The Teagasc Food Programme focuses on quality, safety and food product innovation. It is undertaken in collaboration with universities and research institutes in Ireland, the European Union and the USA. The Food Programme is internationally competitive from a scientific point of view while being targeted and applied to generate new opportunities for the Irish food industry The Teagasc Food Programme encompasses many aspects of food science and technology: Food Processing and Functionality, Food Safety, Foods for Health, Food Cultures, Food Quality and Structure, Meat and Meat Products, Prepared Consumer Foods. The Food Programme is run from the Teagasc Food Research Centres at Ashtown, Dublin 14 and Moorepark, Fermoy, Co. Cork

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  • Prebiotic administration modulates gut microbiota and faecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations but does not prevent chronic intermittent hypoxia-induced apnoea and hypertension in adult rats

    O'Connor, Karen M.; Lucking, Eric F.; Bastiaanssen, Thomaz F.S.; Peterson, Veronica L.; Crispie, Fiona; Cotter, Paul D.; Clarke, Gerard; Cryan, John F.; O'Halloran, Ken D.; Science Foundation Ireland (Science Direct, 2020-08-30)
    Background Evidence is accruing to suggest that microbiota-gut-brain signalling plays a regulatory role in cardiorespiratory physiology. Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), modelling human sleep apnoea, affects gut microbiota composition and elicits cardiorespiratory morbidity. We investigated if treatment with prebiotics ameliorates cardiorespiratory dysfunction in CIH-exposed rats. Methods Adult male rats were exposed to CIH (96 cycles/day, 6.0% O2 at nadir) for 14 consecutive days with and without prebiotic supplementation (fructo- and galacto-oligosaccharides) beginning two weeks prior to gas exposures. Findings CIH increased apnoea index and caused hypertension. CIH exposure had modest effects on the gut microbiota, decreasing the relative abundance of Lactobacilli species, but had no effect on microbial functional characteristics. Faecal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations, plasma and brainstem pro-inflammatory cytokine concentrations and brainstem neurochemistry were unaffected by exposure to CIH. Prebiotic administration modulated gut microbiota composition and diversity, altering gut-metabolic (GMMs) and gut-brain (GBMs) modules and increased faecal acetic and propionic acid concentrations, but did not prevent adverse CIH-induced cardiorespiratory phenotypes. Interpretation CIH-induced cardiorespiratory dysfunction is not dependant upon changes in microbial functional characteristics and decreased faecal SCFA concentrations. Prebiotic-related modulation of microbial function and resultant increases in faecal SCFAs were not sufficient to prevent CIH-induced apnoea and hypertension in our model. Our results do not exclude the potential for microbiota-gut-brain axis involvement in OSA-related cardiorespiratory morbidity, but they demonstrate that in a relatively mild model of CIH, sufficient to evoke classic cardiorespiratory dysfunction, such changes are not obligatory for the development of morbidity, but may become relevant in the elaboration and maintenance of cardiorespiratory morbidity with progressive disease. Funding Department of Physiology and APC Microbiome Ireland, University College Cork, Ireland. APC Microbiome Ireland is funded by Science Foundation Ireland, through the Government's National Development Plan.
  • Microbiota and Neurodevelopmental Trajectories: Role of Maternal and Early-Life Nutrition

    Codagnone, Martin G.; STANTON, CATHERINE; O'Mahony, Siobhain M.; Dinan, Timothy G.; Cryan, John F.; Science Foundation Ireland; European Union; Nestlé Nutrition Institute; 754535; 12/RC/2273 (S. Karger AG, 2019-06-24)
    Pregnancy and early life are characterized by marked changes in body microbial composition. Intriguingly, these changes take place simultaneously with neurodevelopmental plasticity, suggesting a complex dialogue between the microbes that inhabit the gastrointestinal tract and the brain. The purpose of this chapter is to describe the natural trajectory of microbiota during pregnancy and early life, as well as review the literature available on its interaction with neurodevelopment. Several lines of evidence show that the gut microbiota interacts with diet, drugs and stress both prenatally and postnatally. Clinical and preclinical studies are illuminating how these disruptions result in different developmental outcomes. Understanding the role of the microbiota in neurodevelopment may lead to novel approaches to the study of the pathophysiology and treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders.
  • Physicochemical Characteristics of Protein-Enriched Restructured Beef Steaks with Phosphates, Transglutaminase, and Elasticised Package Forming

    Baugreet, Sephora; Kerry, Joseph P.; Allen, Paul; Gallagher, Eimear; Hamill, Ruth; Irish Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme; 11/F/045 (Hindawi Limited, 2018)
    Restructured beef steaks were formulated by adding protein-rich ingredients (pea protein isolate (PPI), rice protein (RP), and lentil flour (LF) (at 4 and 8%)), phosphate (0.2%), and two binding agents: 1% (TG) and 0.15% (TS). The effects of their addition on the physicochemical properties of the beef steaks were investigated. Protein content of the RP8TG sample was significantly higher than that of the control in both the raw and cooked state. Raw LF4TS exhibited greater () a values than the control; however, after the cooking process, L, a, and b values were similar for all treatments. Textural assessment showed that elevating protein level increased () hardness, chewiness, cohesiveness, and gumminess in cooked restructured steaks. LF addition reduced all textural values assessed, indicating a strong plant protein effect on texture modification. The commercial binder produced a better bind in combination with protein ingredients. This facilitated the production of uniformed restructured beef steaks from low-value beef muscles with acceptable quality parameters using a novel process technology.
  • Thermal gelation and hardening of whey protein beads for subsequent dehydration and encapsulation using vitrifying sugars

    Hansen, Mackenzie M.; Maidannyk, Valentyn; Roos, Yrjö H.; Lauritzson Foundation; University College Cork (Elsevier BV, 2020-08)
    Solid beads were developed using whey protein isolate (WPI) and sugars for controlled hardening and vitrification of wall materials. A concentrated mixture of WPI and sucrose in water, intended for use as gelling and glass-forming ingredients, respectively, was used to form liquid feeds with varying pH, viscosities, surface tensions, solids contents and compositions. Using a peristaltic pump, feeds flowed continuously through silicon tubing and formed droplets. Rapid solidification occurred when droplets were submerged in heated, stirred oil; beads were harvested for vacuum oven drying. Dispersions were characterized by viscosity and flow testing. Dried beads were characterized for porosity, hardness, diameters, and water activity, and microstructures were analyzed with microscopy. Drop-forming dispersions comprised of 40% WPI with 10% sucrose by mass possessed structure forming and shape retention qualities. Feed composition influenced characteristics of the final product more strongly than processing conditions including heating times and temperatures.
  • Fabrication of Ligusticum chuanxiong polylactic acid microspheres: A promising way to enhance the hepatoprotective effect on bioactive ingredients

    Ge, Huifang; Lin, Peixuan; Luo, Taiduan; Yan, Zhiming; Xiao, Jianbo; Miao, Song; Chen, Jichen; National Natural Science Foundation of China; Natural Science Foundation of Fujian Province; No. 31201350; et al. (Elsevier BV, 2020-07)
    Ligusticum chuanxiong extract-polylactic acid sustained-release microspheres (LCE-PLA) are fabricated in this study for enhancing both duration and hepatoprotective efficacy of the main bioactive ingredients. LCE-PLA in vitro release, cytotoxicity and in vivo hepatoprotective effect were discussed to evaluate its efficiency and functionality. Results demonstrated that the optimal drug-loading rate and encapsulation efficiency of tetramethylpyrazine (TMP, the main active ingredient) were 8.19%, 83.72%, respectively. The LCE-PLA in vitro release of TMP showed prolong 5-fold and in vitro cytotoxicity declined 25.00% compared with naked LCE. After 6 weeks of in vivo intervention in high fat diet mice, both liver aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels were higher in LCE-PLA group than LCE group. The above results indicated that TMP had a higher bioavailability of hepatoprotection when encapsulation of LCE-PLA was applied. The current study has provided a promising novel way to enhance the efficacy of short half-life ingredients.
  • Influence of sodium hexametaphosphate addition on the functional properties of milk protein concentrate solutions containing transglutaminase cross-linked proteins

    Power, Orla M.; Fenelon, Mark; O'Mahony, James A.; McCarthy, Noel; Teagasc Wash Fellowship Programme (Elsevier BV, 2020-05)
    The functional properties of milk protein concentrate (MPC) powders are often hindered by their poor solubility. Calcium chelating salts have been shown to improve powder solubility, but generally their action contributes to higher viscosity due to disintegration of casein micelles and higher levels of serum-phase calcium. To help mitigate increases in viscosity associated with calcium chelation, transglutaminase (TGase), an enzyme that covalently crosslinks protein, was employed in an effort to stabilise the casein micelle structure. Sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP) was added to control (C-MPC) and TGase crosslinked MPC (TG-MPC) dispersions at concentrations of 5, 12.5 and 25 mm prior to analysis. TG-MPC dispersions had lower viscosity than C-MPC dispersions across all SHMP concentrations studied. Crosslinking limited micelle dissociation on SHMP addition and led to greater retention of the white colour of the protein dispersions, while the turbidity of C-MPC dispersions decreased with increasing SHMP addition.
  • Review of near-infrared spectroscopy as a process analytical technology for real-time product monitoring in dairy processing

    Pu, Yuan-Yuan; O'Donnell, Colm; Tobin, John T.; O'Shea, Norah; Dairy Processing Technology Centre; Enterprise Ireland; TC/2014/0016 (Elsevier BV, 2020-04)
    Real-time process/product monitoring can be achieved using suitable process analytical technologies (PAT) to improve process efficiencies and product quality. In the dairy industry, near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been utilised as a laboratory analytical method (off-line) for compositional analysis of dairy products since the 1970s. Recent advances in NIR technology and instrumentation have widened its applications from a bench-top analytical instrument to a promising PAT tool for on-line and in-line implementation. This review focuses on the use of NIR technology for real-time monitoring of dairy products, by briefly outlining the measurement principle, NIR instrument configurations, in-line sampling methods, calibration models development, some practical considerations for process installation, and current state of the art in on-line and in-line NIR applications (2012 to date) for continuous process monitoring in the production of dairy products. The challenges and additional resources required to improve production efficiencies using NIR spectroscopy are also discussed.
  • Fabrication and characterization of highly re-dispersible dry emulsions

    Lu, Wei; Maidannyk, Valentyn; Kelly, Alan L.; Miao, Song; Shanghai Pujiang Program; Shanghai Jiao Tong University; 19PJ1406500; 19X100040028 (Elsevier BV, 2020-05)
    Highly re-dispersible dry emulsions were obtained through drying konjac glucomannan (KGM) or monoglyceride (MG) structured O/W emulsions. Emulsion powders showed different morphologies, particle size and surface microstructures, depending on the drying method (spray/freeze-drying), and the emulsion compositions. The introduction of a low level of KGM (0.15 wt%) and MG (1 wt%) significantly reduced the level of maltodextrin as wall material. All powdered emulsions showed rapid re-hydration in water. Compared with original emulsions before drying, re-constituted emulsions from spray-dried powders showed slightly increased mean droplet size while that from freeze-dried ones showed slightly decreased mean droplet size. KGM significantly decreased the initial viscosity (p < 0.05) but increased the creaming stability (p < 0.05) of re-constituted emulsions. Measurement of β-carotene content in re-constituted oil droplets fractions indicated that emulsion powders have good re-dispersibility in water (>93% in average). The findings in this study make it possible to obtain emulsion powders and their reconstitutions with desired properties by structuring the original emulsions before drying, and confirmed the possibility of KGM and MG in producing low-cost emulsion powders and the potential of these dry emulsions as novel solid delivery carriers for lipophilic components.
  • Dynamic in situ imaging of semi-hard cheese microstructure under large-strain tensile deformation: Understanding structure-fracture relationships

    Lamichhane, Prabin; Auty, Mark A.E.; Kelly, Alan L.; Sheehan, Diarmuid (JJ); Dairy Research Ireland; Ornua; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme; RMIS 6259 (Elsevier BV, 2020-04)
    Changes in the microstructure of semi-hard cheeses were observed in situ under tensile deformation by placing a microtensile stage directly under a confocal scanning laser microscope, and recording force/displacement data simultaneously. On tensile deformation, detachment of fat globules and their subsequent release from the cheese matrix were observed, suggesting that they are weakly bonded to or entrapped within the cheese matrix. Moreover, an inherent micro-defect was observed at a curd granule junction within the cheese matrix, which fractured along the curd granule junction under tensile deformation, suggesting that such micro-defects could be a key to the formation of undesirable slits or cracks. Furthermore, the fracture behaviour of semi-hard cheese varied with ripening temperature, coagulant type, and inhibition of residual chymosin activity. Overall, this study demonstrated the potential of dynamic in situ imaging of cheese microstructure for developing a greater understanding of the breakdown behaviour of cheese matrices.
  • Microfiltration of raw milk for production of high-purity milk fat globule membrane material

    Hansen, Steffen F.; Hogan, Sean; Tobin, John; Rasmussen, Jan T.; Larsen, Lotte B.; Wiking, Lars; Arla Foods for Health Centre; Arla Food Ingredients; Innovation Fund Denmark; 5158-00014B (Elsevier BV, 2020-07)
    Commercial ingredients containing milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) material are currently isolated from heavily processed dairy streams. The aim of this study was to achieve a more gentle isolation of MFGM material by means of ceramic dia-microfiltration of raw whole milk to separate fat globules from casein micelles and whey proteins prior to MFGM extraction. A pilot-scale experiment with 1.4 μm pore size (membrane surface area 1.05 m2) resulted in an optimal outcome of low permeation of fat (2.5% permeation) and high permeation of proteins (97% permeation). This yielded an MFGM isolate with 7% w/w polar lipids and 30% w/w proteins, where contamination of non-MFGM proteins was only 25% of total protein content. Furthermore, mild pasteurization (72 °C, 15 s) introduced either before or after microfiltration had no impact on filtration efficiency or MFGM yield and composition. The work describes an industrially relevant production method for a less-processed MFGM material of high purity with potential for further separation and valorisation of protein-rich permeate streams.
  • Bioprocessing of brewers’ spent grain for production of Xylanopectinolytic enzymes by Mucor sp.

    Hassan, Shady S.; Tiwari, Brijesh K; Adams, Gwylim A.; Jaiswal, Amit K.; TU Dublin; Science Foundation Ireland; 16/RC/3889 (Elsevier, 2019-12-26)
    The potential of microwave and ultrasound was evaluated for the pretreatment of brewer's spent grain (BSG). Under optimal conditions of microwave and ultrasound pretreatments, reducing sugar yields per 1 g of pretreated BSG were 64.4 ± 7 mg and 39.9 ± 6 mg, respectively. Subsequently, the pretreated BSG was evaluated as a substrate for production of Xylanopectinolytic enzymes using fungi isolated from spoiled fruits. Out of twenty-nine (29) isolates recovered, Mucor sp. (AB1) isolated from Bramley apple (Malus domestica) produced xylanopectinolytic enzymes with higher specific activity, and was selected for further studies. The highest enzyme activity (137 U/g, and 67 U/g BSG, for pectinase and xylanase, respectively) was achieved in a medium that contained 15 g of BSG, at pH 6, temperature of 30 °C, supplemented with 1% xylan or pectin for inducing the production of xylanase or pectinase, respectively. The partially purified xylanopectinolytic enzymes were optimally active at 60 °C and pH 5.
  • Evolution of the bovine milk fatty acid profile – From colostrum to milk five days post parturition

    O'Callaghan, Tom; O'Donovan, Michael; Murphy, John; Sugrue, Katie; Mannion, David; McCarthy, William P.; Timlin, Mark; Kilcawley, Kieran; Hickey, Rita M.; Tobin, John T. (Elsevier BV, 2020-05)
    Milk was collected from each of 18 cows (presenting an even spread of 1st, 2nd and 3rd lactation): colostrum on the day of calving and subsequent morning milk 1–5 days post parturition. Days post parturition significantly affected the fatty acid profile of colostrum and transition milk samples. The colostrum fatty acid profile was distinctly different from that of mature milk, with significantly higher levels of polyunsaturated and saturated fatty acids. Parity of the cow had a significant effect on the fatty acid profile of colostrum and transition milk samples; conjugated linoleic acid was significantly higher in cows entering their 1st lactation than in those in their 3rd lactation, while multiparous cows produced significantly higher concentrations of C16:0. The changing composition of the fatty acid profile can be classed into three distinct phases: colostrum (D0), transition milk (D1 and D2 post parturition) and mature milk (D3–D5).
  • The effects of sequential heat treatment on microbial reduction and spore inactivation during milk processing

    Li, Fang; Hunt, Karen; Buggy, Aoife K.; Murphy, Kevin; Ho, Quang Tri; O'Callaghan, Tom; Butler, Francis; Jordan, Kieran; Tobin, John; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; et al. (Elsevier BV, 2020-05)
    Sequential heating processes are commonly applied to milk by the dairy industry as part of their microbiological control strategy. Often pasteurisation at 72 °C is followed by a sequential high heat treatment step of up to 125 °C; however, such severe heat treatment can lead to reduced protein quality. Nine temperature combinations (80–90 °C) were evaluated to assess microbial reduction and whey protein nitrogen index values during pilot scale milk processing. A total of 110 bacterial isolates were identified to species level by 16S rDNA sequencing, with Bacillus licheniformis identified as the dominant species. While the experimental treatments did not achieve microbial reductions comparable with the control heating process, the results of this study provide a benchmark for milk processors relative to the effects of sequential heat treatments on milk and their impact on the survival of both thermally resistant microbial populations and thermally labile milk components during processing.
  • Evaluation of Phage Therapy in the Context of Enterococcus faecalis and Its Associated Diseases

    Bolocan, Andrei S.; Upadrasta, Aditya; de Almeida Bettio, Pedro H.; Clooney, Adam G.; Draper, Lorraine A.; Ross, R. Paul; Hill, Colin; Science Foundation Ireland; European Union; Janssen Biotech, Inc.; et al. (MDPI, 2019-04-20)
    Bacteriophages (phages) or bacterial viruses have been proposed as natural antimicrobial agents to fight against antibiotic-resistant bacteria associated with human infections. Enterococcus faecalis is a gut commensal, which is occasionally found in the mouth and vaginal tract, and does not usually cause clinical problems. However, it can spread to other areas of the body and cause life-threatening infections, such as septicemia, endocarditis, or meningitis, in immunocompromised hosts. Although E. faecalis phage cocktails are not commercially available within the EU or USA, there is an accumulated evidence from in vitro and in vivo studies that have shown phage efficacy, which supports the idea of applying phage therapy to overcome infections associated with E. faecalis. In this review, we discuss the potency of bacteriophages in controlling E. faecalis, in both in vitro and in vivo scenarios. E. faecalis associated bacteriophages were compared at the genome level and an attempt was made to categorize phages with respect to their suitability for therapeutic application, using orthocluster analysis. In addition, E. faecalis phages have been examined for the presence of antibiotic-resistant genes, to ensure their safe use in clinical conditions. Finally, the domain architecture of E. faecalis phage-encoded endolysins are discussed.
  • Urease and Nitrification Inhibitors—As Mitigation Tools for Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Sustainable Dairy Systems: A Review

    Byrne, Maria P.; Tobin, John T.; Forrestal, Patrick J.; Danaher, Martin; Nkwonta, Chikere; Richards, Karl; Cummins, Enda; Hogan, Sean A.; O'Callaghan, Tom; Department of Agriculture Food and the Marine; et al. (MDPI AG, 2020-07-27)
    Currently, nitrogen fertilizers are utilized to meet 48% of the total global food demand. The demand for nitrogen fertilizers is expected to grow as global populations continue to rise. The use of nitrogen fertilizers is associated with many negative environmental impacts and is a key source of greenhouse and harmful gas emissions. In recent years, urease and nitrification inhibitors have emerged as mitigation tools that are presently utilized in agriculture to prevent nitrogen losses and reduce greenhouse and harmful gas emissions that are associated with the use of nitrogen-based fertilizers. Both classes of inhibitor work by different mechanisms and have different physiochemical properties. Consequently, each class must be evaluated on its own merits. Although there are many benefits associated with the use of these inhibitors, little is known about their potential to enter the food chain, an event that may pose challenges to food safety. This phenomenon was highlighted when the nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide was found as a residual contaminant in milk products in 2013. This comprehensive review aims to discuss the uses of inhibitor technologies in agriculture and their possible impacts on dairy product safety and quality, highlighting areas of concern with regards to the introduction of these inhibitor technologies into the dairy supply chain. Furthermore, this review discusses the benefits and challenges of inhibitor usage with a focus on EU regulations, as well as associated health concerns, chemical behavior, and analytical detection methods for these compounds within milk and environmental matrices.
  • Assessing the Carbon Emission Driven by the Consumption of Carbohydrate-Rich Foods: The Case of China

    Yang, Xiaoke; Zhang, Zhihang; Chen, Huangyixin; Zhao, Rongrong; Xu, Zhongyue; Xie, Anguo; Chen, Qiuhua; Fujian Provincial Social Science Research Base for Ecological Civilization; Guangdong Planning Projects of Philosophy and Social Science; Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province; et al. (MDPI AG, 2019-03-28)
    Background: Carbohydrate-rich (CR) foods are essential parts of the Chinese diet. However, CR foods are often given less attention than animal-based foods. The objectives of this study were to analyze the carbon emissions caused by CR foods and to generate sustainable diets with low climate impact and adequate nutrients. Methods: Twelve common CR food consumption records from 4857 individuals were analyzed using K-means clustering algorithms. Furthermore, linear programming was used to generate optimized diets. Results: Total carbon emissions by CR foods was 683.38g CO2eq per day per capita, accounting for an annual total of 341.9Mt CO2eq. All individuals were ultimately divided into eight clusters, and none of the popular clusters were low carbon or nutrient sufficient. Optimized diets could reduce about 40% of carbon emissions compared to the average current diet. However, significant structural differences exist between the current diet and optimized diets. Conclusions: To reduce carbon emissions from the food chain, CR foods should be a research focus. Current Chinese diets need a big change to achieve positive environmental and health goals. The reduction of rice and wheat-based foods and an increase of bean foods were the focus of structural dietary change in CR food consumption.
  • The Use of High Performance Liquid Chromatography for the Characterization of the Unfolding and Aggregation of Dairy Proteins

    Gaspard, Sophie; Brodkorb, Andre; Dairy Levy Research Trust; Food Institutional Research Measure; Enterprise Ireland; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme; MDDT6261; 08RDTMFRC650; CC20080001; 2012211 (Springer New York, 2019-07-25)
    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is routinely used to identify and characterize proteins. HPLC can help to understand protein aggregation processes in dairy products, which are induced by common industrial processing steps such as heat treatment. In this chapter, three complementary chromatographic methods are described, which are based on the principles of size exclusion and reversed-phase chromatography. These methods are used to determine the degree of denaturation and aggregation of proteins, and estimate the molecular weight of these aggregates.
  • Influence of high-pressure processing on quality attributes of haddock and mackerel minces during frozen storage, and fishcakes prepared thereof

    Cropotova, Janna; Mozuraityte, Revilija; Standal, Inger Beate; Ojha, Shikha; Rustad, Turid; Tiwari, Brijesh K; JPI; RCN 259582/E50 (Elsevier BV, 2020-01)
  • Comparative Genomics Analysis of Lactobacillus ruminis from Different Niches

    Wang, Shuo; Yang, Bo; Ross, R. Paul; STANTON, CATHERINE; Zhao, Jianxin; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei; National Natural Science Foundation of China; Jiangsu Province; 31771953; et al. (MDPI AG, 2020-01-08)
    Lactobacillus ruminis is a commensal motile lactic acid bacterium living in the intestinal tract of humans and animals. Although a few genomes of L. ruminis were published, most of them were animal derived. To explore the genetic diversity and potential niche-specific adaptation changes of L. ruminis, in the current work, draft genomes of 81 L. ruminis strains isolated from human, bovine, piglet, and other animals were sequenced, and comparative genomic analysis was performed. The genome size and GC content of L. ruminis on average were 2.16 Mb and 43.65%, respectively. Both the origin and the sampling distance of these strains had a great influence on the phylogenetic relationship. For carbohydrate utilization, the human-derived L. ruminis strains had a higher consistency in the utilization of carbon source compared to the animal-derived strains. L. ruminis mainly increased the competitiveness of niches by producing class II bacteriocins. The type of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats /CRISPR-associated (CRISPR/Cas) system presented in L. ruminis was mainly subtype IIA. The diversity of CRISPR/Cas locus depended on the high denaturation of spacer number and sequence, although cas1 protein was relatively conservative. The genetic differences in those newly sequenced L. ruminis strains highlighted the gene gains and losses attributed to niche adaptations.
  • Assessing the ability of Nisin A and derivatives thereof to inhibit Gram-negative bacteria from the genus Thermus

    Jonnala, Bhagya R. Yeluri; Feehily, Conor; O'Connor, Paula M.; Field, Des; Hill, Colin; Ross, R. Paul; McSweeney, P. L. H.; Sheehan, Diarmuid (JJ); Cotter, Paul D. (2020-12-09)

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