominique; Normand, Jérome; Mairesse, Guillaume; Picard, Brigitte; Hocquette, Jean-François; Agence de l'Environnement et de la Maîtrise de l'Energie; European Union; et al. (Elsevier, 2020-08-14)
    The aim of this integrative study was to investigate the relationships between biochemical traits (total, insoluble and soluble collagens (TCol, ICol, SCol), cross-links (CLs), proteoglycans (TPGs), proportion of fiber types, total lipids (TLips), main fatty acids (FAs) families, the n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated FA (n-6/n-3PUFA) ratio and the sensory attributes scores (tenderness, juiciness, flavor) of two muscles from beef: Rectus abdominis (RA) and Longissimus thoracis (LT). For robust analysis, a database was prepared using samples from three studies from animals raised under different production systems. The analyses were performed either on each study separately or on pooled data per muscle after removing as many experimental effects as possible in each study. The CLs (across the muscles and studies) and, to a lower extent, type IIA muscle fibers (mainly for RA muscles), saturated FAs (SFAs), monounsaturated FAs (MUFAs) (for the LT muscles) were the components the most frequently associated with tenderness. The CLs, type IIA muscle fibers (mainly for the RA muscles), TLips, SFAs, MUFAs, conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) and n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio (mainly for the LT muscles) were the components the most associated with juiciness. The TLips and CLAs (across the muscles and studies), SFAs, MUFAs (mainly for the LT muscles), CLs (mainly for the RA muscles) and TPGs (mainly for the LT muscles) were the components the most associated with flavor liking. The CLs, CLAs, TLips, SFAs, MUFAs, n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio, type IIA and I muscle fibers were the components the most frequently associated with the 3 sensory scores taken together. The SCol, TPGs and type IIX+B muscle fibers were little associated with the sensory scores taken together. The TCol, ICol and PUFAs were components the least associated with sensory scores. The data of this integrative study highlighted for the first time that the CLs were negatively involved in the determination of the three sensory traits mainly in the RA muscle. The muscle fibers in this integrative study had a weak impact on the variations in beef sensory traits. The type IIA and IIX+B muscle fibers were respectively negatively and positively associated with tenderness, negatively associated with juiciness and flavor. The type I muscle fibers were overall positively associated with juiciness and flavor and negatively or positively with tenderness and these associations were muscle and study-dependent. Overall, the TLips and FAs were positively associated with the sensory scores and the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio was negatively associated with them.
  • Goat farm variability affects milk Fourier-transform infrared spectra used for predicting coagulation properties

    Dadousis, Christos; Gotet, Claudio Cipolat; Stocco, Giorgia; FERRAGINA, ALESSANDRO; Dettori, Maria L.; Pazzola, Michele; do Nascimento Rangel, Adriano Henrique; Vacca, Giuseppe M.; University of Sassari (Elsevier, 2021-02-13)
    Driven by the large amount of goat milk destined for cheese production, and to pioneer the goat cheese industry, the objective of this study was to assess the effect of farm in predicting goat milk-coagulation and curd-firmness traits via Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Spectra from 452 Sarda goats belonging to 14 farms in central and southeast Sardinia (Italy) were collected. A Bayesian linear regression model was used, estimating all spectral wavelengths' effects simultaneously. Three traditional milk-coagulation properties [rennet coagulation time (min), time to curd firmness of 20 mm (min), and curd firmness 30 min after rennet addition (mm)] and 3 curd-firmness measures modeled over time [rennet coagulation time estimated according to curd firmness change over time (RCTeq), instant curd-firming rate constant, and asymptotical curd firmness] were considered. A stratified cross validation (SCV) was assigned, evaluating each farm separately (validation set; VAL) and keeping the remaining farms to train (calibration set) the statistical model. Moreover, a SCV, where 20% of the goats randomly taken (10 replicates per farm) from the VAL farm entered the calibration set, was also considered (SCV80). To assess model performance, coefficient of determination (R2VAL) and the root mean squared error of validation were recorded. The R2VAL varied between 0.14 and 0.45 (instant curd-firming rate constant and RCTeq, respectively), albeit the standard deviation was approximating half of the mean for all the traits. Although average results of the 2 SCV procedures were similar, in SCV80, the maximum R2VAL increased at about 15% across traits, with the highest observed for time to curd firmness of 20 mm (20%) and the lowest for RCTeq (6%). Further investigation evidenced important variability among farms, with R2VAL for some of them being close to 0. Our work outlined the importance of considering the effect of farm when developing Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy prediction equations for coagulation and curd-firmness traits in goats.
  • Dr. Ahmed Ouali, 1948–2020

    GAGAOUA, Mohammed; Sentandreu, Miguel Angel; Coulis, Gérald; Aubry, Laurent; Astruc, Thierry; Herrera-Mendez, Carlos; Valin, Christian; Benyamin, Yves; Fernandez, Eric; Gaillard-Martinie, Brigitte; et al. (Elsevier BV, 2020-09)
  • Seaweeds as promising resource of bioactive compounds: Overview of novel extraction strategies and design of tailored meat products

    Gullón, Beatriz; GAGAOUA, Mohammed; Barba, Francisco J.; Gullón, Patricia; Zhang, Wangang; Lorenzo, José M.; Axencia Galega de Innovación; CYTED; Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness; Generalitat Valenciana; et al. (Elsevier BV, 2020-06)
    Background Meat and meat products have been recently perceived by consumers as unhealthy foods. To avoid this drawback, the reformulation is a feasible approach that allows obtaining custom meat-based products that incorporate compounds with certain beneficial properties for health and remove other attributes considered negative. In this framework, the edible seaweeds have been proposed to offer interesting possibilities in the meat sector to develop functional foods as they are an excellent natural source of nutrients and biocompounds with myriad functionalities. Scope and approach This review collects aspects related to the recent technologies employed to obtain and isolate biocompounds from seaweeds. The use of whole seaweeds and their bioactive extracts to develop meat foods that confer them health properties while simultaneously reducing components considered unhealthy in meat are reviewed. Furthermore, the prevention of oxidation events was also described. Key findings and conclusions Several studies have demonstrated that the incorporation of whole seaweeds and their bioactives to reformulate meat products is an excellent approach to improve certain nutritional aspects considered “bad”. However, there are still some challenges regarding the organoleptic and sensory properties of the resulting products that affect the consumer acceptability. In conclusion, more research is necessary to overcome these gaps allowing put in the market seaweeds -based meat products.
  • Enzymatic degradation of FODMAPS via application of β-fructofuranosidases and α-galactosidases- A fundamental study

    Atzler, Jonas J.; Ispiryan, Lilit; Gallagher, Eimear; Sahin, Aylin W.; Zannini, Emanuele; Arendt, Elke K.; Irish Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; 15F602 (Elsevier BV, 2020-09)
    Cereals and pulses often contribute to the intake of Fermentable Oligo-, Di-, Monosaccharides, and Polyols (FODMAPs) due to high amounts of fructans or galactooligosaccharides (GOS). FODMAPs can trigger symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) and therefore, the development of foods and beverages with a lower FODMAP-content are favourable for IBS patients. Enzyme technology is a promising tool to reduce the FODMAP-content in foods and to maintain product quality. This fundamental study investigates the efficiency of invertase, inulinase, and α-galactosidase as potential food additives to reduce the total FODMAP content of food ingredients. Extracts of high FODMAP ingredients, such as wheat and lentil, and standard solutions of various fructans and GOS were incubated with invertase, inulinase and α-galactosidase for 1 h and 2 h. Contents of oligosaccharides before and after treatment and related IBS-triggering reaction products were quantified using ion chromatography. Inulinase showed a high degradation yield (over 90% of degradation) for both GOS and fructans. For invertase only low degradation yields were measured. α-Galactosidase showed the highest efficiency in decomposing GOS (100% of degradation) and led to non-IBS triggering degradation products. This indicates a high potential for a combined inulinase/α-galactosidase treatment for products containing both fructans and GOS.
  • Discrimination of five Greek red grape varieties according to the anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin profiles of their skins and seeds

    Kyraleou, Maria; Kallithraka, Stamatina; Gkanidi, Eugenia; Koundouras, Stefanos; Mannion, David T.; Kilcawley, Kieran; State Scholarships Foundation of Greece (Elsevier BV, 2020-09)
    The knowledge of grapes phenolic content is proven to be critical for the vinification process and the improvement of wine quality. This study was undertaken to determine the phenolic composition and to employ the phenolic profile as a varietal discrimination tool in five Greek red grape varieties. Ninety grape samples from two seasons (2017 and 2018) were analyzed after extraction with organic solvents. Their proanthocyanidin profile, expressed as percentages of flavan-3-ols, was determined in both skins and seeds by employing phloroglucinolysis followed by HPLC-UV and MS detection, and anthocyanin profile was identified only in the skin extracts by HPLC-UV. Significant differences were observed in proanthocyanidin and anthocyanin profiles of skin extracts between the samples of different varieties, but not in seeds. (-)-Epicatechin was the main subunit in Mandilaria, Kotsifali, Agiorgitiko and Xinomavro grapes while (-)-epigallocatechin gallate in Mavrotragano. Malvidin-3-O-glucoside was the predominant pigment in all grape samples analyzed with the exception of Kotsifali skin extracts, where peonidin-3-O-glucoside was the most abundant anthocyanin. In addition, Mavrotragano skin extracts were the richest in delphinidin and petunidin-3-O-glucosides, while Agiorgitiko and Xinomavro contained the highest amount of malvidin-3-O-glucoside. The results underline the significance of the skin phenolic composition as a tool for the discrimination of the Greek red grape varieties.
  • The effect of bovine feeding system (pasture or concentrate) on the oxidative and sensory shelf life of whole milk powder

    Clarke, H. J.; Griffin, Carol; Hennessy, D.; O'Callaghan, T. F.; O'Sullivan, M. G.; Kerry, J. P.; Kilcawley, Kieran (2021)

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