• A Cross-Cultural Evaluation of Liking and Perception of Salted Butter Produced from Different Feed Systems

      C. Garvey, Emer; Sander, Thorsten; O’Callaghan, Tom F.; Drake, MaryAnne; Fox, Shelley; G. O’Sullivan, Maurice; Kerry, Joseph P.; Kilcawley, Kieran; Department of Agriculture, Food amd the Marine; 14F 812 (MDPI, 2020-11-28)
      Perception and liking among Irish, German and USA consumers of salted butter produced from different feed systems—outdoor grass (FS-GRSS), grass/clover (FS-CLVR), and indoor concentrate (FS-TMR)—was investigated. A consumer study was conducted in all three countries. Irish and German assessors participated in ranking descriptive analysis (RDA), whereas descriptive analysis (DA) was carried out by a trained panel in the USA. Volatile analysis was conducted to identify differences in aroma compounds related to cow diet. Overall, there was no significant difference in overall liking of the butters, among USA, German and Irish consumers, although cross-cultural preferences were evident. Sensory attribute differences based on cow diet were evident across the three countries, as identified by German and Irish assessors and trained USA panelists, which are likely influenced by familiarity. The abundance of specific volatile aromatic compounds, especially some aldehydes and ketones, were significantly impacted by the feed system and may also contribute to some of the perceived sensory attribute differences in these butters.