• Correlating Volatile Lipid Oxidation Compounds with Consumer Sensory Data in Dairy Based Powders during Storage

      Clarke, Holly J.; O’Sullivan, Maurice G.; Kerry, Joseph P.; Kilcawley, Kieran; Teagasc Walsh Scholarship Programme; 2016071 (MDPI AG, 2020-04-20)
      Lipid oxidation (LO) is a recognised problem in dairy powders due to the formation of volatile odour compounds that can negatively impact sensory perception. Three commercial dairy powders, fat-filled whole milk powder (FFWMP), skim milk powder (SMP), and infant milk formula (IMF), stored under different conditions (21 °C, 37 °C, or 25 °C with 50% humidity), were evaluated by consumer acceptance studies, ranked descriptive sensory analysis, and LO volatile profiling using headspace solid phase microextraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-SPME GCMS) over 16 weeks. Significant (p = 0.001) differences in the concentration of LO compounds and sensory perception were evident between sample types in the different storage conditions. The sensory acceptance scores for FFWMP and SMP remained stable throughout storage in all conditions, despite the increased perception of some LO products. The IMF sample was perceived negatively in each storage condition and at each time point. Overall increases in hexanal, heptanal, and pentanal correlated with “painty”, “oxidised”, “cooked”, and “caramelised” attributes in all samples. The concentration of some LO volatiles in the IMF was far in excess of those in FFWMP and SMP. High levels of LO volatiles in IMF were presumably due to the addition of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the formulation.
    • Dietary Compounds Influencing the Sensorial, Volatile and Phytochemical Properties of Bovine Milk

      Clarke, Holly J.; Griffin, Carol; Rai, Dilip K.; O’Callaghan, Tom F.; O’Sullivan, Maurice G.; Kerry, Joseph P.; Kilcawley, Kieran N.; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme; 2016071 (MDPI AG, 2019-12-19)
      The main aim of this study was to evaluate the volatile profile, sensory perception, and phytochemical content of bovine milk produced from cows fed on three distinct feeding systems, namely grass (GRS), grass/clover (CLV), and total mixed ration (TMR). Previous studies have identified that feed type can influence the sensory perception of milk directly via the transfer of volatile aromatic compounds, or indirectly by the transfer of non-volatile substrates that act as precursors for volatile compounds. In the present study, significant differences were observed in the phytochemical profile of the different feed and milk samples. The isoflavone formonoetin was significantly higher in CLV feed samples, but higher in raw GRS milk, while other smaller isoflavones, such as daidzein, genistein, and apigenin were highly correlated to raw CLV milk. This suggests that changes in isoflavone content and concentration in milk relate to diet, but also to metabolism in the rumen. This study also found unique potential volatile biomarkers in milk (dimethyl sulfone) related to feeding systems, or significant differences in the concentration of others (toluene, p-cresol, ethyl and methyl esters) based on feeding systems. TMR milk scored significantly higher for hay-like flavor and white color, while GRS and CLV milk scored significantly higher for a creamy color. Milk samples were easily distinguishable by their volatile profile based on feeding system, storage time, and pasteurization.