• Assessment of physico-chemical traits related to eating quality of young dairy bull beef at different ageing times using Raman spectroscopy and chemometrics

      Nian, Yingqun; Zhao, Ming; O'Donnell, Colm P.; Downey, Gerard; Kerry, Joseph P.; Allen, Paul; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme (Elsevier, 2017-06-27)
      Raman spectroscopy and chemometrics were investigated for the prediction of eating quality related physico-chemical traits of Holstein-Friesian bull beef. Raman spectra were collected on the 3rd, 7th and 14th days post-mortem. A frequency range of 1300–2800 cm− 1 was used for partial least squares (PLS) modelling. PLS regression (PLSR) models for the prediction of WBSF and cook loss achieved an R2CV of 0.75 with RMSECV of 6.82 N and an R2CV of 0.77 with RMSECV of 0.97%w/w respectively. For the prediction of intramuscular fat, moisture and crude protein content, R2CV values were 0.85, 0.91 and 0.70 with RMSECV of 0.52%w/w, 0.39%w/w and 0.38%w/w respectively. An R2CV of 0.79 was achieved for the prediction of both total collagen and hydroxyproline content, while for collagen solubility the R2CV was 0.88. All samples (100%) from 15- and 19-month old bulls were correctly classified using PLS discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), while 86.7% of samples from different muscles (longissimus thoracis, semitendinosus and gluteus medius) were correctly classified. In general, PLSR models using Raman spectra on the 3rd day post-mortem had better prediction performance than those on the 7th and 14th days. Raman spectroscopy and chemometrics have potential to assess several beef physical and chemical quality traits.
    • Development of a novel bulk packaging system for retail cuts of meat

      Allen, Paul; Doherty, Alice M.; Isdell, Emer (Teagasc, 1999-03)
      Meat colour is an important criterion in the appeal of meat to consumers at the point of sale. The bright red colour of fresh beef and lamb and the pinkish colour of fresh pork are due to the oxygenation of the myoglobin pigment when the meat is exposed to air. However, exposure to air over several days causes irreversible browning and rejection of the meat by consumers. The gaseous environment in which retail cuts are stored is therefore critical to ensure a good colour over the display life. Existing packaging systems do not have a sufficiently long storage life for the additional time required for exports from Ireland to the UK or continental Europe. The objective of this project was to develop a bulk packaging system for retail cuts that would have a sufficient shelf life to be used by the Irish industry to export retail ready cuts. In conclusion, a packaging system has been developed on a laboratory scale which is capable of extending the storage life of some beef cuts, lamb loin chops and pork loin chops. The display life of these after storage is comparable to fresh cuts. In order for this system to be commercialised it would have to be shown to work on a larger scale in a production environment.
    • The eating quality of beef from young dairy bulls derived from two breed types at three ages from two different production systems

      Nian, Yingqun; Kerry, Joseph P.; Prendiville, Robert; Allen, Paul; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme (Teagasc (Agriculture and Food Development Authority), Ireland, 08/07/2017)
      Expansion of the Irish dairy herd has led to more dairy breed male calves being available for beef production. This study investigated the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of beef from Holstein-Friesian (HF) and Jersey × HF (JEX) young bulls fed pasture grass only or pasture grass plus 2 kg concentrate during their first grazing season and slaughtered at 15, 19 or 22 mo of age. Longissimus thoracis (LT) muscles were collected from 67 carcasses. Postmortem pH, ultimate pH (pHu), meat colour, chemical composition, collagen content and solubility were evaluated. After ageing for 21 d, Warner-Bratzler shear force and cooking loss were determined, and assessments by a trained sensory panel were conducted. Meat from older animals was darker. The pHu, moisture and ash contents decreased, while residual roast beef flavour length increased with age. However, increasing age to slaughter did not negatively influence tenderness. JEX beef had lower cooking loss, was darker and redder, in addition to having higher sensory scores for initial tenderness and fattiness than HF beef. Warner-Bratzler variables were positively correlated with cooking loss and chewiness and were negatively correlated with intramuscular fat (IMF) content, soluble collagen and initial tenderness. In summary, most young dairy bull beef samples were acceptably tender after 21 d of ageing and half of them had acceptable IMF content. Slaughter age affected beef colour, pHu, chemical composition and flavour length. The eating quality of meat from the JEX breed type was considered to be superior to that of the HF breed type. Diet during the first season had no effect on meat quality traits.
    • Effect of Breed and Gender on Meat Quality of M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum Muscle from Crossbred Beef Bulls and Steers

      Cafferky, Jamie; Hamill, Ruth; Allen, Paul; O’Doherty, John V.; Cromie, Andrew; Sweeney, Torres; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; 11/SF/311 (MDPI, 2019-05-21)
      Abstract The objective of this study was to determine whether sire breed and/or castration had an effect on meat quality of M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) muscle from crossbred bulls and steers and to investigate the relationship amongst the traits examined. Warner–Bratzler shear force (WBSF), intramuscular fat (IMF)%, cook-loss%, drip-loss%, colour (L*, a*, b*) and ultimate pH (upH) were determined in the LTL muscle from eight beef sire breeds representative of the Irish herd (Aberdeen Angus, Belgian Blue, Charolais, Hereford, Limousin, Parthenaise, Salers and Simmental). The results indicate that IMF%, cook-loss% and drip-loss% were associated with breed (p < 0.05); while WBSF, IMF% and cook-loss% differ between genders (p < 0.05). Steer LTL had a greater IMF% and exhibited reduced WBSF and cook-loss% in comparison to the bull LTL (p < 0.05). This study provides greater insight into how quality traits in beef are influenced by breed and gender and will support the industry to produce beef with consistent eating quality.
    • Effect of finishing diet and duration on the sensory quality and volatile profile of lamb meat

      Gkarane, Vasiliki; Brunton, Nigel; Allen, Paul; Gravador, Rufielyn S.; Claffey, Noel A.; Diskin, Michael G.; Fahey, Alan G.; Farmer, Linda J.; Moloney, Aidan P; Alcalde, Maria J.; et al. (Elsevier, 2018-08-02)
      Animal production factors can affect the sensory quality of lamb meat. The study investigated the effect of diet composition and duration of consumption on the proximate analysis, volatile profile and sensory quality of lamb meat. Ninety-nine male Texel × Scottish Blackface lambs were raised at pasture for 10 months before being assigned in groups of 11 to one of the following treatments: 100% Silage (S) for 36 (S36), 54 (S54) or 72 (S72) days; 50% Silage - 50% Concentrate (SC) for 36 (SC36), 54 (SC54) or 72 (SC72) days; 100% Concentrate (C) for 36 (C36) or 54 (C54) or 72 (C72) days. A trained sensory panel found Intensity of Lamb Aroma, Dry Aftertaste and Astringent Aftertaste to be higher in meat from lambs on the concentrate diet. Discriminant analysis showed that the volatile profile enabled discrimination of lamb based on dietary treatment but the volatile differences were insufficient to impact highly on sensory quality. Muscle from animals in the S54 group had higher Manure/Faecal Aroma and Woolly Aroma than the SC54 and C54 groups, possibly related to higher levels of indole and skatole. Further research is required to establish if these small differences would influence consumer acceptability.
    • The effect of temperature during retail display on the colour stability of CO pretreated vacuum packaged beef steaks

      Van Rooyen, Lauren Anne; Allen, Paul; Gallagher, Eimear; O'Connor, David I.; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; 11/F/060 (Elsevier, 2018-05-24)
      The effect of CO pretreatments applied to beef striploin steaks (Longissimus thoracis et lumborum, LTL) prior to vacuum packaging and display temperature on colour stability, shelf life and tenderness was determined. Steaks were exposed to 5% CO, 60% CO2 and 35% N2 for 3 (CO3), 5 (CO5) or 7 (CO7) h, followed by 28 days display at 2 °C (good industry practice) or 6 °C (mild abuse). CO5 was the optimum exposure time as it induced the desirable colour while not retaining the bright colour, irrespective of display temperature. K/S ratios confirmed that CO pretreatment did not mask spoilage and could be more sensitive than colour parameters at monitoring discoloration as colour was not retained. Exposure to CO did not have any negative effect on meat quality attributes, while mild temperature abuse (6 °C) increased purge loss and decreased pH.
    • Enhancement of pigmeat quality by altering pre-slaughter management

      Lawlor, Peadar G; Lynch, P Brendan; Mullane, J.; Kerry, Joseph P.; Hogan, Sean; Allen, Paul (Teagasc, 25/10/2005)
      The studies presented in this report were conducted to investigate the effect of breed, slaughter weight, castration of male pigs and strategic feeding strategies on the performance of pigs to slaughter and on their carcass quality. The effect of breed, gender and feeding regimen on the performance of pigs and their carcass quality was examined in the first study (Section 3). From weaning to slaughter Landrace-sired pigs grew at a similar rate but had a better feed conversion efficiency compared with Duroc-sired pigs. Landrace-sired pigs also had a higher carcass lean and greater muscle depth than Duroc-sired pigs. Entire male pigs grew more efficiently, had lower lean content in their carcasses and had a reduced kill out yield when compared with gilts. The eye muscle depth was greater for gilts than entire males. Diluting the diet with grass-meal (GM) reduced growth rate, caused a deterioration in feed conversion efficiency, reduced back fat thickness, reduced eye muscle thickness and reduced kill out yield compared to the control feeding regimen of a cereal based diet. Compensatory growth was observed during a re-alimentation period following a period of diet dilution with grass-meal. However, where it did occur, in most cases it was only partial. Adding 5% rapeseed oil instead of lard to the finisher diet increased nitrogen utilization efficiency and phosphorous utilization efficiency. The effect of gender (boar, castrate, gilt) and slaughter weight (80 to 120kg) on pig performance, carcass quality, meat quality, and nitrogen excretion was investigated in the second study (Section 4). Boars grew faster than gilts and more efficiently than castrates or gilts. Castrates had a higher kill out yield than boars. Nitrogen excretion from castrates was similar to gilts which were both higher than that from boars. The processing value of carcasses from castrates may be higher than that of boars and gilts. In particular castrates had heavier loins and bellies than either boars or gilts. Carcasses from castrates and gilts had a higher temperature (recorded 24 hours post slaughter) than boars. However, pH24 was not affected by gender. The intramuscular fat content of the l. dorsi in castrates was higher than that of boars or gilts, however at 1.65% this was well below the level (2.0%) above which any noticeable sensory attributes might be detected. Feed intake increased with increasing slaughter weight and feed conversion efficiency deteriorated. N excretion also increased with each increment in weight. Carcass lean content increased up to 90kg live EOP 4939.doc 4 25/10/2005 weight then reached a plateau and declined after 110kg live weight. Heavier carcasses yielded more product for approximately the same slaughtering cost and the associated larger muscles could make it easier to use seam butchery techniques that result in lean, well-trimmed, attractive cuts and joints. The pH45 and pH24 were reduced with increasing slaughter weight and drip loss increased. Heavier pigs may be more prone to the development of PSE than lighter pigs as their carcass temperature remains higher for longer than that of lighter pigs.
    • Enhancement of pigmeat quality by altering pre-slaughter management.

      Lawlor, Peadar G; Lynch, P Brendan; Mullane, J.; Kerry, Joseph P.; Hogan, Sean; Allen, Paul (Teagasc, 25/10/2005)
      The studies presented in this report were conducted to investigate the effect of breed, slaughter weight, castration of male pigs and strategic feeding strategies on the performance of pigs to slaughter and on their carcass quality.
    • Evaluation of beef eating quality by Irish consumers

      McCarthy, Sinead N.; Henchion, Maeve; White, A.; Brandon, K.; Allen, Paul; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, Ireland; 04/R&D/TN/256 (Elsevier, 08/05/2017)
      A consumer's decision to purchase beef is strongly linked to its sensory properties and consistent eating quality is one of the most important attributes. Consumer taste panels were held according to the Meat Standards Australia guidelines and consumers scored beef according to its palatability attributes and completed a socio-demographic questionnaire. Consumers were able to distinguish between beef quality on a scale from unsatisfactory to premium with high accuracy. Premium cuts of beef scored significantly higher on all of the scales compared to poorer quality cuts. Men rated grilled beef higher on juiciness and flavour scales compared to women. Being the main purchaser of beef had no impact on rating scores. Overall the results show that consumers can judge eating quality with high accuracy. Further research is needed to determine how best to communicate inherent benefits that are not visible into extrinsic eating quality indicators, to provide the consumer with consistent indications of quality at the point of purchase.
    • Interaction of salt content and processing conditions drives the quality response in streaky rashers

      Delgado-Pando, Gonzalo; Allen, Paul; Kerry, Joseph P.; O'Sullivan, Maurice G.; Hamill, Ruth; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; 11F 026 (Elsevier, 2018-07-26)
      Response surface methodology was utilised to explore the relationship between processing conditions, including cooking temperature and drying time, and ingredients in reduced-salt streaky rasher formulations. The goal of this project was to assess the impact of reducing salt content on physicochemical and sensory properties. Salt levels above 2.44 g/100 g did not affect cooking loss. Cooking temperature (240 °C) was negatively correlated with lightness and redness, n-3 fatty acids, and sensory acceptance, and positively correlated with hardness and monounsaturated fatty acids. Salt content was highly correlated with perceived saltiness and both were identified as negative attributes by the sensory panel. Results indicate that optimised reduced-salt streaky rashers with acceptable technological and sensory performance could be achieved under the following conditions: 2 g/100 g salt, 94 min of drying and grilling at 190 °C.
    • Investigating the use of visible and near infrared spectroscopy to predict sensory and texture attributes of beef M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum

      Cafferky, Jamie; Sweeney, Torres; Allen, Paul; Sahar, Amna; Downey, Gerard; Cromie, A. R.; Hamill, Ruth; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; 11/SF/311 (Elsevier, 2019-08-16)
      The aim of this study was to calibrate chemometric models to predict beef M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) sensory and textural values using visible-near infrared (VISNIR) spectroscopy. Spectra were collected on the cut surface of LTL steaks both on-line and off-line. Cooked LTL steaks were analysed by a trained beef sensory panel as well as undergoing WBSF analysis. The best coefficients of determination of cross validation (R2CV) in the current study were for textural traits (WBSF = 0.22; stringiness = 0.22; crumbly texture = 0.41: all 3 models calibrated using 48 h post-mortem spectra), and some sensory flavour traits (fatty mouthfeel = 0.23; fatty after-effect = 0.28: both calibrated using 49 h post-mortem spectra). The results of this experiment indicate that VISNIR spectroscopy has potential to predict a range of sensory traits (particularly textural traits) with an acceptable level of accuracy at specific post-mortem times.
    • Measuring the lean content of carcasses using TOBEC

      Allen, Paul; McGeehin, Brian (Teagasc, 2001-05)
      This project examined the potential of two objective methods of measuring the lean and fat content of meat carcasses and cuts. Total Body Electrical Conductivity (TOBEC) and Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) are both based on the different conductivity of lean and fat tissues. TOBEC measures the absorption by a carcass or cut of electrical energy from an electromagnetic field whereas BIA measures the resistance to the flow of an electrical current. TOBEC is a large and relatively expensive piece of equipment that is fully automated. BIA is small and relatively low cost but requires an operator.
    • Mechanical Grading of beef carcasses

      Allen, Paul; Finnerty, Nicholas; European Union; European Union (Teagasc, 2001-10)
      Three beef carcass classification systems that use Video Image Analysis (VIA) technology were tested in two trials at Dawn Meats Midleton, Co. Cork. The VIA systems were BCC2, manufactured by SFK Technology, Denmark, VBS2000, manufactured by E+V, Germany, and VIAscan, manufactured by Meat and Livestock Australia. The first trial, conducted over a 6-week period in July/August 1999, calibrated the VIA systems on a large sample of carcasses and validated these calibrations on a further sample obtained at the same time. The second trial, conducted in the first two weeks of March 2000, was a further validation trial. The reference classification scores were determined by a panel of three experienced classifiers using the EUROP grid with 15 subclasses for conformation class and 15 sub-classes for fat. In the first trial the accuracy of the VIA systems at predicting saleable meat yield in steer carcasses was also assessed.
    • New technologies in the manufacture of low fat meat products

      Allen, Paul; Dreeling, Niamh; Desmond, Eoin; Hughes, Eimear; Mullen, Anne Maria; Troy, Declan J. (Teagasc, 1999-02)
      The objective of this project was to provide a sound scientific basis for the development of low fat meat products. The emphasis was placed on identifying the barriers to producing high quality, low fat meat products and providing a knowledge base for manufacturers to overcome these, rather than actually developing new products. Each partner had specific tasks and worked with traditional products of their country. A wide range of products was thereby studied including comminuted, emulsion, cured and dried fermented, so that the results are widely applicable.
    • A note on muscle composition and colour of Holstein-Friesian, Piedmontese × Holstein-Friesian and Romagnola × Holstein-Friesian steers.

      Keane, Michael G.; Allen, Paul (Teagasc, Oak Park, Carlow, Ireland, 2009)
      Holstein-Friesian (HF), Piedmontese × Holstein-Friesian (PM) and Romagnola × Holstein-Friesian (RO) steers were compared for muscle composition and colour. A total of 120 steers in a 3 breed types (HF, PM and RO) × 2 feeding levels (low and high) × 2 finishing periods (short, S and extended, E) factorial experiment were used. Three samples of m. longissimus were taken for chemical analysis, measurement of drip loss and Hunterlab colour measurements. Muscle moisture and protein concentrations were lower, and lipid concentration was higher for HF than for PM and RO, which were similar. There were no effects of feeding level on chemical composition, but after blooming all colour values except hue were lower for the higher feeding level. The E finishing period reduced moisture, protein, drip-loss, L (lightness), a (redness) and chroma values. It is concluded that PM and RO had similar muscle composition but HF had a higher lipid concentration. Feeding level had few effects on muscle composition, but extended finishing increased all measures of fatness and reduced colour values.
    • Optimisation of plant protein and transglutaminase content in novel beef restructured steaks for older adults by central composite design

      Baugreet, Sephora; Kerry, Joseph P.; Brodkorb, Andre; Gomez, Carolina; Auty, Mark; Allen, Paul; Hamill, Ruth; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, Ireland; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme; 11/F/045 (Elsevier, 2018-03-29)
      With the goal of optimising a protein-enriched restructured beef steak targeted at the nutritional and chemosensory requirements of older adults, technological performance of thirty formulations, containing plant-based ingredients, pea protein isolate (PPI), rice protein (RP) and lentil flour (LF) with transglutaminase (TG) to enhance binding of meat pieces, were analysed. Maximal protein content of 28% in cooked product was achieved with PPI, RP and LF. Binding strength was primarily affected by TG, while textural parameters were improved with LF inclusion. Optimal formulation (F) to obtain a protein-enriched steak with lowest hardness values was achieved with TG (2%), PPI (8%), RP (9.35%) and LF (4%). F, F1S (optimal formulation 1 with added seasoning) and control restructured products (not containing plant proteins or seasonings) were scored by 120 consumers' aged over-65 years. Controls were most preferred (P < .05), while F1S were least liked by the older consumers. Consumer testing suggests further refinement and optimisation of restructured products with plant proteins should be undertaken.
    • Optimisation of plant protein and transglutaminase content in novel beef restructured steaks for older adults by central composite design

      Baugreet, Sephora; Kerry, Joesph; Brodkorb, Andre; Gomez, Carolina; Auty, Mark; Allen, Paul; Hamill, Ruth; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; 11/F/045 (Elsevier, 2018-03-29)
      With the goal of optimising a protein-enriched restructured beef steak targeted at the nutritional and chemosensory requirements of older adults, technological performance of thirty formulations, containing plant-based ingredients, pea protein isolate (PPI), rice protein (RP) and lentil flour (LF) with transglutaminase (TG) to enhance binding of meat pieces, were analysed. Maximal protein content of 28% in cooked product was achieved with PPI, RP and LF. Binding strength was primarily affected by TG, while textural parameters were improved with LF inclusion. Optimal formulation (F) to obtain a protein-enriched steak with lowest hardness values was achieved with TG (2%), PPI (8%), RP (9.35%) and LF (4%). F, F1S (optimal formulation 1 with added seasoning) and control restructured products (not containing plant proteins or seasonings) were scored by 120 consumers' aged over-65 years. Controls were most preferred (P < .05), while F1S were least liked by the older consumers. Consumer testing suggests further refinement and optimisation of restructured products with plant proteins should be undertaken.
    • Optimising the acceptability of reduced-salt ham with flavourings using a mixture design

      Delgado-Pando, Gonzalo; Allen, Paul; Kerry, Joseph P.; O'Sullivan, Maurice; Hamill, Ruth; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; 11F 026 (Elsevier, 2019-05-13)
      The objective of this study was to optimise the acceptability of reduced-salt cooked ham containing a mixture of glycine and yeast extract as flavourings by using response surface methodology. Twelve different formulations were prepared with varying levels of salt and the two flavourings, according to a mixture design. The sensory properties were assessed along with the instrumental texture and colour. A multiple factor analysis showed that higher scores in tenderness, saltiness and juiciness were positively correlated, whereas instrumental hardness and chewiness were negatively correlated with acceptability. Response surface plots and optimisation software allowed the inference of two optimised formulations: HO1 with 1.3% salt and yeast extract content of 0.33%; and HO2 with 1.27% salt, 0.2% yeast extract and 0.16% glycine. A panel of 100 consumers found no significant differences in overall acceptability when both were compared to a control (1.63% salt). These results show it is possible to manufacture consumer accepted cooked ham with up to 20% salt reduction.
    • Performances of full cross-validation partial least squares regression models developed using Raman spectral data for the prediction of bull beef sensory attributes

      Zhao, Ming; Nian, Yingqun; Allen, Paul; Downey, Gerard; Kerry, Joseph P.; O’Donnell, Colm P.; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme (Elsevier BV, 2018-04-23)
      The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled “Application of Raman spectroscopy and chemometric techniques to assess sensory characteristics of young dairy bull beef” [1]. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) models were developed on Raman spectral data pre-treated using Savitzky Golay (S.G.) derivation (with 2nd or 5th order polynomial baseline correction) and results of sensory analysis on bull beef samples (n = 72). Models developed using selected Raman shift ranges (i.e. 250–3380 cm−1, 900–1800 cm−1 and 1300–2800 cm−1) were explored. The best model performance for each sensory attributes prediction was obtained using models developed on Raman spectral data of 1300–2800 cm−1.
    • Physicochemical Characteristics of Protein-Enriched Restructured Beef Steaks with Phosphates, Transglutaminase, and Elasticised Package Forming

      Baugreet, Sephora; Kerry, Joseph P.; Allen, Paul; Gallagher, Eimear; Hamill, Ruth; Irish Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme; 11/F/045 (Hindawi Limited, 2018)
      Restructured beef steaks were formulated by adding protein-rich ingredients (pea protein isolate (PPI), rice protein (RP), and lentil flour (LF) (at 4 and 8%)), phosphate (0.2%), and two binding agents: 1% (TG) and 0.15% (TS). The effects of their addition on the physicochemical properties of the beef steaks were investigated. Protein content of the RP8TG sample was significantly higher than that of the control in both the raw and cooked state. Raw LF4TS exhibited greater () a values than the control; however, after the cooking process, L, a, and b values were similar for all treatments. Textural assessment showed that elevating protein level increased () hardness, chewiness, cohesiveness, and gumminess in cooked restructured steaks. LF addition reduced all textural values assessed, indicating a strong plant protein effect on texture modification. The commercial binder produced a better bind in combination with protein ingredients. This facilitated the production of uniformed restructured beef steaks from low-value beef muscles with acceptable quality parameters using a novel process technology.