• A Cross-Cultural Evaluation of Liking and Perception of Salted Butter Produced from Different Feed Systems

      C. Garvey, Emer; Sander, Thorsten; O’Callaghan, Tom F.; Drake, MaryAnne; Fox, Shelley; G. O’Sullivan, Maurice; Kerry, Joseph P.; Kilcawley, Kieran; Department of Agriculture, Food amd the Marine; 14F 812 (MDPI, 2020-11-28)
      Perception and liking among Irish, German and USA consumers of salted butter produced from different feed systems—outdoor grass (FS-GRSS), grass/clover (FS-CLVR), and indoor concentrate (FS-TMR)—was investigated. A consumer study was conducted in all three countries. Irish and German assessors participated in ranking descriptive analysis (RDA), whereas descriptive analysis (DA) was carried out by a trained panel in the USA. Volatile analysis was conducted to identify differences in aroma compounds related to cow diet. Overall, there was no significant difference in overall liking of the butters, among USA, German and Irish consumers, although cross-cultural preferences were evident. Sensory attribute differences based on cow diet were evident across the three countries, as identified by German and Irish assessors and trained USA panelists, which are likely influenced by familiarity. The abundance of specific volatile aromatic compounds, especially some aldehydes and ketones, were significantly impacted by the feed system and may also contribute to some of the perceived sensory attribute differences in these butters.
    • Dietary Compounds Influencing the Sensorial, Volatile and Phytochemical Properties of Bovine Milk

      Clarke, Holly J.; Griffin, Carol; Rai, Dilip K.; O’Callaghan, Tom F.; O’Sullivan, Maurice G.; Kerry, Joseph P.; Kilcawley, Kieran N.; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme; 2016071 (MDPI AG, 2019-12-19)
      The main aim of this study was to evaluate the volatile profile, sensory perception, and phytochemical content of bovine milk produced from cows fed on three distinct feeding systems, namely grass (GRS), grass/clover (CLV), and total mixed ration (TMR). Previous studies have identified that feed type can influence the sensory perception of milk directly via the transfer of volatile aromatic compounds, or indirectly by the transfer of non-volatile substrates that act as precursors for volatile compounds. In the present study, significant differences were observed in the phytochemical profile of the different feed and milk samples. The isoflavone formonoetin was significantly higher in CLV feed samples, but higher in raw GRS milk, while other smaller isoflavones, such as daidzein, genistein, and apigenin were highly correlated to raw CLV milk. This suggests that changes in isoflavone content and concentration in milk relate to diet, but also to metabolism in the rumen. This study also found unique potential volatile biomarkers in milk (dimethyl sulfone) related to feeding systems, or significant differences in the concentration of others (toluene, p-cresol, ethyl and methyl esters) based on feeding systems. TMR milk scored significantly higher for hay-like flavor and white color, while GRS and CLV milk scored significantly higher for a creamy color. Milk samples were easily distinguishable by their volatile profile based on feeding system, storage time, and pasteurization.