• Seaweeds as promising resource of bioactive compounds: Overview of novel extraction strategies and design of tailored meat products

      Gullón, Beatriz; GAGAOUA, Mohammed; Barba, Francisco J.; Gullón, Patricia; Zhang, Wangang; Lorenzo, José M.; Axencia Galega de Innovación; CYTED; Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness; Generalitat Valenciana; et al. (Elsevier BV, 2020-06)
      Background Meat and meat products have been recently perceived by consumers as unhealthy foods. To avoid this drawback, the reformulation is a feasible approach that allows obtaining custom meat-based products that incorporate compounds with certain beneficial properties for health and remove other attributes considered negative. In this framework, the edible seaweeds have been proposed to offer interesting possibilities in the meat sector to develop functional foods as they are an excellent natural source of nutrients and biocompounds with myriad functionalities. Scope and approach This review collects aspects related to the recent technologies employed to obtain and isolate biocompounds from seaweeds. The use of whole seaweeds and their bioactive extracts to develop meat foods that confer them health properties while simultaneously reducing components considered unhealthy in meat are reviewed. Furthermore, the prevention of oxidation events was also described. Key findings and conclusions Several studies have demonstrated that the incorporation of whole seaweeds and their bioactives to reformulate meat products is an excellent approach to improve certain nutritional aspects considered “bad”. However, there are still some challenges regarding the organoleptic and sensory properties of the resulting products that affect the consumer acceptability. In conclusion, more research is necessary to overcome these gaps allowing put in the market seaweeds -based meat products.
    • What are the drivers of beef sensory quality using metadata of intramuscular connective tissue, fatty acids and muscle fiber characteristics?

      Listrat, Anne; GAGAOUA, Mohammed; Andueza, Donato; Gruffat, Dominique; Normand, Jérome; Mairesse, Guillaume; Picard, Brigitte; Hocquette, Jean-François; Agence de l'Environnement et de la Maîtrise de l'Energie; European Union; et al. (Elsevier, 2020-08-14)
      The aim of this integrative study was to investigate the relationships between biochemical traits (total, insoluble and soluble collagens (TCol, ICol, SCol), cross-links (CLs), proteoglycans (TPGs), proportion of fiber types, total lipids (TLips), main fatty acids (FAs) families, the n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated FA (n-6/n-3PUFA) ratio and the sensory attributes scores (tenderness, juiciness, flavor) of two muscles from beef: Rectus abdominis (RA) and Longissimus thoracis (LT). For robust analysis, a database was prepared using samples from three studies from animals raised under different production systems. The analyses were performed either on each study separately or on pooled data per muscle after removing as many experimental effects as possible in each study. The CLs (across the muscles and studies) and, to a lower extent, type IIA muscle fibers (mainly for RA muscles), saturated FAs (SFAs), monounsaturated FAs (MUFAs) (for the LT muscles) were the components the most frequently associated with tenderness. The CLs, type IIA muscle fibers (mainly for the RA muscles), TLips, SFAs, MUFAs, conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) and n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio (mainly for the LT muscles) were the components the most associated with juiciness. The TLips and CLAs (across the muscles and studies), SFAs, MUFAs (mainly for the LT muscles), CLs (mainly for the RA muscles) and TPGs (mainly for the LT muscles) were the components the most associated with flavor liking. The CLs, CLAs, TLips, SFAs, MUFAs, n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio, type IIA and I muscle fibers were the components the most frequently associated with the 3 sensory scores taken together. The SCol, TPGs and type IIX+B muscle fibers were little associated with the sensory scores taken together. The TCol, ICol and PUFAs were components the least associated with sensory scores. The data of this integrative study highlighted for the first time that the CLs were negatively involved in the determination of the three sensory traits mainly in the RA muscle. The muscle fibers in this integrative study had a weak impact on the variations in beef sensory traits. The type IIA and IIX+B muscle fibers were respectively negatively and positively associated with tenderness, negatively associated with juiciness and flavor. The type I muscle fibers were overall positively associated with juiciness and flavor and negatively or positively with tenderness and these associations were muscle and study-dependent. Overall, the TLips and FAs were positively associated with the sensory scores and the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio was negatively associated with them.