• Systematic review of novel processing technologies and ingredients for the reduction of phosphate additives in processed meat.

      Thangavelu, K. P.; Kerry, Joseph P.; Tiwari, Brijesh K; McDonnell, Ciara K; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme (Elsevier, 2019-10-11)
      Background: Phosphate additives are used in many processed foods as stabilisers and emulsifiers. They are present in up to 65% of processed meat products. However, consumer preferences for more natural and less processed foods has resulted in the growth of clean label trends, meaning shorter ingredient declarations using fewer ingredients that are unfamiliar to the consumer. Due to the unique characteristics of phosphates, their removal, while maintaining product quality, is challenging. Scope and Approach: In this review, phosphate additive-types are discussed, with particular emphasis on their application in processed meat products. Through homeostasis, excess phosphate is readily excreted by individuals with healthy kidney function, but it is acknowledged that there is now a desire to find more acceptable ingredient alternatives. The use of alternative, non-synthetic, ingredients in processed meats such as starch, proteins, seaweeds, hydrocolloids and fibres, as potential phosphate replacers are discussed. Such ingredients may not impart the same quality attributes in meat products as provided by phosphates when used singly, however, adopting hurdle approaches of combining alternative ingredients with novel processing technologies, such as power ultrasound and high pressure processing, may provide the meat industry with alternatives. Key findings and conclusions: The key finding of this review is that the interaction between novel technologies and ingredients has not been studied extensively, yet there is evidence for their combined potential. For future studies, non-synthetic ingredients like fibres and starches could be combined with novel processing technologies to improve the interaction between meat proteins and alternative ingredients.