• Comparison of phenolic and flavonoid content and antioxidant activity in vitro among potato varieties.

      Valcarel, Jesus; Reilly, Kim; Gaffney, Michael; Brunton, Nigel; O'Brien, Nora M.; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme (Teagasc, 2011)
      Diets rich in fruits and vegetables have been associated with a lower incidence of cancer and heart disease, which may be related to the antioxidant activity of bioactive compounds present in these foods. Phenolic compounds are potent antioxidants in vitro, of which flavonoids are of particular interest for their potential positive impact on health. Potatoes are one of the most consumed vegetables in the world and therefore an important source of phenolics. In Ireland they are the third most important crop with a farm gate value of approximately 45 million euros annually. The aim of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of methanolic solutions extracted from the skin and flesh of potato tubers against the stable radical DPPH and analyze its relationship to the content of total phenolics and total flavonoids.
    • Effect of Genotype and Environment on the Glycoalkaloid Content of Rare, Heritage, and Commercial Potato Varieties

      Valcarel, Jesus; Reilly, Kim; Gaffney, Michael; O'Brien, Nora M.; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme (Wiley, 02/04/2014)
      Potatoes accumulate toxic steroidal compounds that could be harmful for humans if consumed in high quantities and must be controlled. In this study, we were interested in assessing the levels and variation of glycoalkaloid content in 60 varieties of potato planted in 2 trial sites over 2 y. Total glycoalkaloid levels ranged from 4 to 957 mg/kg of dry weight in the flesh and from 150 to 8133 mg/kg in the skin, with the latter accumulating generally more α-chaconine than α-solanine. Contents in the flesh were below the safe limit for all varieties, but were generally above in the skin. Maximum values in each site and year of cultivation were found for varieties “Beauty of Hebron,” “May Queen,” and “Arran Pilot” in the skin and “Beauty of Hebron,” “International Kidney,” and “Congo” in the flesh. Year of cultivation had a significant effect on total glycoalkaloid content (P < 0.0001), with interactions between variety and site of cultivation and variety and year of cultivation also significant (P < 0.0001), implying that environmental effects seem to act differentially and could induce high levels in genetically predisposed varieties.
    • Effect of organic and conventional cultivation techniques on yield, phenolic content, and sensory parameters in two carrot varieties

      Reilly, Kim; Gaffney, Michael; Brunton, Nigel; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, Ireland; 06/NITARFC6 (Teagasc, 2011)
      Carrots are one of the most important field grown vegetables in Ireland with a farm gate value of 16 million euros in 2007. They contain health promoting bioactive compounds including carotenoids, phenolics and polyacetylenes. Organically grown vegetables are often perceived as healthier and to have better flavour. The objective of this study was to determine levels of phenolics and flavonoids in organic and conventionally grown carrots, and to determine if they can be distinguished by taste.
    • Effect of organic, conventional and mixed cultivation practices on soil microbial community structure and nematode abundance in a cultivated onion crop

      Reilly, Kim; Cullen, Eileen; Lola-Luz, Theodora; Stone, Dote; Valverde, Juan; Gaffney, Michael; Brunton, Nigel; Grant, Jim; Griffiths, Bryan; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, Ireland; et al. (Wiley, 07/06/2013)
      BACKGROUND: Responses of the soil microbial and nematode community to organic and conventional agricultural practices were studied using the Teagasc Kinsealy Systems Comparison trial as the experimental system. The trial is a long term field experiment which divides conventional and organic agriculture into component pest-control and soil treatment practices. We hypothesised that management practices would affect soil ecology and used community level physiological profiles (CLPP), microbial and nematode counts, and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) to characterise soil microbial communities in plots used for onion (Allium cepa L.) cultivation. RESULTS: Microbial activity and culturable bacterial counts were significantly higher under fully organic management. Culturable fungi, actinomycete and nematode counts showed a consistent trend towards higher numbers under fully organic management but these data were not statistically significant. No differences were found in the fungal/bacterial ratio. DGGE banding patterns and sequencing of excised bands showed clear differences between treatments. Putative onion fungal pathogens were predominantly sequenced under conventional soil treatment practices whilst putative soil suppressive bacterial species were predominantly sequenced from the organic pest-control treatment plots. CONCLUSION: Organic management increased microbial activity and diversity. Sequence data was indicative of differences in functional groups and warrants further investigation.
    • The effect of Pulsed Electric Field as a pre-treatment step in Ultrasound Assisted Extraction of phenolic compounds from fresh rosemary and thyme by-products, Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies

      Tzima, Katerina; Brunton, Nigel P.; Lyng, James G.; Frontuto, Daniele; Rai, Dilip K.; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme; 2016038 (Elsevier, 2021-02-22)
      Emerging extraction techniques, including pulsed electric field (PEF) and ultrasound (US), are attracting considerable interest in the recovery of bioactives. Though, limited work has focused on PEF application as pre-treatment for US assisted extraction to enhance the release of phenolics from herbs. Hence, the present study investigated the use of an optimized PEF pre-treatment to enhance the recovery of phenolics from fresh rosemary and thyme by-products in a subsequent US assisted extraction step. Total phenolic content (TPC), 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were assessed as an index of extraction efficacy. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were performed through liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses to evaluate the influence of the methods on individual phenolic compounds and the formation of potential derivatives. The results indicated that in a number of cases PEF pre-treatment enhanced (p < 0.05) the recovery of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity compared to US individually.
    • Exposure of Agaricus bisporus to Trichoderma aggressivum f. europaeum leads to growth inhibition and induction of an oxidative stress response

      Kosanovic, Dejana; Grogan, Helen; Kavanagh, Kevin; Irish Research Council; Science Foundation Ireland; GOIPD/2018/115; 12/RI/2346 (Elsevier BV, 2020-09)
      Green mould disease of mushroom, Agaricus bisporus,is caused by Trichodermaspecies and can result in substantial crop losses.Label free proteomic analysis of changes in the abundance of A. bisporusproteins following exposure to T. aggressivumsupernatantin vitroindicated increased abundance of proteins associated with an oxidative stress response (zinc ion binding (+6.6 fold); peroxidase activity (5.3-fold); carboxylic ester hydrolase (+2.4 fold); dipeptidase (+3.2 fold); [2Fe-2S] cluster assembly (+3.3 fold)). Proteins that decreased in relative abundance were associated with growth: structural constituent of ribosome, translation (-12 fold), deadenylation-dependent decapping of nuclear-transcribed mRNA (-3.4 fold), and small GTPase mediated signal transduction (-2.6 fold). In vivoanalysis revealed that 10-4 T. aggressivuminoculum decreased the mushroom yield by 29% to 56% and 10-3 T. aggressivuminoculum decreased the mushroom yield by 68% to 100%. Proteins that increased in abundance in A. bisporusin vivofollowing exposure to T. aggressivumindicated an oxidative stress response and included proteins with pyruvate kinase activity (+2.6 fold) and hydrolase activity (+2.1 fold)). The results indicate that exposure of A. bisporusmycelium to T. aggressivum in vitroand in vivoresulted in an oxidative stress response and reduction in growth.
    • Feasibility Study on the Use of Visible–Near-Infrared Spectroscopy for the Screening of Individual and Total Glucosinolate Contents in Broccoli

      Hernandez-Hierro, Jose Miguel; Valverde, Juan; Villacreces, Salvador; Reilly, Kim; Gaffney, Michael; Gonzalez-Miret, Maria Lourdes; Heredia, Francisco J.; Downey, Gerard; Spanish MICINN; Junta de Andalucia; et al. (American Chemical Society, 11/07/2012)
      The potential of visible–near-infrared spectroscopy to determine selected individual and total glucosinolates in broccoli has been evaluated. Modified partial least-squares regression was used to develop quantitative models to predict glucosinolate contents. Both the whole spectrum and different spectral regions were separately evaluated to develop the quantitative models; in all cases the best results were obtained using the near-infrared zone between 2000 and 2498 nm. These models have been externally validated for the screening of glucoraphanin, glucobrassicin, 4-methoxyglucobrassicin, neoglucobrassicin, and total glucosinolates contents. In addition, discriminant partial least-squares was used to distinguish between two possible broccoli cultivars and showed a high degree of accuracy. In the case of the qualitative analysis, best results were obtained using the whole spectrum (i.e., 400–2498 nm) with a correct classification rate of 100% in external validation being obtained.
    • First Report of Shot Hole Disease on Cherry Laurel (Prunus laurocerasus) Caused by Micrococcus aloeverae in Ireland

      Smith, L.; Gibriel, H. A. Y.; Brennan, C.; del Pino de Elias, M.; Twamley, A.; Doohan, F.; Grogan, H.; Feechan, A.; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; 15/S/759 (Scientific Societies, 2020-08-13)
      First Report of Shot Hole Disease on Cherry Laurel (Prunus laurocerasus) Caused by Micrococcus aloeverae in Ireland
    • First Report of Shot Hole Disease on Cherry Laurel (Prunus laurocerasus) Caused by Micrococcus aloeverae in Ireland

      Smith, L.; Gibriel, H. A. Y.; Brennan, C.; del Pino de Elias, M.; Twamley, A.; Doohan, F.; Grogan, H.; Feechan, A.; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; 15/S/759 (American Phytopathological Society, 2020-08-13)
      First Report of Shot Hole disease on Cherry Laurel (Prunus laurocerasus) Caused by Micrococcus aloeverae in Ireland
    • Genetic regulation of compost and plant degradation mechanisms in Agaricus bisporus

      Dunne, Keith; O' Donoghue, Martin-Timothy; Grogan, Helen; Heneghan, Mary; IT Sligo; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine (2021-06-16)
      Agaricus bisporus (common button mushroom) is an economically significant mushroom with an annual global value in excess of $4.7 billion (Eastwood et al, 2015). When commercially grown, A. bisporus mushrooms are mostly picked from the first and second flush. This is due to the third flush resulting in reduced yields (Royse and Sanchez, 2008), which are also often more prone to disease. This occurs despite significant nutrients and nitrogen being available in the compost for A. bisporus to utilise. To further understand why this is occurring, microarray analysis was carried out on compost samples throughout a full commercial growth cycle, with the aim of identifying genes that may be responsible for this reduction in yield.
    • A Guide to Vegetable Growing

      Alexander, Stephen (Teagasc, Oak Park, Carlow, Ireland, 2012-04)
      This book provides easy to follow guidelines for growing your own vegetables.
    • Hydrogen Sulfide Gas Emissions during Disturbance and Removal of Stored Spent Mushroom Compost

      Velusami, Balasubramanian; Curran, Thomas P; Grogan, Helen; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme; UCD School of Biosystems Engineering; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, Ireland (American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, 2013-12)
      Spent mushroom compost (SMC) is a by-product of the mushroom industry that is used as an agricultural fertilizer. In Europe, SMC storage and use are governed by EU Nitrates Directive 91/676/EEC to protect waterways against pollution by nitrates. A health and safety risk was identified during the removal of stored SMC for land application, as the stored SMC released high levels of toxic H2S gas into the atmosphere when disturbed. In this study, emissions of H2S were monitored at two outdoor and two indoor locations where stored SMC was being removed for land application. A repeating peaktrough pattern of H2S emissions was detected at all sites, with peaks corresponding to periods of active disturbance of SMC. The highest H2S concentrations (10 s average) detected at the SMC face were, respectively, 680 and 2083 ppm at outdoor sites 1 and 2, and 687 and 89 ppm at indoor sites 3 and 4. Higher concentrations of H2S were released from older SMC compared to newer material. Indoor-stored SMC had lower moisture content (53% to 65%) compared to outdoor-stored material (66% to 72%), while the temperature of indoor-stored SMC was higher (33°C to 51°C) compared to outdoorstored material (24°C to 36°C). The current short-term exposure limit (STEL) of 10 ppm was exceeded at all sites except site 4, which was smaller than the other sites, indicating a significant health and safety risk associated with working in the vicinity of stored SMC when it is being actively disturbed. Results suggest that SMC stored under cover in small heaps (600 m3) emits less H2S during disturbance and removal compared to SMC stored outdoors in large heaps (>1500 m3). This should be taken into consideration in the design, construction, and management of SMC storage facilities. Health and safety protocols should be in place at SMC storage facilities to cover the risks of exposure to toxic H2S gas during disturbance of stored SMC.
    • Hydrogen Sulfide Gas Emissions in the Human-Occupied Zone during Disturbance and Removal of Stored Spent Mushroom Compost

      Velusami, Balasubramanian; Curran, Thomas P; Grogan, Helen (American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, 2013-12)
      Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas levels were monitored in the human-occupied zone at four spent mushroom compost (SMC) storage sites during removal of SMC for application on agricultural land. During SMC removal operations, H2S gas monitors were mounted on the outside of the tractor, positioned at the SMC periphery, and worn by individual tractor drivers. The highest H2S concentrations (10 s average) detected outside the tractor, at the SMC periphery, and for the tractor driver were, respectively, 454, 249, and 100 ppm for the outdoor sites and 214, 75, and 51 ppm for the indoor sites. The highest short-term exposure values (STEV, over a 15 min period) outside the tractor, at the SMC periphery, and for the tractor driver were 147, 55, and 86 ppm for the outdoor sites and 19, 9, and 10 ppm for the indoor sites. The values exceeded the current maximum permissible concentration limit of 10 ppm for all the sites except for the SMC periphery and tractor driver at the indoor sites. Results suggest that H2S levels detected at indoor storage sites during SMC removal are lower compared to outdoor storage sites. Results indicate that there is a substantial health and safety risk associated with working in the vicinity of stored SMC when it is being disturbed and removed for land application, and that the risk is great for the tractor driver. This article discusses possible control measures and lists recommendations to reduce the risks.
    • Identification and control of Cobweb disease on mushrooms

      Grogan, Helen; Gaze, Richard (Teagasc (Agriculture and Food Development Authority), IrelandHorticultural Development Council, 2008)
      This factsheet is a summary of the most important information currently available on Cobweb disease (Cladobotryum spp.). Its objective is to provide guidance on the recognition, prevention and control of the disease.
    • Identification and control of dry bubble disease of mushrooms

      Gaze, Richard; Grogan, Helen (Teagasc (Agriculture and Food Development Authority), IrelandHorticultural Development Council, 2008)
      This factsheet is a summary of the most important information currently available on Dry bubble disease of mushrooms (Verticillium fungicola). Its objective is to provide guidance to the recognition, prevention and control of the disease.
    • Is urban growing of fruit and vegetables associated with better diet quality and what mediates this relationship? Evidence from a cross-sectional survey

      Mead, Bethan R.; Christiansen, Paul; Davies, Jessica A.C.; Falagán, Natalia; Kourmpetli, Sofia; Liu, Lingxuan; Walsh, Lael; Hardman, Charlotte A.; Global Food Security; Biotechnology and Biological Services Research Council; et al. (Elsevier, 2021-03-18)
      Urban agriculture (UA), the growing of fruits and vegetables in urban and peri-urban areas, may improve food security and access, public health and dietary quality on both a broad and personal scale. However, there is little research on the relationship between UA and diet, and potential mediating factors are also unclear. This study aimed to investigate if proximity to and engagement with UA is associated with better diet quality, and what accounts for this relationship. UK-based adults (N = 583, 69% Female) completed measures of proximity to and engagement with UA, perceived access to fruits and vegetables, health and ethical food choice motivations, connection with nature, psychological distress and dietary quality in an online survey. Participants were recruited from UA-related groups and the general public. Proposed relationships were analysed using a structural equation model. Greater proximity to and engagement with UA was associated with greater perceived access to fruits and vegetables, more health-related food choice motivations, more ethical-related food choice, feeling more connected with nature, and, surprisingly greater psychological distress. Furthermore, proximity to and engagement with UA was indirectly associated with better diet quality via health-, and ethical-related, food choice motivations. While the direct pathway between proximity to and engagement with UA and diet quality was not significant, UA is associated with better diet quality, partly via healthier and ethical food choice motivations. Upscaling UA may have benefits for dietary quality via these factors, and more research is needed to test causal relationships and understand these complex interactions.
    • Is urban growing of fruit and vegetables associated with better diet quality and what mediates this relationship? Evidence from a cross-sectional survey.

      Mead, Bethan; Christiansen, Paul; Davies, Jessica; Falagán, Natalia; Kourmpetli, Sofia; Liu, Lingxuan; Walsh, Lael; Hardman, Charlotte; Global Food Security's ‘Resilience of the UK Food System Programme’; BBSRC; et al. (Elsevier, 2021-03-18)
      Urban agriculture (UA), the growing of fruits and vegetables in urban and peri-urban areas, may improve food security and access, public health and dietary quality on both a broad and personal scale. However, there is little research on the relationship between UA and diet, and potential mediating factors are also unclear. This study aimed to investigate if proximity to and engagement with UA is associated with better diet quality, and what accounts for this relationship. UK-based adults (N = 583, 69% Female) completed measures of proximity to and engagement with UA, perceived access to fruits and vegetables, health and ethical food choice motivations, connection with nature, psychological distress and dietary quality in an online survey. Participants were recruited from UA-related groups and the general public. Proposed relationships were analysed using a structural equation model. Greater proximity to and engagement with UA was associated with greater perceived access to fruits and vegetables, more health-related food choice motivations, more ethical-related food choice, feeling more connected with nature, and, surprisingly greater psychological distress. Furthermore, proximity to and engagement with UA was indirectly associated with better diet quality via health-, and ethical-related, food choice motivations. While the direct pathway between proximity to and engagement with UA and diet quality was not significant, UA is associated with better diet quality, partly via healthier and ethical food choice motivations. Upscaling UA may have benefits for dietary quality via these factors, and more research is needed to test causal relationships and understand these complex interactions.
    • Multiple viral infections in Agaricus bisporus - Characterisation of 18 unique RNA viruses and 8 ORFans identified by deep sequencing

      Deakin, Gregory; Dobbs, Edward; Bennett, Julie M.; Jones, Ian M.; Grogan, Helen; Burton, Kerry S.; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme; European Commission; 201043; 286836 (Nature Publishing Group, 26/05/2017)
      Thirty unique non-host RNAs were sequenced in the cultivated fungus, Agaricus bisporus, comprising 18 viruses each encoding an RdRp domain with an additional 8 ORFans (non-host RNAs with no similarity to known sequences). Two viruses were multipartite with component RNAs showing correlative abundances and common 3′ motifs. The viruses, all positive sense single-stranded, were classified into diverse orders/families. Multiple infections of Agaricus may represent a diverse, dynamic and interactive viral ecosystem with sequence variability ranging over 2 orders of magnitude and evidence of recombination, horizontal gene transfer and variable fragment numbers. Large numbers of viral RNAs were detected in multiple Agaricus samples; up to 24 in samples symptomatic for disease and 8–17 in asymptomatic samples, suggesting adaptive strategies for co-existence. The viral composition of growing cultures was dynamic, with evidence of gains and losses depending on the environment and included new hypothetical viruses when compared with the current transcriptome and EST databases. As the non-cellular transmission of mycoviruses is rare, the founding infections may be ancient, preserved in wild Agaricus populations, which act as reservoirs for subsequent cell-to-cell infection when host populations are expanded massively through fungiculture.
    • Mushroom Virus X (MVX) prevention

      Gaze, Richard; Grogan, Helen (Teagasc (Agriculture and Food Development Authority), IrelandHorticultural Development Council, 2007)
      This factsheet is a summary of the most important information currently available. Its objective is to provide guidance to the recognition, prevention and control of the disease.
    • On farm and fresh produce management

      Reilly, Kim (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 02/01/2013)
      This chapter contains sections titled: Introduction, Pre-harvest factors affecting phytochemical content, Harvest and post-harvest management practices, Future prospects, and References.