• Enhancing the Extraction of Polysaccharides and Antioxidants from Macroalgae Using Sequential Hydrothermal-Assisted Extraction Followed by Ultrasound and Thermal Technologies

      Garcia-Vaquero, Marco; O'Doherty, John V.; Tiwari, Brijesh K; Sweeney, Torres; Rajauria, Gaurav; Science Foundation Ireland; 14/IA/2548 (MDPI, 2019-08-05)
      Fucose sulphated polysaccharides (FSPs) and glucans have recently attracted the attention of the scientific community due to their wide range of biological activities. Both polysaccharides should ideally be selectively extracted using innovative technologies with high extraction efficiency. This study aims to: (1) Optimise the extraction variables used in hydrothermal-assisted extraction (HAE) to obtain high yields of FSPs, total glucans, and antioxidants from Laminaria hyperborea; (2) to apply these optimised protocols to other brown macroalgae; and (3) to explore the application of ultrasound and thermal technologies to increase the recovery of polysaccharides from the residual biomass. Box-Behnken design (three-factor, four-levels) was employed to optimise the HAE variables, and principal component analysis was used to evaluate the recovery of polysaccharides from the residual biomass. The optimal HAE conditions were 120 °C, 80.9 min, and 12.02 mL/g macroalgae from L. hyperborea. The best sequential application of ultrasound and thermal treatment achieved an additional 2971.7 ± 61.9 mg fucose/100 g dried macroalgal residue (dmr) from Ascophyllum nodosum and 908.0 ± 51.4 mg total glucans/100 g dmr from L. hyperborea macroalgal residues.
    • Optimisation of Ultrasound Frequency, Extraction Time and Solvent for the Recovery of Polyphenols, Phlorotannins and Associated Antioxidant Activity from Brown Seaweeds

      Ummat, Viruja; Tiwari, Brijesh K; Jaiswal, Amit K; Condon, Kevin; Garcia-Vaquero, Marco; O’Doherty, John; O’Donnell, Colm; Rajauria, Gaurav; Science Foundation Ireland; 16/RC/3889; et al. (MDPI AG, 2020-05-11)
      This study investigates ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) process parameters (time, frequency and solvent) to obtain high yields of phlorotannins, flavonoids, total phenolics and associated antioxidant activities from 11 brown seaweed species. Optimised UAE conditions (35 kHz, 30 min and 50% ethanol) significantly improved the extraction yield from 1.5-fold to 2.2-fold in all seaweeds investigated compared to solvent extraction. Using ultrasound, the highest recovery of total phenolics (TPC: 572.3 ± 3.2 mg gallic acid equivalent/g), total phlorotannins (TPhC: 476.3 ± 2.2 mg phloroglucinol equivalent/g) and total flavonoids (TFC: 281.0 ± 1.7 mg quercetin equivalent/g) was obtained from Fucus vesiculosus seaweed. While the lowest recovery of TPC (72.6 ± 2.9 mg GAE/g), TPhC (50.3 ± 2.0 mg PGE/g) and TFC (15.2 ± 3.3 mg QE/g) was obtained from Laminaria digitata seaweed. However, extracts from Fucus serratus obtained by UAE exhibited the strongest 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity (29.1 ± 0.25 mg trolox equivalent/g) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) value (63.9 ± 0.74 mg trolox equivalent/g). UAE under optimised conditions was an effective, low-cost and eco-friendly technique to recover biologically active polyphenols from 11 brown seaweed species.