• Exposure of Agaricus bisporus to Trichoderma aggressivum f. europaeum leads to growth inhibition and induction of an oxidative stress response

      Kosanovic, Dejana; Grogan, Helen; Kavanagh, Kevin; Irish Research Council; Science Foundation Ireland; GOIPD/2018/115; 12/RI/2346 (Elsevier BV, 2020-09)
      Green mould disease of mushroom, Agaricus bisporus,is caused by Trichodermaspecies and can result in substantial crop losses.Label free proteomic analysis of changes in the abundance of A. bisporusproteins following exposure to T. aggressivumsupernatantin vitroindicated increased abundance of proteins associated with an oxidative stress response (zinc ion binding (+6.6 fold); peroxidase activity (5.3-fold); carboxylic ester hydrolase (+2.4 fold); dipeptidase (+3.2 fold); [2Fe-2S] cluster assembly (+3.3 fold)). Proteins that decreased in relative abundance were associated with growth: structural constituent of ribosome, translation (-12 fold), deadenylation-dependent decapping of nuclear-transcribed mRNA (-3.4 fold), and small GTPase mediated signal transduction (-2.6 fold). In vivoanalysis revealed that 10-4 T. aggressivuminoculum decreased the mushroom yield by 29% to 56% and 10-3 T. aggressivuminoculum decreased the mushroom yield by 68% to 100%. Proteins that increased in abundance in A. bisporusin vivofollowing exposure to T. aggressivumindicated an oxidative stress response and included proteins with pyruvate kinase activity (+2.6 fold) and hydrolase activity (+2.1 fold)). The results indicate that exposure of A. bisporusmycelium to T. aggressivum in vitroand in vivoresulted in an oxidative stress response and reduction in growth.
    • Proteomic investigation of interhyphal interactions between strains of Agaricus bisporus

      O’Connor, Eoin; Owens, Rebecca A.; Doyle, Sean; Amini, Aniça; Grogan, Helen; Fitzpatrick, David; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme; Science Foundation Ireland; 10564231; SFI 12/RI/2346(3) (Elsevier BV, 2020-06)
      Hyphae of filamentous fungi undergo polar extension, bifurcation and hyphal fusion to form reticulating networks of mycelia. Hyphal fusion or anastomosis, a ubiquitous process among filamentous fungi, is a vital strategy for how fungi expand over their substrate and interact with or recognise self- and non-self hyphae of neighbouring mycelia in their environment. Morphological and genetic characterisation of anastomosis has been studied in many model fungal species, but little is known of the direct proteomic response of two interacting fungal isolates. Agaricus bisporus, the most widely cultivated edible mushroom crop worldwide, was used as an in vitro model to profile the proteomes of interacting cultures. The globally cultivated strain (A15) was paired with two distinct strains; a commercial hybrid strain and a wild isolate strain. Each co-culture presented a different interaction ranging from complete vegetative compatibility (self), lack of interactions, and antagonistic interactions. These incompatible strains are the focus of research into disease-resistance in commercial crops as the spread of intracellular pathogens, namely mycoviruses, is limited by the lack of interhyphal anastomosis. Unique proteomic responses were detected between all co-cultures. An array of cell wall modifying enzymes, plus fungal growth and morphogenesis proteins were found in significantly (P < 0.05) altered abundances. Nitrogen metabolism dominated in the intracellular proteome, with evidence of nitrogen starvation between competing, non-compatible cultures. Changes in key enzymes of A. bisporus morphogenesis were observed, particularly via increased abundance of glucanosyltransferase in competing interactions and certain chitinases in vegetative compatible interactions only. Carbohydrate-active enzyme arsenals are expanded in antagonistic interactions in A. bisporus. Pathways involved in carbohydrate metabolism and genetic information processing were higher in interacting cultures, most notably during self-recognition. New insights into the differential response of interacting strains of A. bisporus will enhance our understanding of potential barriers to viral transmission through vegetative incompatibility. Our results suggest that a differential proteomic response occurs between A. bisporus at strain-level and findings from this work may guide future proteomic investigation of fungal anastomosis.