• Effect of Cold Plasma on Meat Cholesterol and Lipid Oxidation

      Pérez-Andrés, Juan M.; Cropotova, Janna; Harrison, Sabine M.; Brunton, Nigel P.; Cullen, Patrick J.; Rustad, Turid; Tiwari, Brijesh K; European Union; Project ProHealth; Teagasc Walsh Scholarship Programme; et al. (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2020-12-01)
      Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) is a novel non-thermal technology with potential applications in inactivating microorganisms in food products. However, its impact on food quality is not yet fully understood. The aim of this research is to study the impact of in-package plasma technology on the stability of cholesterol and total lipid in four different types of meat (beef, pork, lamb and chicken breast). Additionally, any changes in the primary or secondary lipid oxidation, which is undesirable from a health perspective, is investigated. CAP was not found to have any impact on the cholesterol or lipid content. However, higher peroxide and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values were found for the treated samples, indicating that plasma can induce the acceleration of primary and secondary lipid oxidation. Finally, color was not affected by the treatment supporting the suitability of the technology for meat products.
    • Effects of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) generated plasma on microbial reduction and quality parameters of fresh mackerel (Scomber scombrus) fillets

      Albertos, Irene; Martín-Diana, AnaBelen; Cullen, P.J.; Tiwari, Brijesh K; Ojha, S. K.; Bourke, Paula; Álvarez, Carlos; Rico, Daniel; National Institute for Food and Agricultural Research (Elsevier, 2017-07-04)
      The effect of atmospheric cold plasma generated by a novel in-package dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) on microbial and quality parameters of mackerel fillets was investigated. DBD voltage (70 kV and 80 kV) and treatment time (1, 3 and 5 min) were studied. Within 24 h of DBD treatment, spoilage bacteria (total aerobic psychrotrophic, Pseudomonas and lactic acid bacteria) were significantly reduced. However, significant effects on lipid oxidation parameters (PV, Dienes) were observed for the treated samples. Both studied treatment factors, treatment voltage and time, significantly affected anti-microbial efficacy and lipid oxidation. Nevertheless, no changes in pH or colour (except for L*) were observed. These results suggest atmospheric cold plasma generated by DBD could be implemented as technology for fish processing, retaining product quality over its shelf life. However, further investigations are needed in order to implement this technology and to control and mitigate its limitations, mainly associated to increased oxidation.
    • Future Protein Supply and Demand: Strategies and Factors Influencing a Sustainable Equilibrium

      Henchion, Maeve; Hayes, Maria; Mullen, Anne Maria; Fenelon, Mark; Tiwari, Brijesh K; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, Ireland; 11/F/043 (MDPI, 20/07/2017)
      A growing global population, combined with factors such as changing socio-demographics, will place increased pressure on the world’s resources to provide not only more but also different types of food. Increased demand for animal-based protein in particular is expected to have a negative environmental impact, generating greenhouse gas emissions, requiring more water and more land. Addressing this “perfect storm” will necessitate more sustainable production of existing sources of protein as well as alternative sources for direct human consumption. This paper outlines some potential demand scenarios and provides an overview of selected existing and novel protein sources in terms of their potential to sustainably deliver protein for the future, considering drivers and challenges relating to nutritional, environmental, and technological and market/consumer domains. It concludes that different factors influence the potential of existing and novel sources. Existing protein sources are primarily hindered by their negative environmental impacts with some concerns around health. However, they offer social and economic benefits, and have a high level of consumer acceptance. Furthermore, recent research emphasizes the role of livestock as part of the solution to greenhouse gas emissions, and indicates that animal-based protein has an important role as part of a sustainable diet and as a contributor to food security. Novel proteins require the development of new value chains, and attention to issues such as production costs, food safety, scalability and consumer acceptance. Furthermore, positive environmental impacts cannot be assumed with novel protein sources and care must be taken to ensure that comparisons between novel and existing protein sources are valid. Greater alignment of political forces, and the involvement of wider stakeholders in a governance role, as well as development/commercialization role, is required to address both sources of protein and ensure food security.
    • Future Protein Supply and Demand: Strategies and Factors Influencing a Sustainable Equilibrium

      Henchion, Maeve; Hayes, Maria; Mullen, Anne Maria; Fenelon, Mark; Tiwari, Brijesh K; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; 11/F/043 (MDPI, 2017-07-20)
      A growing global population, combined with factors such as changing socio-demographics, will place increased pressure on the world’s resources to provide not only more but also different types of food. Increased demand for animal-based protein in particular is expected to have a negative environmental impact, generating greenhouse gas emissions, requiring more water and more land. Addressing this “perfect storm” will necessitate more sustainable production of existing sources of protein as well as alternative sources for direct human consumption. This paper outlines some potential demand scenarios and provides an overview of selected existing and novel protein sources in terms of their potential to sustainably deliver protein for the future, considering drivers and challenges relating to nutritional, environmental, and technological and market/consumer domains. It concludes that different factors influence the potential of existing and novel sources. Existing protein sources are primarily hindered by their negative environmental impacts with some concerns around health. However, they offer social and economic benefits, and have a high level of consumer acceptance. Furthermore, recent research emphasizes the role of livestock as part of the solution to greenhouse gas emissions, and indicates that animal-based protein has an important role as part of a sustainable diet and as a contributor to food security. Novel proteins require the development of new value chains, and attention to issues such as production costs, food safety, scalability and consumer acceptance. Furthermore, positive environmental impacts cannot be assumed with novel protein sources and care must be taken to ensure that comparisons between novel and existing protein sources are valid. Greater alignment of political forces, and the involvement of wider stakeholders in a governance role, as well as development/commercialization role, is required to address both sources of protein and ensure food security.
    • Future Protein Supply and Demand: Strategies and Factors Influencing a Sustainable Equilibrium

      Henchion, Maeve; Hayes, Maria; Mullen, Anne Maria; Fenelon, Mark; Tiwari, Brijesh K; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, Ireland (MDPI, 20/07/2017)
      A growing global population, combined with factors such as changing socio-demographics, will place increased pressure on the world’s resources to provide not only more but also different types of food. Increased demand for animal-based protein in particular is expected to have a negative environmental impact, generating greenhouse gas emissions, requiring more water and more land. Addressing this “perfect storm” will necessitate more sustainable production of existing sources of protein as well as alternative sources for direct human consumption. This paper outlines some potential demand scenarios and provides an overview of selected existing and novel protein sources in terms of their potential to sustainably deliver protein for the future, considering drivers and challenges relating to nutritional, environmental, and technological and market/consumer domains. It concludes that different factors influence the potential of existing and novel sources. Existing protein sources are primarily hindered by their negative environmental impacts with some concerns around health. However, they offer social and economic benefits, and have a high level of consumer acceptance. Furthermore, recent research emphasizes the role of livestock as part of the solution to greenhouse gas emissions, and indicates that animal-based protein has an important role as part of a sustainable diet and as a contributor to food security. Novel proteins require the development of new value chains, and attention to issues such as production costs, food safety, scalability and consumer acceptance. Furthermore, positive environmental impacts cannot be assumed with novel protein sources and care must be taken to ensure that comparisons between novel and existing protein sources are valid. Greater alignment of political forces, and the involvement of wider stakeholders in a governance role, as well as development/commercialization role, is required to address both sources of protein and ensure food security
    • Influence of high-pressure processing on quality attributes of haddock and mackerel minces during frozen storage, and fishcakes prepared thereof

      Cropotova, Janna; Mozuraityte, Revilija; Standal, Inger Beate; Ojha, Shikha; Rustad, Turid; Tiwari, Brijesh K; European Union; RCN 259582/E50 (Elsevier BV, 2020-01)
      The study focused on assessing quality parameters of haddock and mackerel minces subjected to a high-pressure treatment (HP) at 200 and 300 MPa and frozen storage at −40 °C. Dry matter, water-holding capacity, protein solubility and oxidation, lipid oxidation, microbiological parameters, low molecular weight metabolites (LMW) and color parameters, were analyzed. The texture of fishcakes prepared on the basis of these fish minces was also studied, showing a decrease in firmness along with an increase in pressure. A marked inhibition of microbial growth was observed in fish minces when increasing the pressure level of HP-treatment. However, no significant effect (p < 0.05) on the content of primary and secondary lipid oxidation products was observed between untreated and 300 MPa-pressurized fish samples. The results suggested that HP-treatment could be successfully applied to both lean and fatty fish samples for reduction of microbial growth with minor changes in product quality. Industrial relevance. The application of high pressure (HP) treatment of 200 and 300 MPa could be successfully applied to both lean and fatty fish species before freezing for reduction of microbial growth. The degree of lipid oxidation is decreasing with an increase in pressure as a result of inactivation of prooxidative endogenous enzymes. Fish minces become slightly lighter and softer after HP-treatment conducted at 200 MPa due to denaturation of proteins, thus enhancing sensory properties of fishcakes prepared thereof.
    • Optimised protein recovery from mackerel whole fish by using sequential acid/alkaline isoelectric solubilization precipitation (ISP) extraction assisted by ultrasound

      Álvarez García, Carlos; Lélu, Pauline; Lynch, Sarah A.; Tiwari, Brijesh K; National Development Plan 2007–2013; MFFRI/07/01 (Elsevier, 2017-10-04)
      The growing fishery industry needs to find new green-processes in order to provide a solution to the huge amount of wastes and by-products that such industrial activity produces. Currently, around a 40% of the total weight of the mackerel is considered a by-product, because just the fillets are used in the food market. ISP method has been revealed as a useful tool for protein recovering, however the yield of this process is traditionally lower than enzymatic methods. In present work, the use of sequential acid/alkaline extraction and alkaline extraction assisted by ultrasound, have been implemented in order to increase the yield of the process. It has been demonstrated that (i) sequential extraction is able to recover practically 100% of total protein, and (ii) applying ultrasound to alkaline extraction is possible to recover more than 95% of total protein from mackerel by-products. Extracted proteins were characterized according to their size, and the amino acid profile of final product was determined.
    • Systematic review of novel processing technologies and ingredients for the reduction of phosphate additives in processed meat.

      Thangavelu, K. P.; Kerry, Joseph P.; Tiwari, Brijesh K; McDonnell, Ciara K; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme (Elsevier, 2019-10-11)
      Background: Phosphate additives are used in many processed foods as stabilisers and emulsifiers. They are present in up to 65% of processed meat products. However, consumer preferences for more natural and less processed foods has resulted in the growth of clean label trends, meaning shorter ingredient declarations using fewer ingredients that are unfamiliar to the consumer. Due to the unique characteristics of phosphates, their removal, while maintaining product quality, is challenging. Scope and Approach: In this review, phosphate additive-types are discussed, with particular emphasis on their application in processed meat products. Through homeostasis, excess phosphate is readily excreted by individuals with healthy kidney function, but it is acknowledged that there is now a desire to find more acceptable ingredient alternatives. The use of alternative, non-synthetic, ingredients in processed meats such as starch, proteins, seaweeds, hydrocolloids and fibres, as potential phosphate replacers are discussed. Such ingredients may not impart the same quality attributes in meat products as provided by phosphates when used singly, however, adopting hurdle approaches of combining alternative ingredients with novel processing technologies, such as power ultrasound and high pressure processing, may provide the meat industry with alternatives. Key findings and conclusions: The key finding of this review is that the interaction between novel technologies and ingredients has not been studied extensively, yet there is evidence for their combined potential. For future studies, non-synthetic ingredients like fibres and starches could be combined with novel processing technologies to improve the interaction between meat proteins and alternative ingredients.