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dc.contributor.authorShortall, John
dc.contributor.authorO'Brien, Bernadette
dc.contributor.authorSleator, Roy D.
dc.contributor.authorUpton, John
dc.identifier.citationO’Brien, B., Upton, J., Shortall, J., & Sleator, R. D. (2018). Daily and seasonal trends of electricity and water use on pasture-based automatic milking dairy farms. Journal of Dairy Science, 101(2), 1565–1578.
dc.description.abstractThe objective of this study was to identify the major electricity and water-consuming components of a pasture-based automatic milking (AM) system and to establish the daily and seasonal consumption trends. Electricity and water meters were installed on 7 seasonal calving pasture-based AM farms across Ireland. Electricity-consuming processes and equipment that were metered for consumption included milk cooling components, air compressors, AM unit(s), auxiliary water heaters, water pumps, lights, sockets, automatic manure scrapers, and so on. On-farm direct water-consuming processes and equipment were metered and included AM unit(s), auxiliary water heaters, tubular coolers, wash-down water pumps, livestock drinking water supply, and miscellaneous water taps. Data were collected and analyzed for the 12-mo period of 2015. The average AM farm examined had 114 cows, milking with 1.85 robots, performing a total of 105 milkings/AM unit per day. Total electricity consumption and costs were 62.6 Wh/L of milk produced and 0.91 cents/L, respectively. Milking (vacuum and milk pumping, within-AM unit water heating) had the largest electrical consumption at 33%, followed by air compressing (26%), milk cooling (18%), auxiliary water heating (8%), water pumping (4%), and other electricity-consuming processes (11%). Electricity costs followed a similar trend to that of consumption, with the milking process and water pumping accounting for the highest and lowest cost, respectively. The pattern of daily electricity consumption was similar across the lactation periods, with peak consumption occurring at 0100, 0800, and between 1300 and 1600 h. The trends in seasonal electricity consumption followed the seasonal milk production curve. Total water consumption was 3.7 L of water/L of milk produced. Water consumption associated with the dairy herd at the milking shed represented 42% of total water consumed on the farm. Daily water consumption trends indicated consumption to be lowest in the early morning period (0300–0600 h), followed by spikes in consumption between 1100 and 1400 h. Seasonal water trends followed the seasonal milk production curve, except for the month of May, when water consumption was reduced due to above-average rainfall. This study provides a useful insight into the consumption of electricity and water on a pasture-based AM farms, while also facilitating the development of future strategies and technologies likely to increase the sustainability of AM systems.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipWe acknowledge funding for this research from the European Union's Seventh Framework Program managed by REA-Research Executive Agency [ (FP7/2007-2013), under grant agreement no. SME-2012-2-314879]. The authors also acknowledge the Teagasc Walsh Fellowship program (Ref 2012015), which directly funded the first author.
dc.relation.ispartofseriesJournal of Dairy Science;Vol. 101 (2)
dc.rightsAttribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 United States*
dc.subjectautomatic milking systemen_US
dc.subjectpasture-based systemen_US
dc.subjectelectricity consumptionen_US
dc.subjectwater consumptionen_US
dc.titleDaily and seasonal trends of electricity and water use on pasture-based automatic milking dairy farmsen_US
dc.contributor.sponsorTeagasc Walsh Fellowship Programmeen_US
dc.contributor.sponsorEuropean Unionen_US

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    Teagasc LIvestock Systems Department includes Dairy, Cattle and Sheep research.

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Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 United States
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