INFOGEST static in vitro simulation of gastrointestinal food digestion
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CitationBrodkorb A, Egger L, Alminger M, Alvito P, Assunção R, Ballance S, Bohn T, Bourlieu-Lacanal C, Boutrou R, Carrière F and others. INFOGEST static in vitro simulation of gastrointestinal food digestion. Nature Protocols 2019;14(4):991-1014; doi http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41596-018-0119-1.
AbstractDeveloping a mechanistic understanding of the impact of food structure and composition on human health has increasingly involved simulating digestion in the upper gastrointestinal tract. These simulations have used a wide range of different conditions that often have very little physiological relevance, and this impedes the meaningful comparison of results. The standardized protocol presented here is based on an international consensus developed by the COST INFOGEST network. The method is designed to be used with standard laboratory equipment and requires limited experience to encourage a wide range of researchers to adopt it. It is a static digestion method that uses constant ratios of meal to digestive fluids and a constant pH for each step of digestion. This makes the method simple to use but not suitable for simulating digestion kinetics. Using this method, food samples are subjected to sequential oral, gastric and intestinal digestion while parameters such as electrolytes, enzymes, bile, dilution, pH and time of digestion are based on available physiological data. This amended and improved digestion method (INFOGEST 2.0) avoids challenges associated with the original method, such as the inclusion of the oral phase and the use of gastric lipase. The method can be used to assess the endpoints resulting from digestion of foods by analyzing the digestion products (e.g., peptides/amino acids, fatty acids, simple sugars) and evaluating the release of micronutrients from the food matrix. The whole protocol can be completed in ~7 d, including ~5 d required for the determination of enzyme activities.
FunderFrench National Institute for Agricultural Research; European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST)
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Dairy food structures influence the rates of nutrient digestion through different in vitro gastric behaviourMulet-Cabero, Ana-Isabel; Rigby, Neil M.; Brodkorb, Andre; Mackie, Alan; Irish Dairy Levy Research Trust; BBSRC UK; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme; BB/J004545/1 (Elsevier, 31/12/2016)The purpose of this study was to investigate in vitro the extent to which specific food structures alter gastric behaviour and could therefore impact on nutrient delivery and digestion in the small intestine. Results obtained from a specifically developed gastric digestion model, were compared to results from a previous human study on the same foods. The semi-dynamic model could simulate the main gastric dynamics including gradual acidification, lipolysis, proteolysis and emptying. Two dairy-based foods with the same caloric content but different structure were studied. The semi-solid meal comprised a mixture of cheese and yogurt and the liquid meal was an oil in water emulsion stabilised by milk proteins. Our findings showed similar gastric behaviour to that seen previously in vivo. Gastric behaviour was affected by the initial structure with creaming and sedimentation observed in the case of liquid and semi-solid samples, respectively. Lipid and protein digestion profiles showed clear differences in the amount of nutrients reaching the simulated small intestine and, consequently, the likely bioaccessibility after digestion. The semi-solid sample generated higher nutrient released into the small intestine at an early stage of digestion whereas nutrient accessibility from liquid sample was delayed due to the formation of a cream layer in the gastric phase. This shows the strong effect of the matrix on gastric behaviour, proteolysis and lipolysis, which explains the differences in physiological responses seen previously with these systems in terms of fullness and satiety.
Exploring the roles of and interactions among microbes in dry co-digestion of food waste and pig manure using high-throughput 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencingJiang, Yan; Dennehy, Conor; Lawlor, Peadar G; Hu, Zhenhu; McCabe, Matthew; Cormican, Paul; Zhan, Xinmin; Gardiner, Gillian E; Green Farm project; Natural Science Foundation of China; 12/IP/1519; 51728801) (Biomed Central, 2019-01-04)Background With the increasing global population and increasing demand for food, the generation of food waste and animal manure increases. Anaerobic digestion is one of the best available technologies for food waste and pig manure management by producing methane-rich biogas. Dry co-digestion of food waste and pig manure can significantly reduce the reactor volume, capital cost, heating energy consumption and the cost of digestate liquid management. It is advantageous over mono-digestion of food waste or pig manure due to the balanced carbon/nitrogen ratio, high pH buffering capacity, and provision of trace elements. However, few studies have been carried out to study the roles of and interactions among microbes in dry anaerobic co-digestion systems. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the effects of different inocula (finished digestate and anaerobic sludge taken from wastewater treatment plants) and substrate compositions (food waste to pig manure ratios of 50:50 and 75:25 in terms of volatile solids) on the microbial community structure in food waste and pig manure dry co-digestion systems, and to examine the possible roles of the previously poorly described bacteria and the interactions among dry co-digestion-associated microbes. Results The dry co-digestion experiment lasted for 120 days. The microbial profile during different anaerobic digestion stages was explored using high-throughput 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. It was found that the inoculum factor was more significant in determining the microbial community structure than the substrate composition factor. Significant correlation was observed between the relative abundance of specific microbial taxa and digesters’ physicochemical parameters. Hydrogenotrophic methanogens dominated in dry co-digestion systems. Conclusions The possible roles of specific microbial taxa were explored by correlation analysis, which were consistent with the literature. Based on this, the anaerobic digestion-associated roles of 11 bacteria, which were previously poorly understood, were estimated here for the first time. The inoculum played a more important role in determining the microbial community structure than substrate composition in dry co-digestion systems. Hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis was a significant methane production pathway in dry co-digestion systems.
Effect of phosphorus level and phytase inclusion on the performance, bone mineral concentration, apparent nutrient digestibility, and on mineral and nitrogen utilisation in finisher pigs.Varley, T.F.; Callan, J.J.; O'Doherty, J.V. (Teagasc, Oak Park, Carlow, Ireland, 2010)Two experiments were conducted to investigate the interaction between dietary P concentration and phytase (PHY) inclusion in the diet of finisher pigs. In Experiment 1, the growth performance and bone analysis experiment, pigs (6 replicate groups of 14 pigs each per treatment; initial body weight (BW) = 45.2 kg) were allocated to one of six dietary treatments (for 74 days) in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement: T1 – available P in the diet = 1.5 g/kg; T2 = T1 with 500 units of phytase (FTU)/kg; T3 – available P = 2.0 g/kg; T4 = T3 with 500 FTU/kg; T5 – available P = 2.5 g/kg; T6 = T5 with 500 FTU/kg. Experiment 2 consisted of a digestibility and a P, Ca and N balance study, and pigs (6 per treatment; initial BW = 67.3 kg) were offered identical diets to those offered in Experiment 1. There was an interaction between dietary P level and PHY inclusion for average daily gain (ADG) and carcass weight (CW; P < 0.05) in Experiment 1. Pigs offered the low P diet supplemented with PHY had a higher ADG and CW than pigs offered the non-PHY, low P diet. However, there was no effect (P > 0.05) of PHY inclusion on ADG or CW with the medium or high P diets. Higher concentrations of ash, P and Ca in bone were noted in pigs offered the medium and high P diets (P < 0.001) and PHY (P < 0.01) diets when compared to pigs offered the low P without PHY. Pigs offered diets supplemented with PHY had lower faecal P output (P < 0.01) and a higher P digestibility (P < 0.001) and P retention (P < 0.05) than pigs offered diets without added PHY. In conclusion, supplementation of a low-P finisher diet with PHY resulted in pigs that had a similar carcass weight, but weaker bones than pigs offered a medium or high P diet.