• Near infra-red spectroscopy in the food industry: a tool for quality management

      Downey, Gerard (Teagasc, 1999-03)
      Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is a rapid, non-destructive analytical technique which has been used in the food and agriculture industries for almost 20 years. Ireland was one of the first countries in the world to adopt this method for national trading purposes and the grain trade has used it for off-farm and in-process analysis since 1981. However, other sectors have been slower to realise its potential and as part of a process of demonstrating the role which it may play in monitoring quality in a range of food industry applications, a programme of research and development has been on-going within Teagasc and its predecessor An Foras Talúntais.
    • Near Infrared Spectroscopy in the Food Industry: A Tool of Quality Management.

      Downey, Gerard (Teagasc, 01/03/1999)
      Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is a rapid, non-destructive analytical technique which has been used in the food and agriculture industries for almost 20 years. Ireland was one of the first countries in the world to adopt this method for national trading purposes and the grain trade has used it for off-farm and in-process analysis since 1981. However, other sectors have been slower to realise its potential and as part of a process of demonstrating the role which it may play in monitoring quality in a range of food industry applications, a programme of research and development has been on-going within Teagasc and its predecessor An Foras Talúntais. NIR spectroscopy provides the food processor with information. This information may describe how much of a given substance is present in a mixture or how the overall quality of the substance compares to a reference material e.g. a previous batch of raw material, finished goods or a competitor’s product. This report provides some examples of precompetitive R&D on representative qualitative and quantitative problems in a range of foods and food ingredients. The use of NIR spectra collected within 24 hours of slaughter to predict beef tenderness 14 days later shows considerable promise. Non-destructive monitoring of flesh composition in farmed salmon has paved the way for the efficient use of expensive feed materials while the content of each species in binary mixtures of minced beef and lamb has been accurate enough to suggest the use of NIR spectroscopy as a rapid screening tool by regulatory agencies, food processors and retailers. Classification of a range of food ingredients (including skim milk powder and flour) into one of a number of functionally-discrete categories has been successfully achieved with levels of accuracy high enough to warrant immediate industry utilisation i.e. greater than 90% for skim milk powders and 97% in the case of flour. Species confirmation in a number of raw minced meats (chicken, turkey, pork, beef and lamb) has been achieved with over 90% accuracy in feasibility studies. Calibrations transferred from one NIR instrument to another lose accuracy because of differences in instrument construction, sample presentation and other factors. A research effort has recently been applied to this problem of transferability and results are available for both scanning and fixed filter instruments. The success achieved opens the way for using NIR results obtained in different companies or countries as an uncontested basis for trade.
    • New technologies in the manufacture of low fat meat products

      Allen, Paul; Dreeling, Niamh; Desmond, Eoin; Hughes, Eimear; Mullen, Anne Maria; Troy, Declan J. (Teagasc, 1999-02)
      The objective of this project was to provide a sound scientific basis for the development of low fat meat products. The emphasis was placed on identifying the barriers to producing high quality, low fat meat products and providing a knowledge base for manufacturers to overcome these, rather than actually developing new products. Each partner had specific tasks and worked with traditional products of their country. A wide range of products was thereby studied including comminuted, emulsion, cured and dried fermented, so that the results are widely applicable.
    • New Weapons to Fight Old Enemies: Novel Strategies for the (Bio)control of Bacterial Biofilms in the Food Industry

      Coughlan, Laura M.; Cotter, Paul D.; Hill, Colin; Alvarez-Ordonez, Avelino; Science Foundation Ireland; 13/SIRG/2157 (Frontiers, 18/10/2016)
      Biofilms are microbial communities characterized by their adhesion to solid surfaces and the production of a matrix of exopolymeric substances, consisting of polysaccharides, proteins, DNA and lipids, which surround the microorganisms lending structural integrity and a unique biochemical profile to the biofilm. Biofilm formation enhances the ability of the producer/s to persist in a given environment. Pathogenic and spoilage bacterial species capable of forming biofilms are a significant problem for the healthcare and food industries, as their biofilm-forming ability protects them from common cleaning processes and allows them to remain in the environment post-sanitation. In the food industry, persistent bacteria colonize the inside of mixing tanks, vats and tubing, compromising food safety and quality. Strategies to overcome bacterial persistence through inhibition of biofilm formation or removal of mature biofilms are therefore necessary. Current biofilm control strategies employed in the food industry (cleaning and disinfection, material selection and surface preconditioning, plasma treatment, ultrasonication, etc.), although effective to a certain point, fall short of biofilm control. Efforts have been explored, mainly with a view to their application in pharmaceutical and healthcare settings, which focus on targeting molecular determinants regulating biofilm formation. Their application to the food industry would greatly aid efforts to eradicate undesirable bacteria from food processing environments and, ultimately, from food products. These approaches, in contrast to bactericidal approaches, exert less selective pressure which in turn would reduce the likelihood of resistance development. A particularly interesting strategy targets quorum sensing systems, which regulate gene expression in response to fluctuations in cell-population density governing essential cellular processes including biofilm formation. This review article discusses the problems associated with bacterial biofilms in the food industry and summarizes the recent strategies explored to inhibit biofilm formation, with special focus on those targeting quorum sensing.
    • A note on challenge trials to determine the growth of Listeria monocytogenes on mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus)

      Leong, Dara; Alvarez-Ordonez, Avelino; Jordan, Kieran; Safefood (Teagasc (Agriculture and Food Development Authority), Ireland, 30/12/2015)
      In the EU, food is considered safe with regard to Listeria monocytogenes if the number of micro-organisms does not exceed 100 colony forming units (cfu)/g throughout its shelf-life. Therefore, it is important to determine if a food supports growth of L. monocytogenes. Guidelines for conducting challenge tests for growth assessment of L. monocytogenes on foods were published by the European Union Reference Laboratory (EURL) in 2014. The aim of this study was to use these guidelines to determine if refrigerated, fresh, whole, closed-cap, prepackaged mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) support the growth of L. monocytogenes. Three batches of mushrooms were artificially inoculated at approximately 100 cfu/g with a three-strain mix of L. monocytogenes and incubated for 2 days at 8°C followed by 4 days at 12°C. L. monocytogenes numbers were determined (in triplicate for each batch) on days 0, 2 and 6. Water activity, pH and total bacterial counts were also determined. There was no increase in the number of L. monocytogenes above the threshold of 0.5 log cfu/g in any of the replicates. In 8 of 9 replicates, the numbers decreased indicating that A. bisporus do not support the growth of L. monocytogenes. As the EU regulations allow < 100 cfu/g if the food cannot support growth of L. monocytogenes, the significance of this study is that mushrooms with < 100 cfu/g may be within the regulations and therefore, quantitative rather than qualitative determination may be required.
    • A note on muscle composition and colour of Holstein-Friesian, Piedmontese × Holstein-Friesian and Romagnola × Holstein-Friesian steers.

      Keane, Michael G.; Allen, Paul (Teagasc, Oak Park, Carlow, Ireland, 2009)
      Holstein-Friesian (HF), Piedmontese × Holstein-Friesian (PM) and Romagnola × Holstein-Friesian (RO) steers were compared for muscle composition and colour. A total of 120 steers in a 3 breed types (HF, PM and RO) × 2 feeding levels (low and high) × 2 finishing periods (short, S and extended, E) factorial experiment were used. Three samples of m. longissimus were taken for chemical analysis, measurement of drip loss and Hunterlab colour measurements. Muscle moisture and protein concentrations were lower, and lipid concentration was higher for HF than for PM and RO, which were similar. There were no effects of feeding level on chemical composition, but after blooming all colour values except hue were lower for the higher feeding level. The E finishing period reduced moisture, protein, drip-loss, L (lightness), a (redness) and chroma values. It is concluded that PM and RO had similar muscle composition but HF had a higher lipid concentration. Feeding level had few effects on muscle composition, but extended finishing increased all measures of fatness and reduced colour values.
    • Novel “gel demineralizing” method for protein recovery from fat rendering waste stream based on its gelling properties

      Álvarez García, Carlos; Drummond, Liana; Mullen, Anne Maria (Elsevier, 2018-11)
      Fat rendering is a common process in the meat industry, whereby fatty or oily materials are melted away or cooked from the solid portion of the animal tissue. Once the fat, and more solid protein in the form of greaves, has been removed a co-product called glue water or stick water is produced which in generally considered a waste product. This study was established to investigate ways to revalorise this product and reduce the economic and environmental impact of this waste material. Proximate characterisation shows it contains 1.1–1.3% w/w of protein along with similar concentration of ashes (1.3% w/w). While low in protein this is a key pollutant if the product is disposed of, and could also represent an interesting protein source for downstream applications. In order to recover these proteins the salt has to be removed. Therefore, after the techno-functional properties of the raw material and of the recovered proteins were evaluated, especially those related to gelling formation, a new demineralizing method based on the excellent gelling properties of these proteins was developed and results compared with those obtained from three different ultrafiltration membranes (10, 3 and 1 kDa MWCO). Protein recovery was greater for the new method (79–90%) (50–77%); however, the amount of salt removed was higher when ultrafiltration was employed (90% compared to 81%).
    • Observations on the water distribution and extractable sugar content in carrot slices after pulsed electric field treatment

      Aguilo-Aguayo, Ingrid; Downey, Gerard; Keenan, Derek F.; Lyng, James G.; Brunton, Nigel; Rai, Dilip K.; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; Generalitat of Catalonia; Lifelong Learning Programme; FIRM 06/TNI/AFRC6; et al. (Elsevier, 13/06/2014)
      The impact of pulsed electric field (PEF) processing conditions on the distribution of water in carrot tissue and extractability of soluble sugars from carrot slices was studied. Time domain NMR relaxometry was used to investigate the water proton mobility in PEF-treated carrot samples. Three distinct transverse relaxation peaks were observed in untreated carrots. After PEF treatment only two slightly-overlapping peaks were found; these were attributed to water present in the cytoplasm and vacuole of carrot xylem and phloem tissues. This post-treatment observation indicated an increase in water permeability of tissues and/or a loss of integrity in the tonoplast. In general, the stronger the electric field applied, the lower the area representing transverse relaxation (T2) values irrespective of treatment duration. Moreover an increase in sucrose, β- and α-glucose and fructose concentrations of carrot slice extracts after PEF treatment suggested increases in both cell wall and vacuole permeability as a result of exposure to pulsed electric fields.
    • Opportunities and perspectives for utilisation of co-products in the meat industry

      Lynch, Sarah A.; Mullen, Anne Maria; O'Neill, Eileen; Drummond, Liana; Álvarez García, Carlos; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; 11/F/043 (Elsevier, 2018-06-19)
      Meat co-products are the non-meat components arising from meat processing/fabrication and are generated in large quantities on a daily basis. Co-products are considered as low added-value products, and in general it is difficult for industries to divert efforts into increasing their value. While many of these products can be edible those not used for human consumption or pet food is usually processed to be used as animal feed, fertilizer or fuel. However, to a large extent meat co-products are an excellent source of high nutritive value protein, minerals and vitamins and hence may be better diverted to contribute to alleviate the increasing global demand for protein. In this review the current uses, legislation and potential techniques for meat co-products processing are reviewed with the aim of showing a route to improve meat industry sustainability, profitability and better usage of available resources.
    • Optimisation of plant protein and transglutaminase content in novel beef restructured steaks for older adults by central composite design

      Baugreet, Sephora; Kerry, Joseph P.; Brodkorb, Andre; Gomez, Carolina; Auty, Mark; Allen, Paul; Hamill, Ruth; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, Ireland; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme; 11/F/045 (Elsevier, 2018-03-29)
      With the goal of optimising a protein-enriched restructured beef steak targeted at the nutritional and chemosensory requirements of older adults, technological performance of thirty formulations, containing plant-based ingredients, pea protein isolate (PPI), rice protein (RP) and lentil flour (LF) with transglutaminase (TG) to enhance binding of meat pieces, were analysed. Maximal protein content of 28% in cooked product was achieved with PPI, RP and LF. Binding strength was primarily affected by TG, while textural parameters were improved with LF inclusion. Optimal formulation (F) to obtain a protein-enriched steak with lowest hardness values was achieved with TG (2%), PPI (8%), RP (9.35%) and LF (4%). F, F1S (optimal formulation 1 with added seasoning) and control restructured products (not containing plant proteins or seasonings) were scored by 120 consumers' aged over-65 years. Controls were most preferred (P < .05), while F1S were least liked by the older consumers. Consumer testing suggests further refinement and optimisation of restructured products with plant proteins should be undertaken.
    • Optimisation of plant protein and transglutaminase content in novel beef restructured steaks for older adults by central composite design

      Baugreet, Sephora; Kerry, Joesph; Brodkorb, Andre; Gomez, Carolina; Auty, Mark; Allen, Paul; Hamill, Ruth; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; 11/F/045 (Elsevier, 2018-03-29)
      With the goal of optimising a protein-enriched restructured beef steak targeted at the nutritional and chemosensory requirements of older adults, technological performance of thirty formulations, containing plant-based ingredients, pea protein isolate (PPI), rice protein (RP) and lentil flour (LF) with transglutaminase (TG) to enhance binding of meat pieces, were analysed. Maximal protein content of 28% in cooked product was achieved with PPI, RP and LF. Binding strength was primarily affected by TG, while textural parameters were improved with LF inclusion. Optimal formulation (F) to obtain a protein-enriched steak with lowest hardness values was achieved with TG (2%), PPI (8%), RP (9.35%) and LF (4%). F, F1S (optimal formulation 1 with added seasoning) and control restructured products (not containing plant proteins or seasonings) were scored by 120 consumers' aged over-65 years. Controls were most preferred (P < .05), while F1S were least liked by the older consumers. Consumer testing suggests further refinement and optimisation of restructured products with plant proteins should be undertaken.
    • Optimised protein recovery from mackerel whole fish by using sequential acid/alkaline isoelectric solubilization precipitation (ISP) extraction assisted by ultrasound

      Álvarez García, Carlos; Lélu, Pauline; Lynch, Sarah A.; Tiwari, Brijesh K; National Development Plan 2007–2013; MFFRI/07/01 (Elsevier, 2017-10-04)
      The growing fishery industry needs to find new green-processes in order to provide a solution to the huge amount of wastes and by-products that such industrial activity produces. Currently, around a 40% of the total weight of the mackerel is considered a by-product, because just the fillets are used in the food market. ISP method has been revealed as a useful tool for protein recovering, however the yield of this process is traditionally lower than enzymatic methods. In present work, the use of sequential acid/alkaline extraction and alkaline extraction assisted by ultrasound, have been implemented in order to increase the yield of the process. It has been demonstrated that (i) sequential extraction is able to recover practically 100% of total protein, and (ii) applying ultrasound to alkaline extraction is possible to recover more than 95% of total protein from mackerel by-products. Extracted proteins were characterized according to their size, and the amino acid profile of final product was determined.
    • Optimising the acceptability of reduced-salt ham with flavourings using a mixture design

      Delgado-Pando, Gonzalo; Allen, Paul; Kerry, Joseph P.; O'Sullivan, Maurice; Hamill, Ruth; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; 11F 026 (Elsevier, 2019-05-13)
      The objective of this study was to optimise the acceptability of reduced-salt cooked ham containing a mixture of glycine and yeast extract as flavourings by using response surface methodology. Twelve different formulations were prepared with varying levels of salt and the two flavourings, according to a mixture design. The sensory properties were assessed along with the instrumental texture and colour. A multiple factor analysis showed that higher scores in tenderness, saltiness and juiciness were positively correlated, whereas instrumental hardness and chewiness were negatively correlated with acceptability. Response surface plots and optimisation software allowed the inference of two optimised formulations: HO1 with 1.3% salt and yeast extract content of 0.33%; and HO2 with 1.27% salt, 0.2% yeast extract and 0.16% glycine. A panel of 100 consumers found no significant differences in overall acceptability when both were compared to a control (1.63% salt). These results show it is possible to manufacture consumer accepted cooked ham with up to 20% salt reduction.
    • Optimization of protein recovery from bovine lung by pH shift process using response surface methodology

      Lynch, Sarah A.; Álvarez García, Carlos; O'Neill, Eileen; Keenan, Derek F.; Mullen, Anne Maria; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, Ireland; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme; 11/F/043 (Wiley, 2017-09)
      BACKGROUND Response surface methodology (RSM) was used in a sequential manner to optimize solubilization and precipitation conditions in the recovery of protein from bovine lung using pH shift. RESULTS Separate D‐optimal designs were employed for protein solubilization and precipitation. Independent variables investigated for protein solubilization were time (10–120 min), temperature (4–20 °C), pH (8.0–11.0) and solvent/sample ratio (2.5–10). Variables for protein precipitation were time (0–60 min) and pH (4.25–6.00). Soluble protein yields ranged from 323 to 649 g kg−1 and the quadratic model for protein solubilization revealed a coefficient of determination R2 of 0.9958. Optimal conditions for maximum protein solubility were extraction time 140 min, temperature 19 °C, pH 10.8 and solvent/sample ratio 13.02. Protein precipitation yields varied from 407 to 667 g kg−1, giving a coefficient of determination R2 of 0.9335. Optimal conditions for maximum protein precipitation were pH 5.03 and 60 min. Based on the RSM model, solubilization conditions were manipulated to maximize protein solubilization under reduced water and alkaline usage. These conditions were also validated. CONCLUSION Models for solubilization and precipitation using bovine and porcine lung were validated; predicted and actual yields were in good agreement, showing cross‐species applicability of the results. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
    • An Overview on Cyclic Fatty Acids as Biomarkers of Quality and Authenticity in the Meat Sector

      Lolli, Veronica; Zanardi, Emanuela; Moloney, Aidan; Caligiani, Augusta (MDPI, 2020-11-27)
      A survey was conducted to determine the content of cyclopropane fatty acids (CPFAs) and ω-cyclohexyl fatty acids (CHFAs) by using gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) techniques in various meat samples from different species, including commercial samples and complex and thermally processed products (i.e., Bolognese sauce). The CPFAs concentration (as the sum of two isomers, namely dihydrosterculic acid and lactobacillic acid) in bovine meat fat (ranging between 70 and 465 mg/kg fat) was positively related to a silage-based diet, and therefore, they are potential biomarkers for monitoring the feeding system of cattle. CHFAs, such as 11-cyclohexylundecanoic and 13-cyclohexyltridecanoic acids, were only found in lipid profiles from ruminant species, and a linear trend was observed in their content, together with iso-branched fatty acids (iso-BCFAs) deriving from ruminal fermentation, as a function of bovine meat percentage in both raw and cooked minced meat. Thus, CHFAs are potential biomarkers for the assurance of the meat species and, combined with iso-BCFAs, of the beef/pork ratio even in complex meat matrices. The proposed approaches are valuable novel tools for meat authentication, which is pivotal in the management of meat quality, safety, and traceability.
    • Partitioning of starter bacteria and added exogenous enzyme activities between curd and whey during Cheddar cheese manufacture

      Doolan, I. A.; Nongonierma, Alice B.; Kilcawley, Kieran; Wilkinson, M.G.; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, Ireland; 04/R&D/C/238 (Elsevier, 26/07/2013)
      Partitioning of starter bacteria and enzyme activities was investigated at different stages of Cheddar cheese manufacture using three exogenous commercial enzyme preparations added to milk or at salting. The enzyme preparations used were: Accelase AM317, Accelase AHC50, Accelerzyme CPG. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that AHC50 or AM317 consisted of permeabilised or dead cells and contained a range of enzyme activities. The CPG preparation contained only carboxypeptidase activity. Approximately 90% of starter bacteria cells partitioned with the curd at whey drainage. However, key enzyme activities partitioned with the bulk whey in the range of 22%–90%. An increased level of enzyme partitioning with the curd was observed for AHC50 which was added at salting, indicating that the mode of addition influenced partitioning. These findings suggest that further scope exists to optimise both bacterial and exogenous enzyme incorporation into cheese curd to accelerate ripening.
    • Performances of full cross-validation partial least squares regression models developed using Raman spectral data for the prediction of bull beef sensory attributes

      Zhao, Ming; Nian, Yingqun; Allen, Paul; Downey, Gerard; Kerry, Joseph P.; O’Donnell, Colm P.; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme (Elsevier BV, 2018-04-23)
      The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled “Application of Raman spectroscopy and chemometric techniques to assess sensory characteristics of young dairy bull beef” [1]. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) models were developed on Raman spectral data pre-treated using Savitzky Golay (S.G.) derivation (with 2nd or 5th order polynomial baseline correction) and results of sensory analysis on bull beef samples (n = 72). Models developed using selected Raman shift ranges (i.e. 250–3380 cm−1, 900–1800 cm−1 and 1300–2800 cm−1) were explored. The best model performance for each sensory attributes prediction was obtained using models developed on Raman spectral data of 1300–2800 cm−1.
    • Physical, textural and sensory characteristics of reduced sucrose cakes, incorporated with clean-label sugar-replacing alternative ingredients

      Milner, Laura; Kerry, Joseph P.; O'Sullivan, Maurice G.; Gallagher, Eimear; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine (Elsevier BV, 2020-01)
      High levels of sucrose in foods present a great risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Therefore a low sucrose intake is strongly recommended. Sweet baked products incorporate high levels of sucrose. Sucrose in the original cake formulation was reduced and replaced with apple pomace, whey permeate, oligofructose, polydextrose. An acceptable sucrose reduction of between 21 and 27% was achieved. Cakes containing apple pomace had the lowest specific volume (1.8 cm3/g) and highest crumb firmness (8.60 N) (P < .05). Apple pomace and whey permeate had a significantly decreased L* values of the crust (P < .05). Moisture content of the cake crumb was increased significantly with the addition of oligofructose, whey permeate and polydextrose. All treatments resulted in a significant increase of the water activity of the cake crumb compared to the control (P < .05). Crumb cell structure was maintained as shown by 2-D and confocal imaging. Sensory trials revealed the reformulated cakes were acceptable to panellists.
    • Physicochemical Characteristics of Protein-Enriched Restructured Beef Steaks with Phosphates, Transglutaminase, and Elasticised Package Forming

      Baugreet, Sephora; Kerry, Joseph P.; Allen, Paul; Gallagher, Eimear; Hamill, Ruth; Irish Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme; 11/F/045 (Hindawi Limited, 2018)
      Restructured beef steaks were formulated by adding protein-rich ingredients (pea protein isolate (PPI), rice protein (RP), and lentil flour (LF) (at 4 and 8%)), phosphate (0.2%), and two binding agents: 1% (TG) and 0.15% (TS). The effects of their addition on the physicochemical properties of the beef steaks were investigated. Protein content of the RP8TG sample was significantly higher than that of the control in both the raw and cooked state. Raw LF4TS exhibited greater () a values than the control; however, after the cooking process, L, a, and b values were similar for all treatments. Textural assessment showed that elevating protein level increased () hardness, chewiness, cohesiveness, and gumminess in cooked restructured steaks. LF addition reduced all textural values assessed, indicating a strong plant protein effect on texture modification. The commercial binder produced a better bind in combination with protein ingredients. This facilitated the production of uniformed restructured beef steaks from low-value beef muscles with acceptable quality parameters using a novel process technology.
    • Potential applications for virtual and augmented reality technologies in sensory science

      Crofton, Emily C.; Botinestean, Cristina; Fenelon, Mark; Gallagher, Eimear (Elsevier, 2019-06-19)
      Sensory science has advanced significantly in the past decade and is quickly evolving to become a key tool for predicting food product success in the marketplace. Increasingly, sensory data techniques are moving towards more dynamic aspects of sensory perception, taking account of the various stages of user-product interactions. Recent technological advancements in virtual reality and augmented reality have unlocked the potential for new immersive and interactive systems which could be applied as powerful tools for capturing and deciphering the complexities of human sensory perception. This paper reviews recent advancements in virtual and augmented reality technologies and identifies and explores their potential application within the field of sensory science. The paper also considers the possible benefits for the food industry as well as key challenges posed for widespread adoption. The findings indicate that these technologies have the potential to alter the research landscape in sensory science by facilitating promising innovations in five principal areas: consumption context, biometrics, food structure and texture, sensory marketing and augmenting sensory perception. Although the advent of augmented and virtual reality in sensory science offers new exciting developments, the exploitation of these technologies is in its infancy and future research will understand how they can be fully integrated with food and human responses. Industrial relevance: The need for sensory evaluation within the food industry is becoming increasingly complex as companies continuously compete for consumer product acceptance in today's highly innovative and global food environment. Recent technological developments in virtual and augmented reality offer the food industry new opportunities for generating more reliable insights into consumer sensory perceptions of food and beverages, contributing to the design and development of new products with optimised consumer benefits. These technologies also hold significant potential for improving the predictive validity of newly launched products within the marketplace.