• Fate of beta-glucan, polyphenols and lipophilic compounds in baked crackers fortified with different barley-milled fractions

      Gangopadhyay, Nirupama; O'Shea, Norah; Brunton, Nigel P.; Gallagher, Eimear; Harrison, Sabine M.; Rai, Dilip K.; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; FIRM 11/SF/317 (Elsevier BV, 2019-07-18)
      Four types of crackers were prepared, whereby wheat flour was substituted with different percentages of barley flour and bran. These formulations were compared to a 100% wheat flour (control) cracker with respect to β-glucan, polyphenols and lipophilic bioactives. Incorporation of barley fractions enriched the β-glucan, and phenolic content, as well as in vitro antioxidant capacities of the crackers. However, some polyphenols including procyanidin C and ferulic acid could not be detected in the crackers owing to the probable degradation of these compounds during baking. The β-glucan, flavanols (catechin and procyanidin B), as well as fatty acids and sterols were least affected; while the α-tocotrienols showed degradation following the baking process. Overall, barley fractions can serve as valued ingredients for enhancing the health-salutary components of fortified crackers or the products thereof.