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dc.contributor.authorSchils, René
dc.contributor.authorOlesen, Jørgen E.
dc.contributor.authorKersebaum, Kurt-Christian
dc.contributor.authorRijk, Bert
dc.contributor.authorOberforster, Michael
dc.contributor.authorKalyada, Valery
dc.contributor.authorKhitrykau, Maksim
dc.contributor.authorGobin, Anne
dc.contributor.authorKirchev, Hristofor
dc.contributor.authorManolova, Vanya
dc.contributor.authorManolov, Ivan
dc.contributor.authorTrnka, Mirek
dc.contributor.authorHlavinka, Petr
dc.contributor.authorPaluoso, Taru
dc.contributor.authorPeltonen-Sainio, Pirjo
dc.contributor.authorJauhiainen, Lauri
dc.contributor.authorLorgeou, Josiane
dc.contributor.authorMarrou, Hélène
dc.contributor.authorDanalatos, Nikos
dc.contributor.authorArchontoulis, Sotirios
dc.contributor.authorFodor, Nandór
dc.contributor.authorSpink, John
dc.contributor.authorRoggero, Pier Paolo
dc.contributor.authorBassu, Simona
dc.contributor.authorPulina, Antonio
dc.contributor.authorSeehusen, Till
dc.contributor.authorUhlen, Anne Kjersti
dc.contributor.authorŻyłowska, Katarzyna
dc.contributor.authorNieróbca, Anna
dc.contributor.authorKozyra, Jerzy
dc.contributor.authorVasco Silva, João
dc.contributor.authorMartins Maçãs, Benvindo
dc.contributor.authorCoutinho, José
dc.contributor.authorIon, Viorel
dc.contributor.authorTakáč, Josef
dc.contributor.authorInés Mínguez, M.
dc.contributor.authorEckersten, Henrik
dc.contributor.authorLevy, Lilia
dc.contributor.authorHerrera, Juan Manuel
dc.contributor.authorHiltbrunner, Jürg
dc.contributor.authorKryvobok, Oleksii
dc.contributor.authorKryvoshein, Oleksandr
dc.contributor.authorSylvester-Bradley, Roger
dc.contributor.authorKindred, Daniel
dc.contributor.authorTopp, Cairistiona F.E.
dc.contributor.authorBoogaard, Hendrik
dc.contributor.authorde Groot, Hugo
dc.contributor.authorLesschen, Jan Peter
dc.contributor.authorvan Bussel, Lenny
dc.contributor.authorWolf, Joost
dc.contributor.authorZijlstra, Mink
dc.contributor.authorvan Loon, Marloes P.
dc.contributor.authorvan Ittersum, Martin K.
dc.identifier.citationSchils, R. et al. (2018). Cereal yield gaps across Europe. European Journal of Agronomy, 101, 109–120.
dc.description.abstractEurope accounts for around 20% of the global cereal production and is a net exporter of ca. 15% of that production. Increasing global demand for cereals justifies questions as to where and by how much Europe’s production can be increased to meet future global market demands, and how much additional nitrogen (N) crops would require. The latter is important as environmental concern and legislation are equally important as production aims in Europe. Here, we used a country-by-country, bottom-up approach to establish statistical estimates of actual grain yield, and compare these to modelled estimates of potential yields for either irrigated or rainfed conditions. In this way, we identified the yield gaps and the opportunities for increased cereal production for wheat, barley and maize, which represent 90% of the cereals grown in Europe. The combined mean annual yield gap of wheat, barley, maize was 239 Mt, or 42% of the yield potential. The national yield gaps ranged between 10 and 70%, with small gaps in many north-western European countries, and large gaps in eastern and south-western Europe. Yield gaps for rainfed and irrigated maize were consistently lower than those of wheat and barley. If the yield gaps of maize, wheat and barley would be reduced from 42% to 20% of potential yields, this would increase annual cereal production by 128 Mt (39%). Potential for higher cereal production exists predominantly in Eastern Europe, and half of Europe’s potential increase is located in Ukraine, Romania and Poland. Unlocking the identified potential for production growth requires a substantial increase of the crop N uptake of 4.8 Mt. Across Europe, the average N uptake gaps, to achieve 80% of the yield potential, were 87, 77 and 43 kg N ha−1 for wheat, barley and maize, respectively. Emphasis on increasing the N use efficiency is necessary to minimize the need for additional N inputs. Whether yield gap reduction is desirable and feasible is a matter of balancing Europe’s role in global food security, farm economic objectives and environmental targets.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipWe received financial contributions from the strategic investment funds (IPOP) of Wageningen University & Research, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, MACSUR under EU FACCE-JPI which was funded through several national contributions, and TempAg (
dc.relation.ispartofseriesEuropean Journal of Agronomy;Vol. 101
dc.rightsAttribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 United States*
dc.subjectGrain maizeen_US
dc.subjectCrop modellingen_US
dc.subjectYield potentialen_US
dc.titleCereal yield gaps across Europeen_US
dc.contributor.sponsorBill & Melinda Gates Foundationen_US
dc.contributor.sponsorWageningen University & Researchen_US

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