• Effect of pulse flours on the physiochemical characteristics and sensory acceptance of baked crackers

      Millar, Kim A.; Barry-Ryan, Catherine; Burke, Roisin; Hussey, Karen; McCarthy, Sinead N.; Gallagher, Eimear; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme (Wiley, 29/03/2017)
      Pulse flours offer nutritional alternatives to wheat flour in the production of baked snacks due to their high protein and fibre levels and low glycaemic index. In this study, broad-bean (Vicia faba), yellow-pea and green-pea (Pisum sativum) flours were each blended with wheat flour at 40% in the formulation of chemically leavened crackers. The effects of flour type and baking time on the physiochemical properties, sensory acceptability, nutritional composition and antioxidant activity of the crackers were observed in comparison with 100% wheat crackers. Broad-bean crackers had the highest protein content and antioxidant activity (13 g per 100 g DM and 38.8 mgAAE per 100 g DM, respectively). Yellow-pea crackers had the highest fibre content (12 g per 100 g DM). Physical dimensions and colour attributes were significantly affected by pulse-flour substitution. Yellow-pea and broad-bean crackers were significantly preferred by consumers compared to the control, demonstrating the potential application of these flours to improve the eating quality and nutritional profile of crackers.
    • The effect of temperature during retail display on the colour stability of CO pretreated vacuum packaged beef steaks

      Van Rooyen, Lauren Anne; Allen, Paul; Gallagher, Eimear; O'Connor, David I.; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; 11/F/060 (Elsevier, 2018-05-24)
      The effect of CO pretreatments applied to beef striploin steaks (Longissimus thoracis et lumborum, LTL) prior to vacuum packaging and display temperature on colour stability, shelf life and tenderness was determined. Steaks were exposed to 5% CO, 60% CO2 and 35% N2 for 3 (CO3), 5 (CO5) or 7 (CO7) h, followed by 28 days display at 2 °C (good industry practice) or 6 °C (mild abuse). CO5 was the optimum exposure time as it induced the desirable colour while not retaining the bright colour, irrespective of display temperature. K/S ratios confirmed that CO pretreatment did not mask spoilage and could be more sensitive than colour parameters at monitoring discoloration as colour was not retained. Exposure to CO did not have any negative effect on meat quality attributes, while mild temperature abuse (6 °C) increased purge loss and decreased pH.
    • Encapsulation of a Lactic Acid Bacteria Cell-Free Extract in Liposomes and Use in Cheddar Cheese Ripening

      Nongonierma, Alice B.; Abrlova, Magdalena; Kilcawley, Kieran; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, Ireland (MDPI AG., Basel, Switzerland, 13/03/2013)
      A concentrated form of cell free extract (CFE) derived from attenuated Lactococcus lactis supsb. lactis 303 CFE was encapsulated in liposomes prepared from two different proliposome preparations (Prolipo Duo and Prolipo S) using microfluidization. Entrapment efficiencies of 19.7 % (Prolipo S) and 14.0 % (Prolipo Duo) were achieved and the preparations mixed in the ratio 4 (Prolipo Duo):1 (Prolipo S). Cheddar cheese trials were undertaken evaluating the performance of CFE entrapped in liposomes, empty liposomes and free CFE in comparison to a control cheese without any CFE or liposomes. Identical volumes of liposome and amounts of CFE were used in triplicate trials. The inclusion of liposomes did not adversely impact on cheese composition water activity, or microbiology. Entrapment of CFE in liposomes reduced loss of CFE to the whey. No significant differences were evident in proteolysis or expressed PepX activity during ripening in comparison to the cheeses containing free CFE, empty liposomes or the control, as the liposomes did not degrade during ripening. This result highlights the potential of liposomes to minimize losses of encapsulated enzymes into the whey during cheese production but also highlights the need to optimize the hydrophobicity, zeta potential, size and composition of the liposomes to maximize their use as vectors for enzyme addition in cheese to augment ripening.
    • Enhancement of pigmeat quality by altering pre-slaughter management

      Lawlor, Peadar G; Lynch, P Brendan; Mullane, J.; Kerry, Joseph P.; Hogan, Sean; Allen, Paul (Teagasc, 25/10/2005)
      The studies presented in this report were conducted to investigate the effect of breed, slaughter weight, castration of male pigs and strategic feeding strategies on the performance of pigs to slaughter and on their carcass quality. The effect of breed, gender and feeding regimen on the performance of pigs and their carcass quality was examined in the first study (Section 3). From weaning to slaughter Landrace-sired pigs grew at a similar rate but had a better feed conversion efficiency compared with Duroc-sired pigs. Landrace-sired pigs also had a higher carcass lean and greater muscle depth than Duroc-sired pigs. Entire male pigs grew more efficiently, had lower lean content in their carcasses and had a reduced kill out yield when compared with gilts. The eye muscle depth was greater for gilts than entire males. Diluting the diet with grass-meal (GM) reduced growth rate, caused a deterioration in feed conversion efficiency, reduced back fat thickness, reduced eye muscle thickness and reduced kill out yield compared to the control feeding regimen of a cereal based diet. Compensatory growth was observed during a re-alimentation period following a period of diet dilution with grass-meal. However, where it did occur, in most cases it was only partial. Adding 5% rapeseed oil instead of lard to the finisher diet increased nitrogen utilization efficiency and phosphorous utilization efficiency. The effect of gender (boar, castrate, gilt) and slaughter weight (80 to 120kg) on pig performance, carcass quality, meat quality, and nitrogen excretion was investigated in the second study (Section 4). Boars grew faster than gilts and more efficiently than castrates or gilts. Castrates had a higher kill out yield than boars. Nitrogen excretion from castrates was similar to gilts which were both higher than that from boars. The processing value of carcasses from castrates may be higher than that of boars and gilts. In particular castrates had heavier loins and bellies than either boars or gilts. Carcasses from castrates and gilts had a higher temperature (recorded 24 hours post slaughter) than boars. However, pH24 was not affected by gender. The intramuscular fat content of the l. dorsi in castrates was higher than that of boars or gilts, however at 1.65% this was well below the level (2.0%) above which any noticeable sensory attributes might be detected. Feed intake increased with increasing slaughter weight and feed conversion efficiency deteriorated. N excretion also increased with each increment in weight. Carcass lean content increased up to 90kg live EOP 4939.doc 4 25/10/2005 weight then reached a plateau and declined after 110kg live weight. Heavier carcasses yielded more product for approximately the same slaughtering cost and the associated larger muscles could make it easier to use seam butchery techniques that result in lean, well-trimmed, attractive cuts and joints. The pH45 and pH24 were reduced with increasing slaughter weight and drip loss increased. Heavier pigs may be more prone to the development of PSE than lighter pigs as their carcass temperature remains higher for longer than that of lighter pigs.
    • Enhancement of pigmeat quality by altering pre-slaughter management.

      Lawlor, Peadar G; Lynch, P Brendan; Mullane, J.; Kerry, Joseph P.; Hogan, Sean; Allen, Paul (Teagasc, 25/10/2005)
      The studies presented in this report were conducted to investigate the effect of breed, slaughter weight, castration of male pigs and strategic feeding strategies on the performance of pigs to slaughter and on their carcass quality.
    • Enzymatic degradation of FODMAPS via application of β-fructofuranosidases and α-galactosidases- A fundamental study

      Atzler, Jonas J.; Ispiryan, Lilit; Gallagher, Eimear; Sahin, Aylin W.; Zannini, Emanuele; Arendt, Elke K.; Irish Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; 15F602 (Elsevier BV, 2020-09)
      Cereals and pulses often contribute to the intake of Fermentable Oligo-, Di-, Monosaccharides, and Polyols (FODMAPs) due to high amounts of fructans or galactooligosaccharides (GOS). FODMAPs can trigger symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) and therefore, the development of foods and beverages with a lower FODMAP-content are favourable for IBS patients. Enzyme technology is a promising tool to reduce the FODMAP-content in foods and to maintain product quality. This fundamental study investigates the efficiency of invertase, inulinase, and α-galactosidase as potential food additives to reduce the total FODMAP content of food ingredients. Extracts of high FODMAP ingredients, such as wheat and lentil, and standard solutions of various fructans and GOS were incubated with invertase, inulinase and α-galactosidase for 1 h and 2 h. Contents of oligosaccharides before and after treatment and related IBS-triggering reaction products were quantified using ion chromatography. Inulinase showed a high degradation yield (over 90% of degradation) for both GOS and fructans. For invertase only low degradation yields were measured. α-Galactosidase showed the highest efficiency in decomposing GOS (100% of degradation) and led to non-IBS triggering degradation products. This indicates a high potential for a combined inulinase/α-galactosidase treatment for products containing both fructans and GOS.
    • Enzyme Modified Cheese Flavour Ingredients

      Wilkinson, M.G.; Kilcawley, Kieran; Mulholland, E.; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, Ireland (Teagasc, 01/09/2000)
      Enzyme-modified cheeses (EMCs) are defined as concentrated cheese flavours produced enzymatically from cheeses of various ages and are principally used as an ingredient in processed foods, where they provide a cost-effective alternative to natural cheese. They can be used as the sole source of cheese flavour to intensify an existing cheese taste, or to impart a specific cheese character to a more bland product. Their main applications are in processed cheese, analogue cheese, cheese spreads, snack foods, soups, sauces, biscuits, dips and pet foods. Their main advantages over other cheese flavour ingredients are: low production costs, consistency, high flavour intensity, diverse flavour range, extended shelf- life, low storage costs and increased functionality. EMCs are generated utilising the same flavour pathways that occur in natural cheese ripening i.e. proteolysis, lipolysis and glycolysis. They are not as easy to differentiate as natural cheeses, as they are characterised by flavour and aroma alone as texture is not a factor in EMC production. The relationship of the flavour of EMCs to the flavour of the corresponding natural cheese remains unclear. This is especially true for Cheddar EMC which is commercially available in a range of Cheddar flavours . Despite the fact that a wide range of commercial EMCs are available, there is very little detailed information available regarding their properties or the specific production processes used. The main objective of this research was to build a knowledge base on EMC products and to utilise this to develop a biotechnological process for the production of improved enzyme modified cheeses for use as flavour ingredients. The strategy was to establish quantitative relationships between the compositional, proteolytic and lipolytic parameters and the sensory characteristics of EMCs. This data would then be used to develop a predictive model for flavour development in EMC production and the subsequent generation of an optimised EMC process enabling the generation of a range of cheese flavours from single or multiple substrates.
    • Evaluation of beef eating quality by Irish consumers

      McCarthy, Sinead N.; Henchion, Maeve; White, A.; Brandon, K.; Allen, Paul; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, Ireland; 04/R&D/TN/256 (Elsevier, 08/05/2017)
      A consumer's decision to purchase beef is strongly linked to its sensory properties and consistent eating quality is one of the most important attributes. Consumer taste panels were held according to the Meat Standards Australia guidelines and consumers scored beef according to its palatability attributes and completed a socio-demographic questionnaire. Consumers were able to distinguish between beef quality on a scale from unsatisfactory to premium with high accuracy. Premium cuts of beef scored significantly higher on all of the scales compared to poorer quality cuts. Men rated grilled beef higher on juiciness and flavour scales compared to women. Being the main purchaser of beef had no impact on rating scores. Overall the results show that consumers can judge eating quality with high accuracy. Further research is needed to determine how best to communicate inherent benefits that are not visible into extrinsic eating quality indicators, to provide the consumer with consistent indications of quality at the point of purchase.
    • Evaluation of the Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Porcine Liver Protein Hydrolysates Obtained Using Alcalase, Bromelain, and Papain

      Borrajo, Paula; Pateiro, Mirian; Gagaoua, Mohammed; Franco, Daniel; Zhang, Wangang; Lorenzo, José Manuel; INIA; RTA 2017-00024-CO4-04 (MDPI AG, 2020-03-27)
      In order to make the by-products generated from the porcine industry more valuable, pig livers were used in this trial to obtain protein hydrolysates. Three proteases (alcalase, bromelain, and papain) were utilized for enzymatic hydrolysis with two different durations, 4 and 8 hours. Ultrafiltration process was used for the recovery of the extracts, employing three different membrane pore sizes (30, 10, and 5 kDa). The porcine livers contained considerable amounts of protein (19.0%), considering they are almost composed of water (74.1%). The antioxidant activity of the obtained hydrolysates was investigated using four antioxidant methods (2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, 2-2′-Azino-di-[3-ethylbenzthiazoline sulfonate] (ABTS) radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP), and oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay (ORAC)). Antibacterial properties were also measured against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Results indicated that the three studied factors (type of enzyme, membrane pore size, and time) significantly affected the parameters evaluated. Hydrolysates obtained at 8 hours with alcalase had the best antioxidant properties. The 30 kDa alcalase extracts exhibited the highest DPPH (562 µg Trolox/g), FRAP (82.9 µmol Fe2+/100 g), and ORAC (53.2 mg Trolox/g) activities, while for ABTS the 10 kDa alcalase showed the higher values (1068 mg ascorbic acid/100 g). Concerning the antibacterial activity, 30 kDa hydrolysates obtained with bromelain for 4 hours exhibited the highest antimicrobial capacity, providing an inhibition of 91.7%.
    • Evolution of the bovine milk fatty acid profile – From colostrum to milk five days post parturition

      O'Callaghan, Tom; O'Donovan, Michael; Murphy, John; Sugrue, Katie; Mannion, David; McCarthy, William P.; Timlin, Mark; Kilcawley, Kieran; Hickey, Rita M.; Tobin, John T. (Elsevier BV, 2020-05)
      Milk was collected from each of 18 cows (presenting an even spread of 1st, 2nd and 3rd lactation): colostrum on the day of calving and subsequent morning milk 1–5 days post parturition. Days post parturition significantly affected the fatty acid profile of colostrum and transition milk samples. The colostrum fatty acid profile was distinctly different from that of mature milk, with significantly higher levels of polyunsaturated and saturated fatty acids. Parity of the cow had a significant effect on the fatty acid profile of colostrum and transition milk samples; conjugated linoleic acid was significantly higher in cows entering their 1st lactation than in those in their 3rd lactation, while multiparous cows produced significantly higher concentrations of C16:0. The changing composition of the fatty acid profile can be classed into three distinct phases: colostrum (D0), transition milk (D1 and D2 post parturition) and mature milk (D3–D5).
    • Fate of beta-glucan, polyphenols and lipophilic compounds in baked crackers fortified with different barley-milled fractions

      Gangopadhyay, Nirupama; O'Shea, Norah; Brunton, Nigel P.; Gallagher, Eimear; Harrison, Sabine M.; Rai, Dilip K.; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; FIRM 11/SF/317 (Elsevier BV, 2019-07-18)
      Four types of crackers were prepared, whereby wheat flour was substituted with different percentages of barley flour and bran. These formulations were compared to a 100% wheat flour (control) cracker with respect to β-glucan, polyphenols and lipophilic bioactives. Incorporation of barley fractions enriched the β-glucan, and phenolic content, as well as in vitro antioxidant capacities of the crackers. However, some polyphenols including procyanidin C and ferulic acid could not be detected in the crackers owing to the probable degradation of these compounds during baking. The β-glucan, flavanols (catechin and procyanidin B), as well as fatty acids and sterols were least affected; while the α-tocotrienols showed degradation following the baking process. Overall, barley fractions can serve as valued ingredients for enhancing the health-salutary components of fortified crackers or the products thereof.
    • Feasibility Study on the Use of Visible–Near-Infrared Spectroscopy for the Screening of Individual and Total Glucosinolate Contents in Broccoli

      Hernandez-Hierro, Jose Miguel; Valverde, Juan; Villacreces, Salvador; Reilly, Kim; Gaffney, Michael; Gonzalez-Miret, Maria Lourdes; Heredia, Francisco J.; Downey, Gerard; Spanish MICINN; Junta de Andalucia; et al. (American Chemical Society, 11/07/2012)
      The potential of visible–near-infrared spectroscopy to determine selected individual and total glucosinolates in broccoli has been evaluated. Modified partial least-squares regression was used to develop quantitative models to predict glucosinolate contents. Both the whole spectrum and different spectral regions were separately evaluated to develop the quantitative models; in all cases the best results were obtained using the near-infrared zone between 2000 and 2498 nm. These models have been externally validated for the screening of glucoraphanin, glucobrassicin, 4-methoxyglucobrassicin, neoglucobrassicin, and total glucosinolates contents. In addition, discriminant partial least-squares was used to distinguish between two possible broccoli cultivars and showed a high degree of accuracy. In the case of the qualitative analysis, best results were obtained using the whole spectrum (i.e., 400–2498 nm) with a correct classification rate of 100% in external validation being obtained.
    • From Farm to Fork: New Strategies for Quality Evaluation of Fresh Meat and Processed Meat Products

      Delgado-Pando, Gonzalo; Álvarez, Carlos; Morán, Lara (Hindawi Limited, 2019-11-14)
      Meat production has increased globally over the past decades and is expected to keep growing. At the same time, consumers have become more demanding with respect to the quality of meat and meat products. Producing high quality meat consistently is a big challenge for meat producers, processors, and retailers due to the intrinsic variability of the raw material, but it also generates the necessity to develop, improve, and upgrade the current quality analyses by faster and more reliable ones. Precisely, as results of the recent technological and biotechnological advances, a plethora of new possibilities have been opened for the meat production and processing sectors, and a vast improvement of the quality assessment and assurance throughout the whole processing could now be a reality. This special issue aims to cover the recent advances on quality assurance and assessment of fresh meat and meat products.
    • Functional ingredients as fat replacers in cakes and pastries

      Dwyer, Elizabeth; Gallagher, Eimear (Teagasc, 2001-05)
      For specific health concerns, consumers want fat taken out of food without the flavour and texture being adversely affected. Novel ingredients were investigated for use in the formulation of reduced fat bakery products. Formulations were developed for reduced fat muffins, madeira cake and shortcrust pastry by replacing some of the fat in the recipes with combinations of novel ingredients. The aim was to achieve at least a 25% fat reduction in the products while maintaining quality, texture, taste and consumer acceptability. Focus groups were used to ascertain consumers’ preferences for the reduced fat bakery products to determine which, if any, recipes had greatest potential for further development.
    • Future Protein Supply and Demand: Strategies and Factors Influencing a Sustainable Equilibrium

      Henchion, Maeve; Hayes, Maria; Mullen, Anne Maria; Fenelon, Mark; Tiwari, Brijesh K; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, Ireland; 11/F/043 (MDPI, 20/07/2017)
      A growing global population, combined with factors such as changing socio-demographics, will place increased pressure on the world’s resources to provide not only more but also different types of food. Increased demand for animal-based protein in particular is expected to have a negative environmental impact, generating greenhouse gas emissions, requiring more water and more land. Addressing this “perfect storm” will necessitate more sustainable production of existing sources of protein as well as alternative sources for direct human consumption. This paper outlines some potential demand scenarios and provides an overview of selected existing and novel protein sources in terms of their potential to sustainably deliver protein for the future, considering drivers and challenges relating to nutritional, environmental, and technological and market/consumer domains. It concludes that different factors influence the potential of existing and novel sources. Existing protein sources are primarily hindered by their negative environmental impacts with some concerns around health. However, they offer social and economic benefits, and have a high level of consumer acceptance. Furthermore, recent research emphasizes the role of livestock as part of the solution to greenhouse gas emissions, and indicates that animal-based protein has an important role as part of a sustainable diet and as a contributor to food security. Novel proteins require the development of new value chains, and attention to issues such as production costs, food safety, scalability and consumer acceptance. Furthermore, positive environmental impacts cannot be assumed with novel protein sources and care must be taken to ensure that comparisons between novel and existing protein sources are valid. Greater alignment of political forces, and the involvement of wider stakeholders in a governance role, as well as development/commercialization role, is required to address both sources of protein and ensure food security.
    • Future Protein Supply and Demand: Strategies and Factors Influencing a Sustainable Equilibrium

      Henchion, Maeve; Hayes, Maria; Mullen, Anne Maria; Fenelon, Mark; Tiwari, Brijesh K; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; 11/F/043 (MDPI, 2017-07-20)
      A growing global population, combined with factors such as changing socio-demographics, will place increased pressure on the world’s resources to provide not only more but also different types of food. Increased demand for animal-based protein in particular is expected to have a negative environmental impact, generating greenhouse gas emissions, requiring more water and more land. Addressing this “perfect storm” will necessitate more sustainable production of existing sources of protein as well as alternative sources for direct human consumption. This paper outlines some potential demand scenarios and provides an overview of selected existing and novel protein sources in terms of their potential to sustainably deliver protein for the future, considering drivers and challenges relating to nutritional, environmental, and technological and market/consumer domains. It concludes that different factors influence the potential of existing and novel sources. Existing protein sources are primarily hindered by their negative environmental impacts with some concerns around health. However, they offer social and economic benefits, and have a high level of consumer acceptance. Furthermore, recent research emphasizes the role of livestock as part of the solution to greenhouse gas emissions, and indicates that animal-based protein has an important role as part of a sustainable diet and as a contributor to food security. Novel proteins require the development of new value chains, and attention to issues such as production costs, food safety, scalability and consumer acceptance. Furthermore, positive environmental impacts cannot be assumed with novel protein sources and care must be taken to ensure that comparisons between novel and existing protein sources are valid. Greater alignment of political forces, and the involvement of wider stakeholders in a governance role, as well as development/commercialization role, is required to address both sources of protein and ensure food security.
    • Future Protein Supply and Demand: Strategies and Factors Influencing a Sustainable Equilibrium

      Henchion, Maeve; Hayes, Maria; Mullen, Anne Maria; Fenelon, Mark; Tiwari, Brijesh K; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, Ireland (MDPI, 20/07/2017)
      A growing global population, combined with factors such as changing socio-demographics, will place increased pressure on the world’s resources to provide not only more but also different types of food. Increased demand for animal-based protein in particular is expected to have a negative environmental impact, generating greenhouse gas emissions, requiring more water and more land. Addressing this “perfect storm” will necessitate more sustainable production of existing sources of protein as well as alternative sources for direct human consumption. This paper outlines some potential demand scenarios and provides an overview of selected existing and novel protein sources in terms of their potential to sustainably deliver protein for the future, considering drivers and challenges relating to nutritional, environmental, and technological and market/consumer domains. It concludes that different factors influence the potential of existing and novel sources. Existing protein sources are primarily hindered by their negative environmental impacts with some concerns around health. However, they offer social and economic benefits, and have a high level of consumer acceptance. Furthermore, recent research emphasizes the role of livestock as part of the solution to greenhouse gas emissions, and indicates that animal-based protein has an important role as part of a sustainable diet and as a contributor to food security. Novel proteins require the development of new value chains, and attention to issues such as production costs, food safety, scalability and consumer acceptance. Furthermore, positive environmental impacts cannot be assumed with novel protein sources and care must be taken to ensure that comparisons between novel and existing protein sources are valid. Greater alignment of political forces, and the involvement of wider stakeholders in a governance role, as well as development/commercialization role, is required to address both sources of protein and ensure food security
    • Genome Sequence of Staphylococcus saprophyticus DPC5671, a Strain Isolated from Cheddar Cheese

      Bertuzzi, Andrea; Guinane, Caitriona M.; Crispie, Fiona; Kilcawley, Kieran; McSweeney, Paul L. H.; Rea, Mary; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme (American Society for Microbiology, 20/04/2017)
      The draft genome sequence of Staphylococcus saprophyticus DPC5671, isolated from cheddar cheese, was determined. S. saprophyticus is a common Gram-positive bacterium detected on the surface of smear-ripened cheese and other fermented foods.
    • Genome-wide association analysis and functional annotation of positional candidate genes for feed conversion efficiency and growth rate in pigs

      Horodyska, Justyna; Hamill, Ruth; Varley, Patrick F.; Wimmers, Klaus; European Union; 311794 (PLOS, 12/06/2017)
      Feed conversion efficiency is a measure of how well an animal converts feed into live weight and it is typically expressed as feed conversion ratio (FCR). FCR and related traits like growth rate (e.g. days to 110 kg—D110) are of high interest for animal breeders, farmers and society due to implications on animal performance, feeding costs and environmental sustainability. The objective of this study was to identify genomic regions associated with FCR and D110 in pigs. A total of 952 terminal line boars, showing an individual variation in FCR, were genotyped using 60K SNP-Chips. Markers were tested for associations with estimated breeding values (EBV) for FCR and D110. For FCR, the largest number of associated SNPs was located on chromosomes 4 (30 SNPs), 1 (25 SNPs), X (15 SNPs) and 6 (12 SNPs). The most prominent genomic regions for D110 were identified on chromosomes 15 (10 SNPs), 1 and 4 (both 9 SNPs). The most significantly associated SNPs for FCR and D110 mapped 129.8 Kb from METTL11B (chromosome 4) and 32Kb from MBD5 (chromosome 15), respectively. A list of positional genes, closest to significantly associated SNPs, was used to identify enriched pathways and biological functions related to the QTL for both traits. A number of candidate genes were significantly overrepresented in pathways of immune cell trafficking, lymphoid tissue structure, organ morphology, endocrine system function, lipid metabolism, and energy production. After resequencing the coding region of selected positional and functional candidate genes, six SNPs were genotyped in a subset of boars. SNPs in PRKDC, SELL, NR2E1 and AKRIC3 showed significant associations with EBVs for FCR/D110. The study revealed a number of chromosomal regions and candidate genes affecting FCR/D110 and pointed to corresponding biological pathways related to lipid metabolism, olfactory reception, and also immunological status.
    • Goat farm variability affects milk Fourier-transform infrared spectra used for predicting coagulation properties

      Dadousis, Christos; Gotet, Claudio Cipolat; Stocco, Giorgia; FERRAGINA, ALESSANDRO; Dettori, Maria L.; Pazzola, Michele; do Nascimento Rangel, Adriano Henrique; Vacca, Giuseppe M.; University of Sassari (Elsevier, 2021-02-13)
      Driven by the large amount of goat milk destined for cheese production, and to pioneer the goat cheese industry, the objective of this study was to assess the effect of farm in predicting goat milk-coagulation and curd-firmness traits via Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Spectra from 452 Sarda goats belonging to 14 farms in central and southeast Sardinia (Italy) were collected. A Bayesian linear regression model was used, estimating all spectral wavelengths' effects simultaneously. Three traditional milk-coagulation properties [rennet coagulation time (min), time to curd firmness of 20 mm (min), and curd firmness 30 min after rennet addition (mm)] and 3 curd-firmness measures modeled over time [rennet coagulation time estimated according to curd firmness change over time (RCTeq), instant curd-firming rate constant, and asymptotical curd firmness] were considered. A stratified cross validation (SCV) was assigned, evaluating each farm separately (validation set; VAL) and keeping the remaining farms to train (calibration set) the statistical model. Moreover, a SCV, where 20% of the goats randomly taken (10 replicates per farm) from the VAL farm entered the calibration set, was also considered (SCV80). To assess model performance, coefficient of determination (R2VAL) and the root mean squared error of validation were recorded. The R2VAL varied between 0.14 and 0.45 (instant curd-firming rate constant and RCTeq, respectively), albeit the standard deviation was approximating half of the mean for all the traits. Although average results of the 2 SCV procedures were similar, in SCV80, the maximum R2VAL increased at about 15% across traits, with the highest observed for time to curd firmness of 20 mm (20%) and the lowest for RCTeq (6%). Further investigation evidenced important variability among farms, with R2VAL for some of them being close to 0. Our work outlined the importance of considering the effect of farm when developing Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy prediction equations for coagulation and curd-firmness traits in goats.