Isolation and characterisation of κ-casein/whey protein particles from heated milk protein concentrate and role of κ-casein in whey protein aggregation
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CitationSophie J. Gaspard, Mark A.E. Auty, Alan L. Kelly, James A. O'Mahony, André Brodkorb, Isolation and characterisation of κ-casein/whey protein particles from heated milk protein concentrate and role of κ-casein in whey protein aggregation, International Dairy Journal, 2017, 73, 98-108, doi 10.1016/j.idairyj.2017.05.012
AbstractMilk protein concentrate (79% protein) reconstituted at 13.5% (w/v) protein was heated (90 °C, 25 min, pH 7.2) with or without added calcium chloride. After fractionation of the casein and whey protein aggregates by fast protein liquid chromatography, the heat stability (90 °C, up to 1 h) of the fractions (0.25%, w/v, protein) was assessed. The heat-induced aggregates were composed of whey protein and casein, in whey protein:casein ratios ranging from 1:0.5 to 1:9. The heat stability was positively correlated with the casein concentration in the samples. The samples containing the highest proportion of caseins were the most heat-stable, and close to 100% (w/w) of the aggregates were recovered post-heat treatment in the supernatant of such samples (centrifugation for 30 min at 10,000 × g). κ-Casein appeared to act as a chaperone controlling the aggregation of whey proteins, and this effect was stronger in the presence of αS- and β-casein.
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Protein Quality and the Protein to Carbohydrate Ratio within a High Fat Diet Influences Energy Balance and the Gut Microbiota In C57BL/6J MiceMcAllan, Liam; Skuse, Peter; Cotter, Paul D.; O'Connor, Paula M.; Cryan, John F.; Ross, R Paul; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Roche, Helen M.; Nilaweera, Kanishka N. (PLOS, 10/02/2014)Macronutrient quality and composition are important determinants of energy balance and the gut microbiota. Here, we investigated how changes to protein quality (casein versus whey protein isolate; WPI) and the protein to carbohydrate (P/C) ratio within a high fat diet (HFD) impacts on these parameters. Mice were fed a low fat diet (10% kJ) or a high fat diet (HFD; 45% kJ) for 21 weeks with either casein (20% kJ, HFD) or WPI at 20%, 30% or 40% kJ. In comparison to casein, WPI at a similar energy content normalised energy intake, increased lean mass and caused a trend towards a reduction in fat mass (P = 0.08), but the protein challenge did not alter oxygen consumption or locomotor activity. WPI reduced HFD-induced plasma leptin and liver triacylglycerol, and partially attenuated the reduction in adipose FASN mRNA in HFD-fed mice. High throughput sequence-based analysis of faecal microbial populations revealed microbiota in the HFD-20% WPI group clustering closely with HFD controls, although WPI specifically increased Lactobacillaceae/Lactobacillus and decreased Clostridiaceae/Clostridium in HFD-fed mice. There was no effect of increasing the P/C ratio on energy intake, but the highest ratio reduced HFD-induced weight gain, fat mass and plasma triacylglycerol, non-esterified fatty acids, glucose and leptin levels, while it increased lean mass and oxygen consumption. Similar effects were observed on adipose mRNA expression, where the highest ratio reduced HFD-associated expression of UCP-2, TNFa and CD68 and increased the diet-associated expression of b3-AR, LPL, IR, IRS-1 and GLUT4. The P/C ratio also impacted on gut microbiota, with populations in the 30/ 40% WPI groups clustering together and away from the 20% WPI group. Taken together, our data show that increasing the P/C ratio has a dramatic effect on energy balance and the composition of gut microbiota, which is distinct from that caused by changes to protein quality.
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