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CitationDevelopment of organic breads and confectionery. The National Food Centre Research Report No. 75. Eimear Gallagher et al. Dublin; Teagasc, 2005. ISBN 1841704326
AbstractRecently, there has been a significant increase in the number of launches of organic bakery products in Ireland. As a result, there is an increased need to identify suitable organic bakery ingredients for use in bread and confectionery formulations. However, only a limited number of scientific studies on the physical, chemical and functional properties of organic flours and ingredients exist. The effects of commonly-used ingredients in baking, i.e. organic improvers and fats, on the baking characteristics of organic products have not yet been reported and little is known about the influence of approved additives that may be beneficial to organic baking. Arising from these gaps in the knowledge base on the use of organic flours and ingredients, the objective of this study was to evaluate the chemical, rheological and baking characteristics of white, wholemeal and confectionery organic flours and to assess the baking potential of organic bakery ingredients, in particular improvers, fats and additives. Ingredients and baked goods were compared to non-organic controls.
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Land Spreading of Animal Manures, Farm Wastes & Non-Agricultural Organic Wastes. Part 1 manure (and other organic wastes) management guidelines for intensive agricultural enterprises.Carton, Owen T.; Magette, William L. (Teagasc, 1999-05-01)The objective of the Teagasc Manure (and Other Organic Wastes) Management Guidelines for IAE are to provide an operational framework for the agronomically efficient and environmentally safe recycling of these organic by-products, maximising the benefits of nutrients they contain at minimum cost. The principles of the approach are equally applicable to the management of all manures and organic wastes applied to land. The approach includes programmes for controlling manure quantity and quality; operational procedures covering storage, transport and nutrient management; and a quality assurance programme. These Guidelines assign the importance of manure management on an equal footing with other production practices. Implementation of these Guidelines may entail higher costs c o m p a red with traditional practices. However, some of the benefits accruing from the improved management practices can partly or wholly offset the costs of implementation.
Effect of milk centrifugation and incorporation of high heat-treated centrifugate on the microbial composition and levels of volatile organic compounds of Maasdam cheeseLamichhane, Prabin; Pietrzyk, Anna; Feehily, Conor; Cotter, Paul D.; Mannion, David T.; Kilcawley, Kieran N; Kelly, Alan L.; Sheehan, Jeremiah J.; Dairy Levy Trust; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme; et al. (Elsevier, 2018-03-15)Centrifugation is a common milk pretreatment method for removal of Clostridium spores which, on germination, can produce high levels of butyric acid and gas, resulting in rancid, gassy cheese. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of centrifugation of milk, as well as incorporation of high heat-treated centrifugate into cheese milk, on the microbial and volatile profile of Maasdam cheese. To facilitate this, 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing in combination with a selective media-based approach were used to study the microbial composition of cheese during maturation, and volatile organic compounds within the cheese matrix were analyzed by HPLC and solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Both culture-based and molecular approaches revealed major differences in microbial populations within the cheese matrix before and after warm room ripening. During warm room ripening, an increase in counts of propionic acid bacteria (by ∼101.5 cfu) and nonstarter lactic acid bacteria (by ∼108 cfu) and a decrease in the counts of Lactobacillus helveticus (by ∼102.5 cfu) were observed. Lactococcus species dominated the curd population throughout ripening, followed by Lactobacillus, Propionibacterium, and Leuconostoc, and the relative abundance of these accounted for more than 99% of the total genera, as revealed by high-throughput sequencing. Among subdominant microflora, the overall relative abundance of Clostridium sensu stricto was lower in cheeses made from centrifuged milk than control cheeses, which coincided with lower levels of butyric acid. Centrifugation as well as incorporation of high heat-treated centrifugate into cheese milk seemed to have little effect on the volatile profile of Maasdam cheese, except for butyric acid levels. Overall, this study suggests that centrifugation of milk before cheesemaking is a suitable method for controlling undesirable butyric acid fermentation without significantly altering the levels of other volatile organic compounds of Maasdam cheese.
The effect of organic acid and sodium chloride dips on the shelf-life of refrigerated Irish brown crab (Cancer pagurus) meatMcDermott, A.; Whyte, P.; Brunton, N.; Lyng, L.; Fagan, J.; Bolton, Declan J.; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; 13F529 (Elsevier, 2018-08-18)Crab (Cancer pagurus) meat (white and brown) has a short shelf-life. Chemical treatments may inhibit microbial spoilage and extend shelf-life. The effect of 5% organic acids (lactic acid (LA), acetic acid (AA) and citric acid (CA)) and 5% sodium chloride (NaCl) on TVC (mesophiles and psychrophiles), Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas spp. and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were investigated during storage (2 °C for 12 days). AA was the most effective treatment for white meat, reducing the initial TVCm and TVCp by 1.6 and 1.8 log10 cfu/g, respectively, and extended the shelf life to 8–11.5 days, compared to 5 days for untreated control samples. LA treatment also significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the initial TVC, but the shelf life was only increased by 3 days. CA and NaCl treatments had no significant effect (P > 0.05). A similar pattern was observed for brown meat samples, although the shelf life was increased by a maximum of 1–3 days. The growth of Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas spp. and LAB was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced on AA treated samples only. It was concluded that the shelf-life of crab meat may be extended by up to 3 days using lactic acid and more than doubled using acetic acid.