• New technologies in the manufacture of low fat meat products

      Allen, Paul; Dreeling, Niamh; Desmond, Eoin; Hughes, Eimear; Mullen, Anne Maria; Troy, Declan J. (Teagasc, 1999-02)
      The objective of this project was to provide a sound scientific basis for the development of low fat meat products. The emphasis was placed on identifying the barriers to producing high quality, low fat meat products and providing a knowledge base for manufacturers to overcome these, rather than actually developing new products. Each partner had specific tasks and worked with traditional products of their country. A wide range of products was thereby studied including comminuted, emulsion, cured and dried fermented, so that the results are widely applicable.
    • Development of a novel bulk packaging system for retail cuts of meat

      Allen, Paul; Doherty, Alice M.; Isdell, Emer (Teagasc, 1999-03)
      Meat colour is an important criterion in the appeal of meat to consumers at the point of sale. The bright red colour of fresh beef and lamb and the pinkish colour of fresh pork are due to the oxygenation of the myoglobin pigment when the meat is exposed to air. However, exposure to air over several days causes irreversible browning and rejection of the meat by consumers. The gaseous environment in which retail cuts are stored is therefore critical to ensure a good colour over the display life. Existing packaging systems do not have a sufficiently long storage life for the additional time required for exports from Ireland to the UK or continental Europe. The objective of this project was to develop a bulk packaging system for retail cuts that would have a sufficient shelf life to be used by the Irish industry to export retail ready cuts. In conclusion, a packaging system has been developed on a laboratory scale which is capable of extending the storage life of some beef cuts, lamb loin chops and pork loin chops. The display life of these after storage is comparable to fresh cuts. In order for this system to be commercialised it would have to be shown to work on a larger scale in a production environment.
    • Near infra-red spectroscopy in the food industry: a tool for quality management

      Downey, Gerard (Teagasc, 1999-03)
      Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is a rapid, non-destructive analytical technique which has been used in the food and agriculture industries for almost 20 years. Ireland was one of the first countries in the world to adopt this method for national trading purposes and the grain trade has used it for off-farm and in-process analysis since 1981. However, other sectors have been slower to realise its potential and as part of a process of demonstrating the role which it may play in monitoring quality in a range of food industry applications, a programme of research and development has been on-going within Teagasc and its predecessor An Foras Talúntais.
    • Monitoring post mortem changes in porcine muscle through 2-D DIGE proteome analysis of Longissimus muscle exudate

      Di Luca, Alessio; Elia, Giuliano; Mullen, Anne Maria; Hamill, Ruth M; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, Ireland; 06RDNUIG470 (Biomed Central, 20/03/2013)
      Background: Meat quality is a complex trait influenced by a range of factors with post mortem biochemical processes highly influential in defining ultimate quality. High resolution two-dimensional DIfference Gel Electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) and Western blot were applied to study the influence of post mortem meat ageing on the proteome of pork muscle. Exudate collected from the muscle following centrifugation was analysed at three timepoints representing a seven day meat ageing period. Results: The intensity of 136 spots varied significantly (p < 0.05) across this post mortem period and 40 spots were identified using mass spectrometry. The main functional categories represented were metabolic proteins, stress-related proteins, transport and structural proteins. Metabolic and structural proteins were generally observed to increase in abundance post mortem and many likely represent the accumulation of the degradation products of proteolytic enzyme activity. In contrast, stress-related proteins broadly decreased in abundance across the ageing period. Stress response proteins have protective roles in maintaining cellular integrity and a decline in their abundance over time may correlate with a reduction in cellular integrity and the onset of meat ageing. Since cellular conditions alter with muscle ageing, changes in solubility may also contribute to observed abundance profiles. Conclusions: Muscle exudate provided valuable information about the pathways and processes underlying the post mortem ageing period, highlighting the importance of post mortem modification of proteins and their interaction for the development of meat quality traits.
    • Genome Sequence of Staphylococcus saprophyticus DPC5671, a Strain Isolated from Cheddar Cheese

      Bertuzzi, Andrea; Guinane, Caitriona M.; Crispie, Fiona; Kilcawley, Kieran; McSweeney, Paul L. H.; Rea, Mary; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme (American Society for Microbiology, 20/04/2017)
      The draft genome sequence of Staphylococcus saprophyticus DPC5671, isolated from cheddar cheese, was determined. S. saprophyticus is a common Gram-positive bacterium detected on the surface of smear-ripened cheese and other fermented foods.
    • Future Protein Supply and Demand: Strategies and Factors Influencing a Sustainable Equilibrium

      Henchion, Maeve; Hayes, Maria; Mullen, Anne Maria; Fenelon, Mark; Tiwari, Brijesh K; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, Ireland; 11/F/043 (MDPI, 20/07/2017)
      A growing global population, combined with factors such as changing socio-demographics, will place increased pressure on the world’s resources to provide not only more but also different types of food. Increased demand for animal-based protein in particular is expected to have a negative environmental impact, generating greenhouse gas emissions, requiring more water and more land. Addressing this “perfect storm” will necessitate more sustainable production of existing sources of protein as well as alternative sources for direct human consumption. This paper outlines some potential demand scenarios and provides an overview of selected existing and novel protein sources in terms of their potential to sustainably deliver protein for the future, considering drivers and challenges relating to nutritional, environmental, and technological and market/consumer domains. It concludes that different factors influence the potential of existing and novel sources. Existing protein sources are primarily hindered by their negative environmental impacts with some concerns around health. However, they offer social and economic benefits, and have a high level of consumer acceptance. Furthermore, recent research emphasizes the role of livestock as part of the solution to greenhouse gas emissions, and indicates that animal-based protein has an important role as part of a sustainable diet and as a contributor to food security. Novel proteins require the development of new value chains, and attention to issues such as production costs, food safety, scalability and consumer acceptance. Furthermore, positive environmental impacts cannot be assumed with novel protein sources and care must be taken to ensure that comparisons between novel and existing protein sources are valid. Greater alignment of political forces, and the involvement of wider stakeholders in a governance role, as well as development/commercialization role, is required to address both sources of protein and ensure food security.
    • Future Protein Supply and Demand: Strategies and Factors Influencing a Sustainable Equilibrium

      Henchion, Maeve; Hayes, Maria; Mullen, Anne Maria; Fenelon, Mark; Tiwari, Brijesh K; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, Ireland (MDPI, 20/07/2017)
      A growing global population, combined with factors such as changing socio-demographics, will place increased pressure on the world’s resources to provide not only more but also different types of food. Increased demand for animal-based protein in particular is expected to have a negative environmental impact, generating greenhouse gas emissions, requiring more water and more land. Addressing this “perfect storm” will necessitate more sustainable production of existing sources of protein as well as alternative sources for direct human consumption. This paper outlines some potential demand scenarios and provides an overview of selected existing and novel protein sources in terms of their potential to sustainably deliver protein for the future, considering drivers and challenges relating to nutritional, environmental, and technological and market/consumer domains. It concludes that different factors influence the potential of existing and novel sources. Existing protein sources are primarily hindered by their negative environmental impacts with some concerns around health. However, they offer social and economic benefits, and have a high level of consumer acceptance. Furthermore, recent research emphasizes the role of livestock as part of the solution to greenhouse gas emissions, and indicates that animal-based protein has an important role as part of a sustainable diet and as a contributor to food security. Novel proteins require the development of new value chains, and attention to issues such as production costs, food safety, scalability and consumer acceptance. Furthermore, positive environmental impacts cannot be assumed with novel protein sources and care must be taken to ensure that comparisons between novel and existing protein sources are valid. Greater alignment of political forces, and the involvement of wider stakeholders in a governance role, as well as development/commercialization role, is required to address both sources of protein and ensure food security
    • Predicting the eating quality of meat

      Mullen, Anne Maria; Murray, Brendan; Troy, Declan J.; European Union (Teagasc, 2000-12)
      A novel, water soluble protein fragment [1735Da] was isolated from beef striploin and characterised. As soluble components of the proteolytic system are easily extracted from muscle they may be suitable for routine factory analysis. This fragment originated from the important myofibrillar protein, troponin T and may serve as a tenderness indicator.
    • Texture of fruit and vegetable components of ready meals

      Downey, Gerard (Teagasc, 2000-12)
      Vegetable and fruit purées are important parts of prepared ready-meals. Further expansion of this food sector will depend among other things on improved and consistent product quality. Innovative organoleptic properties in ready-meal components will assist in product diversification and the growth of market share.
    • Using ultrasound to measure beef tenderness and fat content

      Allen, Paul; Dwyer, Catherine; Mullen, Anne Maria; Buckin, Vitaly; Smyth, Cormac; Morrissey, Siobhan (Teagasc, 2001-04)
      A new acoustical technique was developed for the quantitative analysis of the texture and composition of meat and meat products. This new approach exploits the fact that the acoustical velocity and attenuation of waves propagated through meat are affected by its mechanical properties, thus allowing characterisation in terms of its composition and eating quality. The method is based on a new high-resolution ultrasonic resonator. This technique is rapid and uses small samples. Procedures for the acoustical analysis of meat were developed and the results were correlated with taste panel and shear force measurements of meat tenderness.
    • Reducing the incidence of boar taint in Irish pigs

      Allen, Paul; Joseph, Robin; Lynch, Brendan (Teagasc, 2001-04)
      Boar taint is an unpleasant odour that is released during cooking from some pork and products made from the meat and fat of non-castrated male pigs. Only a proportion of boars produce this odour and not all consumers are sensitive to it. Nevertheless it is a potential problem for the industry since an unpleasant experience can mean that a sensitive consumer may not purchase pork or pork products again. Some European countries are very concerned about this problem and most castrate all the male pigs not required for breeding. Irish pig producers ceased castration more than 20 years ago because boars are more efficient converters of feed into lean meat and a research study had shown that boar taint was not a problem at the carcass weights used in this country at that time.
    • Functional ingredients as fat replacers in cakes and pastries

      Dwyer, Elizabeth; Gallagher, Eimear (Teagasc, 2001-05)
      For specific health concerns, consumers want fat taken out of food without the flavour and texture being adversely affected. Novel ingredients were investigated for use in the formulation of reduced fat bakery products. Formulations were developed for reduced fat muffins, madeira cake and shortcrust pastry by replacing some of the fat in the recipes with combinations of novel ingredients. The aim was to achieve at least a 25% fat reduction in the products while maintaining quality, texture, taste and consumer acceptability. Focus groups were used to ascertain consumers’ preferences for the reduced fat bakery products to determine which, if any, recipes had greatest potential for further development.
    • Measuring the lean content of carcasses using TOBEC

      Allen, Paul; McGeehin, Brian (Teagasc, 2001-05)
      This project examined the potential of two objective methods of measuring the lean and fat content of meat carcasses and cuts. Total Body Electrical Conductivity (TOBEC) and Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) are both based on the different conductivity of lean and fat tissues. TOBEC measures the absorption by a carcass or cut of electrical energy from an electromagnetic field whereas BIA measures the resistance to the flow of an electrical current. TOBEC is a large and relatively expensive piece of equipment that is fully automated. BIA is small and relatively low cost but requires an operator.
    • High pressure technology in the manufacture of minimally-processed meat products

      Troy, Declan J.; Crehan, Clodagh; Mullen, Anne Maria; Desmond, Eoin (Teagasc, 2001-07)
      High hydrostatic pressure processing was applied to raw minced meat prior to product formulation and the results indicate that with 50 MPa pressure it was possible to reduce the salt in frankfurters from 2.5% to 1.5% without compromising the safety and overall quality. Similarly the phosphate content of frankfurters could be reduced from 0.5% to 0.25% after pressure treatment. Cook loss from the treated frankfurters was significantly reduced indicating a higher yield of product due to the high pressure.
    • Mechanical Grading of beef carcasses

      Allen, Paul; Finnerty, Nicholas; European Union; European Union (Teagasc, 2001-10)
      Three beef carcass classification systems that use Video Image Analysis (VIA) technology were tested in two trials at Dawn Meats Midleton, Co. Cork. The VIA systems were BCC2, manufactured by SFK Technology, Denmark, VBS2000, manufactured by E+V, Germany, and VIAscan, manufactured by Meat and Livestock Australia. The first trial, conducted over a 6-week period in July/August 1999, calibrated the VIA systems on a large sample of carcasses and validated these calibrations on a further sample obtained at the same time. The second trial, conducted in the first two weeks of March 2000, was a further validation trial. The reference classification scores were determined by a panel of three experienced classifiers using the EUROP grid with 15 subclasses for conformation class and 15 sub-classes for fat. In the first trial the accuracy of the VIA systems at predicting saleable meat yield in steer carcasses was also assessed.
    • Detection and quantification of apple adulteration in diluted and sulphited strawberry and raspberry purées using visible and near infrared spectroscopy

      Downey, Gerard; Kelly, J. Daniel; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine (American Chemical Society, 2003)
      Adulteration of sulphited strawberry and raspberry purées by apple is a commercial problem. Strawberry (n=31) and raspberry (n=30) purées were prepared from Irish-grown fruit and adulterated at levels of 10-75% w/w using cooking apples. Visible and near infrared transflectance spectra were recorded using a 0.1 mm sample thickness. Classification and quantification models were developed using raw and scatter-corrected and/or derivatised spectral data. Classification as pure strawberry or raspberry was attempted using soft independent modelling of class analogy (SIMCA). The best models used spectral data in the wavelength ranges 400-1098 nm (strawberry) and 750-1098 nm (raspberry) and produced total correct classification rates of 75% (strawberry) and 95% (raspberry). Quantification of apple content was performed using partial least squares (PLS) regression. Lowest predictive errors obtained were 11.3% (raspberry) and 9.0% (strawberry). These results were obtained using spectral data in the wavelength ranges 400-1880 and 1100-1880 nm respectively. These results suggest minimum detection levels of apple in soft fruit purées of approximately 25% and 20% w/w for raspberry and strawberry respectively.
    • Technologies for detecting PSE in pork

      Mullen, Anne Maria; McDonagh, Ciara; Troy, Declan J. (Teagasc, 2003-02)
      The ability of a single, on-line measurement to predict the quality status of an entire muscle or even of a whole carcass was investigated. Variation between pork muscles for on-line measurements of pH, conductivity and colour was evaluated. Intermuscular variation was detected at 24h p ostmortem with higher pH and conductivity values in the topside (M. s emimembranosus) than the striploin (M . longissimus thoracis et lumborum). Correlations showed that a relationship exists between the muscles (r = 0.46-0.88, p<0.05) at 45min and 3h p ostmortem. The location within the topside or the striploin at which the measurements were taken did not influence the result. Shackling did not introduce a significant variation between sides for pH, conductivity and colour values up to 24h p ostmortem, showing measurements could be taken on either side of the carcass.
    • Improving the quality of gluten-free products

      Gallagher, Eimear; McCarthy, Denise; Gormley, Ronan T.; Arendt, Elke (Teagasc, 2004-03)
      The incidence of coeliac disease or other allergic reactions/intolerances to gluten is increasing, largely due to improved diagnostic procedures and changes in eating habits. The worldwide number of sufferers of coeliac disease has been predicted to increase by a factor of ten over the next number of years, resulting in a growing market for gluten-free cereal-based products. Market research has shown that many of the products currently on sale are of inferior quality. The replacement of gluten presents a major technological challenge, as it is an essential structure-building protein which is necessary for formulating high quality cereal-based goods. Therefore, the production of high quality gluten-free bread is difficult.
    • Development of organic breads and confectionery

      Gallagher, Eimear; Keehan, Denise; Butler, Francis (Teagasc, 2005-07)
      Recently, there has been a significant increase in the number of launches of organic bakery products in Ireland. As a result, there is an increased need to identify suitable organic bakery ingredients for use in bread and confectionery formulations. However, only a limited number of scientific studies on the physical, chemical and functional properties of organic flours and ingredients exist. The effects of commonly-used ingredients in baking, i.e. organic improvers and fats, on the baking characteristics of organic products have not yet been reported and little is known about the influence of approved additives that may be beneficial to organic baking. Arising from these gaps in the knowledge base on the use of organic flours and ingredients, the objective of this study was to evaluate the chemical, rheological and baking characteristics of white, wholemeal and confectionery organic flours and to assess the baking potential of organic bakery ingredients, in particular improvers, fats and additives. Ingredients and baked goods were compared to non-organic controls.
    • Image Processing of Outer-Product matrices - a new way to classify samples: Examples using visible/NIR/MIR spectral data.

      Jaillais, B.; Morrin, V.; Downey, Gerard (Elsevier, 2007)
      A chemometric analysis has been developed to emphasise the discrimination power of spectroscopic techniques such as near infrared, mid-infrared and visible spectroscopy. The combination of two spectral domains using outer product analysis (OPA) leads to the calculation of an outer product (OP) matrix. The representation of this matrix is called the "analytical fingerprint" of the samples and their classification is performed in the following steps. First, two different techniques are tested by subtracting the images one-by-one and the sum of all the elements of the resulting difference matrix gives a scalar, characteristic of the distance between the two images. Combining chemical analysis with image processing techniques provides an original approach to study butters and margarines in relation to their fat content. Best results were obtained with the OP matrix built from NIR and visible signals following the use of city block distance and average linkage. Samples were arranged in four groups: 100 %, 82-75 %, 70-59 % and 38-25 % w/w fat. The cophenetic correlation coefficient (validity of the cluster information generated by the linkage function) associated with these spectral data has a value of 0.973. Similar results were obtained using Ward's algorithm which generated four groups and a cophenetic correlation coefficient equal to 0.959.