• Health Benefits of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) Fermentates

      Mathur, Harsh; Beresford, Tom P.; Cotter, Paul D.; Food for Health Ireland; TC/2018/0025 (MDPI AG, 2020-06-04)
      Consuming fermented foods has been reported to result in improvements in a range of health parameters. These positive effects can be exerted by a combination of the live microorganisms that the fermented foods contain, as well as the bioactive components released into the foods as by-products of the fermentation process. In many instances, and particularly in dairy fermented foods, the microorganisms involved in the fermentation process belong to the lactic acid group of bacteria (LAB). An alternative approach to making some of the health benefits that have been attributed to fermented foods available is through the production of ‘fermentates’. The term ‘fermentate’ generally relates to a powdered preparation, derived from a fermented product and which can contain the fermenting microorganisms, components of these microorganisms, culture supernatants, fermented substrates, and a range of metabolites and bioactive components with potential health benefits. Here, we provide a brief overview of a selection of in vitro and in vivo studies and patents exclusively reporting the health benefits of LAB ‘fermentates’. Typically, in such studies, the potential health benefits have been attributed to the bioactive metabolites present in the crude fermentates and/or culture supernatants rather than the direct effects of the LAB strain(s) involved.
    • High pressure technology in the manufacture of minimally-processed meat products

      Troy, Declan J.; Crehan, Clodagh; Mullen, Anne Maria; Desmond, Eoin (Teagasc, 2001-07)
      High hydrostatic pressure processing was applied to raw minced meat prior to product formulation and the results indicate that with 50 MPa pressure it was possible to reduce the salt in frankfurters from 2.5% to 1.5% without compromising the safety and overall quality. Similarly the phosphate content of frankfurters could be reduced from 0.5% to 0.25% after pressure treatment. Cook loss from the treated frankfurters was significantly reduced indicating a higher yield of product due to the high pressure.
    • Image Processing of Outer-Product matrices - a new way to classify samples: Examples using visible/NIR/MIR spectral data.

      Jaillais, B.; Morrin, V.; Downey, Gerard (Elsevier, 2007)
      A chemometric analysis has been developed to emphasise the discrimination power of spectroscopic techniques such as near infrared, mid-infrared and visible spectroscopy. The combination of two spectral domains using outer product analysis (OPA) leads to the calculation of an outer product (OP) matrix. The representation of this matrix is called the "analytical fingerprint" of the samples and their classification is performed in the following steps. First, two different techniques are tested by subtracting the images one-by-one and the sum of all the elements of the resulting difference matrix gives a scalar, characteristic of the distance between the two images. Combining chemical analysis with image processing techniques provides an original approach to study butters and margarines in relation to their fat content. Best results were obtained with the OP matrix built from NIR and visible signals following the use of city block distance and average linkage. Samples were arranged in four groups: 100 %, 82-75 %, 70-59 % and 38-25 % w/w fat. The cophenetic correlation coefficient (validity of the cluster information generated by the linkage function) associated with these spectral data has a value of 0.973. Similar results were obtained using Ward's algorithm which generated four groups and a cophenetic correlation coefficient equal to 0.959.
    • The impact of sugar particle size manipulation on the physical and sensory properties

      Richardson, Aislinn M.; Tyuftin, Andrey A.; Kilcawley, Kieran; Gallagher, Eimear; O'Sullivan, Maurice G.; Kerry, Joseph P.; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; 14F 812 (Elsevier, 2018-04-16)
      The overall objective of this research was to assess the effect of sugar particle size manipulation on the physical and sensory properties of chocolate brownies. A control sugar (commercially available, 200-5181 μm) and four of its sieved sugar separates (mesh size of 710, 500, 355 and 212 μm) were determined by grinding and sieving. The particle diameter and diameter distributions of the control sugar and each sugar fraction were measured. As a result, five sugar treatments were determined for chocolate brownie formulations; Control (C200-5181 μm), Large-particle replacement (LPR924-1877 μm), Medium-particle replacement (MPR627-1214 μm), Small-particle replacement (SPR459-972 μm) and a known MIX sample. Samples were tested using sensory (hedonic & intensity), instrumental (texture and colour) and compositional analyses (moisture and fat). Brownie samples containing the smallest sugar fraction (SPR459-972 μm) were perceived as significantly sweeter than any other sample (p < 0.05). Brownies containing this fraction were also the softest and moistest samples (p < 0.05). Texture liking was significantly associated with the LPR924-1877 μm brownie (p < 0.05). Darkness of brownie samples increased (p < 0.05) as sugar particle size decreased. Therefore, sugar particle size alteration affects the physical and sensory properties of chocolate brownies and could be used as a viable approach to reduce sugar in confectionery-type products.
    • The Impact of Terroir on the Flavour of Single Malt Whisk(e)y New Make Spirit

      Kyraleou, Maria; Herb, Dustin; O’Reilly, Grace; Conway, Neil; Bryan, Tom; Kilcawley, Kieran; Enterprise Ireland; Waterford Distillery; IP2018 0733 (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2021-02-18)
      The impact of barley variety and its geographical growth location (environment) on the flavour of new make spirit was investigated to determine if “terroir” can be applied in the production of single malt whisk(e)y. New make spirits were produced at laboratory scale under controlled conditions from two different barley varieties (Olympus and Laureate) grown at two distinct environments (Athy, Co Kildare and Bunclody, Co Wexford) in Ireland over two consecutive seasons (2017 and 2018). The spirit samples were analysed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry olfactometry and descriptive sensory analysis. Forty-two volatiles were detected with eight deemed as very influential and fifteen deemed as influential to the aroma of new make spirit. Sensory attributes were influenced by barley variety, environment, and the interactions thereof over both seasons, with environment and the interaction of variety x environment having a greater impact than variety alone. Chemometric analysis of the olfactometry and sensory data found that both environment and season had a greater impact on the aromatic sensory perception of the new make spirits than variety alone. Therefore, this study clearly demonstrates a “terroir” impact on the flavour of new make spirit and highlights its potential importance especially in relation to single malt whisk(e)y.
    • Impact on the physical and sensory properties of salt-and fat-reduced traditional Irish breakfast sausages on various age cohorts acceptance

      Conroy, Paula M.; O'Sullivan, Maurice; Hamill, Ruth; Kerry, Joseph; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; 11/F/045 (Elsevier, 2018-05-02)
      The properties of varying salt and fat levels in traditional breakfast sausages were investigated. Sausages were produced with fat levels of: 30%, 20% and 15%. Fat was replaced with pea extract. Salt levels employed were: 2.5%, 1.1% and 0.0%. A reduced sodium salt which contains 45% less sodium than standard salt was used. Sensory analysis was conducted on consumers (n = 228): 18–40 yrs., 41–64 yrs. and 65–85 yrs. The 18–40 yr. olds preferred sausages containing 20% fat, 41–64 yr. olds preferred sausages with 15% fat, 65+ age group preferred sausages containing 30% fat. The 18–40 yr. olds preferred high salt samples, 41–64 yr. olds displayed no salt preference, while the 65+ age group preferred high salt sausages. Sausage formulation choice was found to be driven by texture for the younger age cohort, flavour for the middle age cohort and visual aspects from the oldest age cohort. There is a need to understand how meat products might be reformulated different age palates.
    • Impact on the physicochemical and sensory properties of salt reduced corned beef formulated with and without the use of salt replacers

      Fellendorf, Susann; Kerry, Joseph P.; Hamill, Ruth; O'Sullivan, Maurice G.; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; 11 F 026 (Elsevier, 2018-03-02)
      The aim of this study was to investigate physicochemical and microbiological properties as well as a sensory (affective and descriptive) driven sodium reduction (0.2 g/100 g - 1.0 g/100 g product) strategy for a cured meat product (corned beef). A second aim was to use the same methodology to further reduce salt, using salt replacers. Significant differences in colour, hardness and cooking loss were measured. Corned beef samples low in sodium (0.2 g/100 g, 0.4 g/100 g) showed reduced (P < 0.05) saltiness perception, but were positively correlated (P > 0.05) to liking of flavour and overall acceptability. Samples formulated with CaCl2, MgCl2 and KCl scored higher (P < 0.01) in saltiness perceptions, but correlated negatively (P > 0.05) to liking of flavour and overall acceptability. However, a sodium reduction in corned beef was determined to be achievable as assessors liked (P < 0.05) the flavour of the sodium reduced corned beef containing 0.4 g/100 g sodium and formulated with potassium lactate and glycine (KLG), even with the noticeable lower salty taste. Sodium reduction in corned beef (packaged under modified atmosphere) did not negatively impact on the microbiological shelf-life.
    • Improving the quality of gluten-free products

      Gallagher, Eimear; McCarthy, Denise; Gormley, Ronan T.; Arendt, Elke (Teagasc, 2004-03)
      The incidence of coeliac disease or other allergic reactions/intolerances to gluten is increasing, largely due to improved diagnostic procedures and changes in eating habits. The worldwide number of sufferers of coeliac disease has been predicted to increase by a factor of ten over the next number of years, resulting in a growing market for gluten-free cereal-based products. Market research has shown that many of the products currently on sale are of inferior quality. The replacement of gluten presents a major technological challenge, as it is an essential structure-building protein which is necessary for formulating high quality cereal-based goods. Therefore, the production of high quality gluten-free bread is difficult.
    • In vitro digestion of protein-enriched restructured beef steaks with pea protein isolate, rice protein and lentil flour following sous vide processing

      Baugreet, Sephora; Gomez, Carolina; Auty, Mark; Kerry, Joseph P.; Hamill, Ruth; Brodkorb, Andre; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; 11/F/045 (Elsevier, 2019-04-12)
      The effect of plant protein inclusion in cooked meat upon in vitro gastro-intestinal (GI) digestion was investigated. Pea protein isolate, rice protein and lentil flour were used to increase the protein content in a meat model system restructured using two transglutaminase enzymes [Activa®EB (TG) and Transgluseen™-M (TS)]. Restructured beef steaks were subjected to simulated GI digestion using the static INFOGEST method. Samples taken at different digestion times were analysed using SDS-PAGE, size exclusion-HPLC, free amino acid analysis and microscopy. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed significant protein hydrolysis during GI digestion. Most soluble peptides had a molecular weight smaller than 500 Da, corresponding to peptides of <5 amino acids, regardless of food treatment. The amounts of released, free amino acids isoleucine, lysine, phenylalanine and valine were higher (P < 0.05) in lentil-enriched restructured beef steaks following GI digestion. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CSLM) revealed pronounced aggregation in digested samples. In vitro digestates of protein-enriched restructured beef steaks showed lower production of small molecular weight peptides. This study demonstrated how the bioaccessibility of protein-enriched restructured beef steaks are influenced by formulation and processing.
    • Inclusion of Healthy Oils for Improving the Nutritional Characteristics of Dry-Fermented Deer Sausage

      Vargas-Ramella, Márcio; Munekata, Paulo E. S.; Gagaoua, Mohammed; Franco, Daniel; Campagnol, Paulo C. B.; Pateiro, Mirian; Barretto, Andrea Carla da Silva; Domínguez, Rubén; Lorenzo, José M.; CYTED; et al. (MDPI AG, 2020-10-18)
      The influence of partial replacement of animal fat by healthy oils on composition, physicochemical, volatile, and sensory properties of dry-fermented deer sausage was evaluated. Four different batches were manufactured: the control was formulated with animal fat (18.2%), while in the reformulated batches the 50% of animal fat was substituted by olive, canola, and soy oil emulsions immobilized in Prosella gel. The reformulation resulted in a decrease of moisture and fat contents and an increase of protein and ash amount. Moreover, reformulated sausages were harder, darker, and had higher pH values. This fact is related to the lower moisture content in these samples. As expected, the fatty acid composition was changed by the reformulation. The use of soy and canola oils increased polyunsaturated fatty acids and omega-3 content and decreased n-6/n-3 ratio and saturated fatty acids. Thus, the use of these two oils presented the best nutritional benefits. The changes observed in the fatty acids reflected the fatty acid composition of the oils employed in the emulsions. Regarding volatile compounds (VOC), the replacement of animal fat by healthy emulsion gels increased the content of both total VOC and most of individual VOC. However, the lipid-derived VOC did not show this trend. Generally speaking, the control samples presented similar or higher VOC derived from lipid oxidation processes, which could be related to the natural antioxidant compounds present in the vegetable oils. Finally, all reformulated sausages presented higher consumer acceptability than control samples. In fact, the sausage reformulated with soy oil emulsion gel was the most preferred. Thus, as a general conclusion, the reformulation of deer sausages with soy emulsion gel improves both composition and sensory quality of the final product, which could be an excellent strategy to the elaboration of healthy fermented sausages.
    • Influence of chaperone-like activity of caseinomacropeptide on the gelation behaviour of whey proteins at pH 6.4 and 7.2.

      Gaspard, Sophie J.; Sharma, Prateek; Fitzgerald, Ciarán; Tobin, John T.; O’Mahony, James A.; Kelly, Alan L.; Brodkorb, Andre; Dairy Research Ireland; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme; European Union; et al. (Elsevier, 2020-08-15)
      The effect of caseinomacropeptide (CMP) on the heat-induced denaturation and gelation of whey proteins (2.5–10%, w/v) at pH 6.4 and 7.2, at a whey protein:CMP ratio of 1:0.9 (w/w), was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), oscillatory rheology (90 °C for 20 min) and confocal microscopy. Greater frequency-dependence in the presence of CMP suggested that the repulsive interactions between CMP and the whey proteins affected the network generated by the non-heated whey protein samples. At pH 6.4 or 7.2, CMP increased the temperature of denaturation of β-lactoglobulin by up to 3 °C and increased the gelation temperature by up to 7 °C. The inclusion of CMP strongly affected the structure of the heat-induced whey protein gels, resulting in a finer stranded structure at pH 6.4 and 7.2. The presence of CMP combined with a lower heating rate (2 °C/min) prevented the formation of a solid gel of whey proteins after heating for 20 min at 90 °C and at pH 7.2. These results show the potential of CMP for control of whey protein denaturation and gelation.
    • Influence of high-pressure processing on quality attributes of haddock and mackerel minces during frozen storage, and fishcakes prepared thereof

      Cropotova, Janna; Mozuraityte, Revilija; Standal, Inger Beate; Ojha, Shikha; Rustad, Turid; Tiwari, Brijesh K; European Union; RCN 259582/E50 (Elsevier BV, 2020-01)
      The study focused on assessing quality parameters of haddock and mackerel minces subjected to a high-pressure treatment (HP) at 200 and 300 MPa and frozen storage at −40 °C. Dry matter, water-holding capacity, protein solubility and oxidation, lipid oxidation, microbiological parameters, low molecular weight metabolites (LMW) and color parameters, were analyzed. The texture of fishcakes prepared on the basis of these fish minces was also studied, showing a decrease in firmness along with an increase in pressure. A marked inhibition of microbial growth was observed in fish minces when increasing the pressure level of HP-treatment. However, no significant effect (p < 0.05) on the content of primary and secondary lipid oxidation products was observed between untreated and 300 MPa-pressurized fish samples. The results suggested that HP-treatment could be successfully applied to both lean and fatty fish samples for reduction of microbial growth with minor changes in product quality. Industrial relevance. The application of high pressure (HP) treatment of 200 and 300 MPa could be successfully applied to both lean and fatty fish species before freezing for reduction of microbial growth. The degree of lipid oxidation is decreasing with an increase in pressure as a result of inactivation of prooxidative endogenous enzymes. Fish minces become slightly lighter and softer after HP-treatment conducted at 200 MPa due to denaturation of proteins, thus enhancing sensory properties of fishcakes prepared thereof.
    • Influence of particle size on the physicochemical properties and stickiness of dairy powders

      O'Donoghue, Laura T.; Haque, Md Kamrul; Kennedy, Deirdre; Laffir, Fathima R.; Hogan, Sean A.; O'Mahony, James A.; Murphy, Eoin G.; Enterprise Ireland; TC/2014/0016 (Elsevier BV, 2019-11)
      The compositional and physicochemical properties of different whey permeate (WPP), demineralised whey (DWP) and skim milk powder (SMP) size fractions were investigated. Bulk composition of WPP and DWP was significantly (P < 0.05) influenced by powder particle size; smaller particles had higher protein and lower lactose contents. Microscopic observations showed that WPP and DWP contained both larger lactose crystals and smaller amorphous particles. Bulk composition of SMP did not vary with particle size. Surface composition of the smallest SMP fraction (<75 μm) showed significantly lower protein (−9%) and higher fat (+5%) coverage compared with non-fractionated powders. For all powders, smaller particles were more susceptible to sticking. Hygroscopicity of SMP was not affected by particle size; hygroscopicity of semi-crystalline powders was inversely related to particle size. This study provides insights into differences between size fractions of dairy powders, which can potentially impact the sticking/caking behaviour of fine particles during processing.
    • Interaction of salt content and processing conditions drives the quality response in streaky rashers

      Delgado-Pando, Gonzalo; Allen, Paul; Kerry, Joseph P.; O'Sullivan, Maurice G.; Hamill, Ruth; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; 11F 026 (Elsevier, 2018-07-26)
      Response surface methodology was utilised to explore the relationship between processing conditions, including cooking temperature and drying time, and ingredients in reduced-salt streaky rasher formulations. The goal of this project was to assess the impact of reducing salt content on physicochemical and sensory properties. Salt levels above 2.44 g/100 g did not affect cooking loss. Cooking temperature (240 °C) was negatively correlated with lightness and redness, n-3 fatty acids, and sensory acceptance, and positively correlated with hardness and monounsaturated fatty acids. Salt content was highly correlated with perceived saltiness and both were identified as negative attributes by the sensory panel. Results indicate that optimised reduced-salt streaky rashers with acceptable technological and sensory performance could be achieved under the following conditions: 2 g/100 g salt, 94 min of drying and grilling at 190 °C.
    • Investigating the use of visible and near infrared spectroscopy to predict sensory and texture attributes of beef M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum

      Cafferky, Jamie; Sweeney, Torres; Allen, Paul; Sahar, Amna; Downey, Gerard; Cromie, A. R.; Hamill, Ruth; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; 11/SF/311 (Elsevier, 2019-08-16)
      The aim of this study was to calibrate chemometric models to predict beef M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) sensory and textural values using visible-near infrared (VISNIR) spectroscopy. Spectra were collected on the cut surface of LTL steaks both on-line and off-line. Cooked LTL steaks were analysed by a trained beef sensory panel as well as undergoing WBSF analysis. The best coefficients of determination of cross validation (R2CV) in the current study were for textural traits (WBSF = 0.22; stringiness = 0.22; crumbly texture = 0.41: all 3 models calibrated using 48 h post-mortem spectra), and some sensory flavour traits (fatty mouthfeel = 0.23; fatty after-effect = 0.28: both calibrated using 49 h post-mortem spectra). The results of this experiment indicate that VISNIR spectroscopy has potential to predict a range of sensory traits (particularly textural traits) with an acceptable level of accuracy at specific post-mortem times.
    • Measuring the lean content of carcasses using TOBEC

      Allen, Paul; McGeehin, Brian (Teagasc, 2001-05)
      This project examined the potential of two objective methods of measuring the lean and fat content of meat carcasses and cuts. Total Body Electrical Conductivity (TOBEC) and Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) are both based on the different conductivity of lean and fat tissues. TOBEC measures the absorption by a carcass or cut of electrical energy from an electromagnetic field whereas BIA measures the resistance to the flow of an electrical current. TOBEC is a large and relatively expensive piece of equipment that is fully automated. BIA is small and relatively low cost but requires an operator.
    • Meat quality characteristics of high dairy genetic-merit Holstein, standard dairy genetic-merit Friesian and Charolais × Holstein-Friesian steers

      McGee, Mark; Keane, Michael G.; Neilan, R.; Caffrey, P.J.; Moloney, Aidan (Compuscript Ltd.Teagasc, 2021-03-05)
      The increased use of Holstein genetic material in the Irish dairy herd has consequences for beef production. In all, 42 spring-born steers [14 Holsteins (HO), 14 Friesian (FR) and 14 Charolais × Holstein-Friesian (CH)] were reared to slaughter at between 26 and 37 mo of age. Carcass weight was higher and the lipid concentration of m. longissimus thoracis et lumborum was lower (P < 0.05) for CH than the dairy breeds. Overall acceptability tended to be lower (P = 0.055) while tenderness, texture and chewiness were lower (P < 0.05) for CH compared with the dairy breeds. The proportion of C16:1 in the total lipid tended to be lower (P = 0.055) for CH than the dairy breeds. Replacing male offspring of traditional “Irish” Friesian bulls with offspring from a genetically superior (from a dairy perspective) strain of Holstein bull had no commercially important impact on beef nutritional or eating quality.
    • Mechanical and Biochemical Methods for Rigor Measurement: Relationship with Eating Quality

      Álvarez García, Carlos; Morán, Lara; Keenan, Derek F.; Mullen, Anne Maria; Delgado-Pando, Gonzalo; Basque Government; IT944-16 (Hindawi, 2019-06-13)
      Meat quality parameters are affected by a complex series of interacting chemical, biochemical, physical, and physiological components that determine not only the suitability for consumption and the conditions for further processing and storage but also consumer acceptability. Deep understanding and careful manipulation of these intrinsic and extrinsic factors have to be taken in account to ensure high quality of meat, with better technological properties and increased safety for consumers. Among meat quality characteristics, meat tenderness has been perceived as the most important factor governing consumer acceptability. Therefore, being able to early predict meat texture and other related parameters in order to guarantee consistent eating quality to the final consumer is one of the most sought-after goals in the meat industry. Accurate measurements of both the biochemical and mechanical characteristics that underpin muscle and its transformation into meat are key factors to an improved understanding of meat quality, but also this early-stage measurements may be useful to develop methods to predict final meat texture. It is the goal of this review to present the available research literature on the historical and contemporary analyses that could be applied in early postmortem stages (pre-rigor and rigor) to determine the biochemical and physical characteristics of the meat that can potentially impact the eating quality.
    • Mechanical Grading of beef carcasses

      Allen, Paul; Finnerty, Nicholas; European Union; European Union (Teagasc, 2001-10)
      Three beef carcass classification systems that use Video Image Analysis (VIA) technology were tested in two trials at Dawn Meats Midleton, Co. Cork. The VIA systems were BCC2, manufactured by SFK Technology, Denmark, VBS2000, manufactured by E+V, Germany, and VIAscan, manufactured by Meat and Livestock Australia. The first trial, conducted over a 6-week period in July/August 1999, calibrated the VIA systems on a large sample of carcasses and validated these calibrations on a further sample obtained at the same time. The second trial, conducted in the first two weeks of March 2000, was a further validation trial. The reference classification scores were determined by a panel of three experienced classifiers using the EUROP grid with 15 subclasses for conformation class and 15 sub-classes for fat. In the first trial the accuracy of the VIA systems at predicting saleable meat yield in steer carcasses was also assessed.
    • Meta-proteomics for the discovery of protein biomarkers of beef tenderness: An overview of integrated studies

      Picard, Brigitte; Gagaoua, Mohammed; Marie Skłodowska-Curie Grant; Enterprise Ireland; Pôle Aquitain Agro-Alimentation et Nutrition; National Institute of Agronomical Research; National Institute of Origin and Quality; FNADT Massif Central; DATAR Massif Central; ANR GenAnimal; et al. (Elsevier BV, 2020-01)
      This meta-proteomics review focused on proteins identified as candidate biomarkers of beef tenderness by comparing extreme groups of tenderness using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) associated with mass spectrometry (MS). We reviewed in this integromics study the results of 12 experiments that identified protein biomarkers from two muscles, Longissimus thoracis (LT) and Semitendinosus (ST), of different types of cattle: young bulls, steers or cows from beef breeds (Charolais, Limousin, Blond d’Aquitaine), hardy breed (Salers) or mixed breed (PDO Maine-Anjou). Comparative proteomics of groups differing in their tenderness evaluated by instrumental Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) or by sensory analysis using trained panelists, revealed 61 proteins differentially abundant (P < 0.05) between tender and tough groups. A higher number of discriminative proteins was observed for LT (50 proteins) compared to ST muscle (28 proteins). The Gene Ontology annotations showed that the proteins of structure and contraction, protection against oxidative stress and apoptosis, energy metabolism, 70 family HSPs and proteasome subunits are more involved in LT tenderness than in ST. Amongst the list of candidate biomarkers of tenderness some proteins such as HSPB1 are common between the 2 muscles whatever the evaluation method of tenderness, but some relationships with tenderness for others (MYH1, TNNT3, HSPB6) are inversed. Muscle specificities were revealed in this meta-proteomic study. For example, Parvalbumin (PVALB) appeared as a robust biomarker in ST muscle whatever the evaluation method of tenderness. HSPA1B seems to be a robust candidate for LT tenderness (with WBSF) regardless the animal type. Some gender specificities were further identified including similarities between cows and steers (MSRA and HSPA9) in contrast to bulls. The comparison of the 12 proteomic studies revealed strong dissimilarities to identify generic biomarkers of beef tenderness. This integrative analysis allowed better understanding of the biological processes involved in tenderness in two muscles and their variations according to the main factors underlying this quality. It allowed also proposing for the first time a comprehensive list of candidate biomarkers to be evaluated deeply to validate their relationships with tenderness on a large number of cattle and breeds.