• Effect of plant protein mixtures on the microstructure and rheological properties of myofibrillar protein gel derived from red sea bream (Pagrosomus major)

      Lin, Duanquang; Zhang, Longtao; Li, Runjing; Zheng, Baodong; Rea, Mary; Miao, Song; National Natural Science Foundation of China; 31628016 (Elsevier, 2019-11-30)
      In this study, the influence of plant protein mixtures (soy protein isolate (SPI) + peanut protein isolate (PPI), SPI + rice protein isolate (RPI), and PPI + RPI) on the microstructure, rheological properties and molecular driving forces of myofibrillar protein (MP) gels was studied. SPI could form a gel with smoother and denser network, while the structures of PPI and RPI gels were rougher, which led to the network structures of SPI + PPI and SPI + RPI gels but the disrupted structure of PPI + RPI gel. However, the SPI + RPI and PPI + RPI gels with different microstructures exhibited larger gel strength compared to the RPI gel. After mixing MP with the mixture of SPI + PPI and SPI + RPI, the mixed gels became more compact, evener and smoother, while the mixture of PPI + RPI induced more pores to the MP gel. However, G′ values of these three kinds of mixed gels were similar and much larger than that of MP gel. In addition, the molecular driving forces involved in the mixed plant protein gels and mixed MP-plant protein gels were mainly hydrophobic interactions and disulfide bonds.
    • Effect of ultrasound on physicochemical properties of emulsion stabilized by fish myofibrillar protein and xanthan gum

      Xiong, Yao; Li, Qianru; Miao, Song; Zhang, Yi; Zheng, Baodong; Zhang, Longtao; Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University; Fujian Provincial Foreign Cooperation Project; Fujian Provincial Science and Technology Program of Regional Development Project; National Natural Science Foundation of China; et al. (Elsevier, 2019-04-30)
      To investigate the effects ultrasound (20 kHz, 150–600 W) on physicochemical properties of emulsion stabilized by myofibrillar protein (MP) and xanthan gum (XG), the emulsions were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, ζ-potential, particle size, rheology, surface tension, and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). FT-IR spectra confirmed the complexation of MP and XG, and ultrasound did not change the functional groups in the complexes. The emulsion treated at 300 W showed the best stability, with the lowest particle size, the lowest surface tension (26.7 mNm−1) and the largest ζ-potential absolute value (25.4 mV), that were confirmed in the CLSM photos. Ultrasound reduced the apparent viscosity of the MP-XG emulsions, and the changes of particle size were manifested in flow properties. Generally, ultrasound was successfully applied to improve the physical stability of MP-XG emulsion, which could be used as a novel delivery system for functional material.
    • Effects of oligosaccharides on particle structure, pasting and thermal properties of wheat starch granules under different freezing temperatures

      Su, Han; Tu, Jinjin; Zheng, Mingging; Deng, Kaibo; Miao, Song; Zeng, Shaoxiao; Zheng, Baodong; Lu, Xu; National Natural Science Foundation of China; Science and Technology Major Project of Fujian Province of China; et al. (Elsevier, 2020-06-15)
      The effects of fructooligosaccharides (FOS), galactooligosaccharides (GOS), and xylooligosaccharides (XOS) on gelatinization, retrogradation, thermal properties and particle size of wheat starch at different freezing temperatures were studied. The results showed that the wheat starch porosity, particle size, peak viscosity increased with increasing freezing temperature. With the addition of 16% oligosaccharides to starch, the porosity, particle size, crystallinity, initial gelatinization temperature, peak value, breakdown and retrogradation viscosity of the starch granules significantly decreased in the order of XOS > GOS > FOS. However, the pasting temperature of the granules increased. The addition of oligosaccharides (especially XOS, which has the most significant effect in inhibiting starch retrogradation) can inhibit the formation of starch crystal structures to a certain extent, reduce the damage from ice crystals to starch granules and delay starch retrogradation. Therefore, functional oligosaccharides can be used as a potentially effective additive to increase freezing stability in frozen starch-based foods.
    • Improved emulsion stability and modified nutrient release by structuring O/W emulsions using konjac glucomannan

      Lu, Wei; Zheng, Baodong; Miao, Song; National Natural Science Foundation of China; China Scholarship Council; 31628016; 201508300001 (Elsevier, 2018-02-22)
      Functional konjac glucomannan (KGM) was used to structure the water phase of O/W emulsions containing a lipophilic bioactive compound (β-carotene). KGM greatly increased the viscosity of the water phase and thus the viscosity of final emulsions. Results of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) showed that there is no significant non-covalent interaction between KGM and whey proteins in the water phase. KGM significantly improved the creaming and pH stability of whey-protein-stabilized emulsions (p < 0.05), and significantly decreased the oiling-off of emulsions during freeze-thaw test. Emulsions with or without KGM all had good thermal stability at 80 °C. Microscopy observations indicated obvious aggregation of free proteins and oil droplets in gastric phase and an enzymatic-induced break-down of droplets, mainly in the intestinal phase of the simulated gastrointestinal tract (GIT) digestion. Emulsions with KGM-structured water phase showed a lower final release rate of encapsulated β-carotene than emulsion without KGM (p < 0.05), and the release rate decreased with the increasing KGM content. The findings of this study contribute to a better understanding of the influence of the water phase on the release of encapsulated compounds from emulsions, and make it possible to achieve controlled release of encapsulated compounds, and/or to deliver multiple health-beneficial nutrients at once by structuring emulsion-based carriers with functional natural biopolymers.
    • Influence of ultrasound-assisted alkali treatment on the structural properties and functionalities of rice protein

      Zhang, Longtao; Pan, Zheng; Shen, Kaiqing; Cai, Xiaohua; Zheng, Baodong; Miao, Song; China Scholarship Council; 20153012 (Elsevier, 2017-10-27)
      The poor solubility of rice protein (RP) limits its applications in food industry. In this study, the effects of ultrasound-assisted alkali (UAA) treatment on the solubility, structure and functional properties of RP were investigated. Using UAA treatment, the solubility of RP increased with increasing alkali concentration, reaching a maximum value of 19.79 mg/mL at an alkali concentration of 0.08 M. The solubility was improved by 230-fold compared to un-treated samples. In addition, a reduction in particle size and degradation of the protein subunit were observed. UAA seemed to unfold the protein internal structural conformation and expose buried functional groups, which are linked to good emulsifying properties and foaming properties. A decrease in zeta potential was also observed after UAA treatment, which could be the reason for the decreased stability of the emulsion. UAA treatment modified the protein structure and significantly improved solubility.
    • Inhibition Effect of Triglyceride Accumulation by Large Yellow Croaker Roe DHA-PC in HepG2 Cells.

      Lu, Xiaodan; Zhong, Rongbin; Sun, He; Zheng, Baodong; Chen, Lijiao; Miao, Song; Liang, Peng; National Key R&D Program, China; National Natural Science Foundation, China; Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University; et al. (MDPI, 2019-08-21)
      The phospholipids (PLs) of large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea, P. crocea) roe contain a high level of polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which can lower blood lipid levels. In previous research, PLs of P. crocea roe were found able to regulate the accumulation of triglycerides. However, none of these involve the function of DHA-containing phosphatidylcholine (DHA-PC), which is the main component of PLs derived from P. crocea roe. The function by which DHA-PC from P. crocea roe exerts its effects has not yet been clarified. Herein, we used purified DHA-PC and oleic acid (OA) induced HepG2 cells to establish a high-fat model, and the cell activity and intracellular lipid levels were then measured. The mRNA and protein expression of Fatty Acid Synthase (FAS), Carnitine Palmitoyl Transferase 1A (CPT1A) and Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor α (PPARα) in HepG2 cells were detected via RT-qPCR and western blot as well. It was found that DHA-PC can significantly regulate triglyceride accumulation in HepG2 cells, the effect of which was related to the activation of PPARα receptor activity, upregulation of CPT1A, and downregulation of FAS expression. These results can improve the understanding of the biofunction of hyperlipidemia mediated by DHA-PC from P. crocea roe, as well as provide a theoretical basis for the utilization of DHA-PC from P. crocea roe as a functional food additive.
    • Interactions of vegetable proteins with other polymers: Structure-function relationships and applications in the food industry

      Lin, Duanquan; Lu, Wei; Kelly, Alan L.; Zhang, Longtao; Zheng, Baodong; Miao, Song; National Natural Science Foundation of China; 31628016 (Elsevier, 2017-08-24)
      Background In recent years, there has been increasing interest in vegetable proteins, due to their various health beneficial functions and wide applications in the food industry. Vegetable proteins combined with other edible polymers can be used to improve the quality and nutritional value of food products. In these complex food systems, interactions between different components are inevitable, and these interactions have a significant influence on the structure and functions of food products. Scope and approach This study reviews the current status of knowledge of interactions between vegetable proteins and other polymers (proteins or polysaccharides) in food systems and the structure of complexes formed by these interactions. The study also provides a comprehensive review of the applications of the complexes. Key findings and conclusions Vegetable proteins display different types of interactions with other polymers (e.g., polysaccharides, or animal proteins) under different conditions, thus forming a variety of complexes with different structures (e.g., double networks, mosaic textures and cross-linked structures), which showed different impact on properties of the final food products and their applications (e.g., substitution for fat, or encapsulation for bioactive ingredients) in the food industry. However, previous studies mainly focused on leguminous proteins and vegetable-protein-based mixtures of two polymers, further studies on other vegetable proteins and more complex food systems containing vegetable proteins and other polymers are required.
    • Lotus seed oligosaccharides at various dosages with prebiotic activity regulate gut microbiota and relieve constipation in mice.

      Su, Han; Chen, Jinghao; Miao, Song; Deng, Kaibo; Liu, Jiawen; Zeng, Shaoxiao; Zheng, Baodong; Lu, Xu; China-Ireland International Cooperation Centre; National Natural Science Foundation of China; et al. (Elsevier, 2019-09-27)
      The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of lotus seed oligosaccharides (formulation consisting of LSO2, LSO3-1, LSO3-2 and LSO4; relative ratios are 1.107:0.554: 0.183:0.443, m/m/m/m) at dosages of 0.42, 0.83 g/d/kg bw and 2.49 g/d/kg bw on the microbiota composition and the propulsion of intestinal contents in the gut of mice. The results showed that fecal water content increased in treated mice; there was less gut microbiota diversity than in other groups; and there was a large number of fauna in the cecum of the mice. At the same time, the number of short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) bacterial producers increased after feeding with oligosaccharides; Lotus seed oligosaccharides (LOS) also enhanced the concentration of SCFAs in the intestine, which also increased the concentration of cytokines in the serum of mice. In conclusion, these findings suggest that LOS or combination with resistant starch has a better effect on relieving constipation.
    • Optimization of ultrasound-microwave synergistic extraction of prebiotic oligosaccharides from sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas L.)

      Guo, Zebin; Zhao, Beibei; Li, Huang; Miao, Song; Zheng, Baodong; FAFU Funds for Distinguished Young Scientists; International Science and Technology Cooperation and Exchange Project of Fujian Agriculture And Forestry University; Science and Technology Project of Fujian Provincial Education Department; xjq201618; KXGH17001; et al. (Elsevier, 2019-03-19)
      In this study, efficient ultrasound–microwave-assisted extraction (UMAE) of prebiotic oligosaccharides from sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas L.) was investigated. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the extraction conditions: extraction time, ultrasonic power, and microwave power. The prebiotic effect of extracted oligosaccharides on Bifidobacterium adolescentis was also investigated. The results show that the processing conditions of UMAE for optimum the yields of prebiotic oligosaccharides from sweet potatoes (PPOS4 and PPOS5) and corresponding absorbance (OD) are 100 s extraction time, 300 W ultrasonic power, and 200 W microwave power. Under these conditions, the experimental yields of PPOS4 and PPOS5 and the corresponding OD were 1.472%, 5.476%, and 2.966, respectively, which match the predicted values well. Compared with the conventional hot-water extraction (HWE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), and ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) methods, the UMAE procedure exhibited significantly high extraction efficiency (p < 0.05). Comparison of SEM images of tissues of the sweet potatoes after extractions indicate microfractures and disruption of cell walls in the potato tissues. These results confirm that UMAE has great potential and efficiency in the extraction of bioactive substances in the food and medicinal industries.
    • Paste structure and rheological properties of lotus seed starch–glycerin monostearate complexes formed by high-pressure homogenization

      Chen, Bingyan; Guo, Zebin; Zeng, Shaoxiao; Tian, Yuting; Miao, Song; Zheng, Baodong; National Natural Science Foundation of China; Scientific and Technological Innovation Team Support Plan of Institution of Higher Learning in Fujian Province; Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University of China; 31501485; et al. (Elsevier, 2017-10-31)
      Starch–lipid complexes were prepared using lotus seed starch (LS) and glycerin monostearate (GMS) via a high-pressure homogenization (HPH) process, and the effect of HPH on the paste structure and rheological properties of LS–GMS was investigated. Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA) profiles showed that HPH treatment inhibited the formation of the second viscosity peak of the LS–GMS paste, and the extent of this change was dependent on the level of homogenized pressure. Analysis of the size-exclusion chromatography, light microscopy, and low-field 1H nuclear magnetic resonance results revealed that high homogenized pressure (70–100 MPa) decreased molecular weight and size by degrading the branch structure of amylopectin; however, intact LS–GMS granules can optimize the network structure by filler–matrix interaction, which causes free water to transition into immobile water in the starch paste. The steady-shear results showed that the LS–GMS pastes presented non-Newtonian shear-thinning behavior, with higher homogenized pressure producing a smaller hysteresis loop area. During the oscillation process, the LS–GMS pastes prepared at 100 MPa exhibited the lowest loss tangent values in all the complexes, indicating a stronger resistance to vibration.
    • Phenotypic, fermentation characterization, and resistance mechanism analysis of bacteriophage-resistant mutants of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus isolated from traditional Chinese dairy products

      Deng, Kaibo; Fang, Wei; Zheng, Baodong; Miao, Song; Huo, Guicheng; International Technological Cooperation and Exchange Plan of Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University; National Natural Science Funds of China; Scientific and Technological Innovation Team Support Plan of Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University; KXGH17001; 31171717; et al. (Elsevier, 2017-12-21)
      Bacteriophage infection is a large factor in dairy industrial production failure on the basis of pure inoculation fermentation, and developing good commercial starter cultures from wild dairy products and improving the environmental vigor of starter cultures by enhancing their phage resistance are still the most effective solutions. Here we used a spontaneous isolation method to obtain bacteriophage-resistant mutants of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus strains that are used in traditional Chinese fermented dairy products. We analyzed their phenotypes, fermentation characteristics, and resistance mechanisms. The results showed that bacteriophage-insensitive mutants (BIM) BIM8 and BIM12 had high bacteriophage resistance while exhibiting fermentation and coagulation attributes that were as satisfying as those of their respective parent strains KLDS1.1016 and KLDS1.1028. According to the attachment receptor detection, mutants BIM8 and BIM12 exhibited reduced absorption to bacteriophage phiLdb compared with their respective bacteriophage-sensitive parent strains because of changes to the polysaccharides or teichoic acids connected to their peptidoglycan layer. Additionally, genes, including HSDR, HSDM, and HSDS, encoding 3 subunits of a type I restriction-modification system were identified in their respective parent strains. We also discovered that HSDR and HSDM were highly conserved but that HSDS was variable because it is responsible for the DNA specificity of the complex. The late lysis that occurred only in strain KLDS1.1016 and not in strain KLDS1.1028 suggests that the former and its mutant BIM8 also may have an activatable restriction-modification mechanism. We conclude that the L. bulgaricus BIM8 and BIM12 mutants have great potential in the dairy industry as starter cultures, and their phage-resistance mechanism was effective mainly due to the adsorption interference and restriction-modification system.
    • Preparation and characterization of lotus seed starch-fatty acid complexes formed by microfluidization

      Chen, Bingyan; Guo, Zebin; Miao, Song; Zeng, Shaoxiao; Jia, Xiangze; Zhang, Yi; Zheng, Baodong; National Natural Science Foundation of China; Scientific and Technological Innovation Team Support Plan of Institution of Higher Learning in Fujian Province; Construction Projects of Top University; et al. (Elsevier, 2018-05-22)
      Using dynamic high pressure microfluidization, we prepared starch-lipid complexes from lotus seed starch (LS) and six saturated fatty acids (FAs) of different carbon chain length and analyzed their semi-crystalline structure and digestibility. Iodine blue value analysis showed the highest complex index (86.3%) was observed between LS and octanoic acid (C8). X-ray diffraction analysis showed crystal structure changed from V6II to V6I type with decreasing FA chain length. Small angle x-ray scattering and differential scanning calorimetry analyses confirmed the presence of a strong V6I-type mass fractal structure with a Bragg distance of 12.3 nm in LS-C8, which can be considered to be a type-II complex with high melting temperature (Tp = 123.98 °C). Scanning electron microscopy results showed the complexes had more spherocrystals with decreasing FA chain length. Compared to other FAs, C8 significantly reduced the LS susceptibility to digestive enzymes, increased slowly digestion starch content (26.06%) and decreased digestion rate (3.59 × 10−2).
    • Rheological properties and structural features of coconut milk emulsions stabilized with maize kernels and starch

      Lu, Xu; Su, Han; Guo, Juanjuan; Tu, Jinjin; Lei, Yi; Zeng, Shaoxiao; Chen, Yingtong; Miao, Song; Zheng, Baodong; China-Ireland International Cooperation Centre for Food Material Science and Structure Design; et al. (Elsevier, 2019-05-16)
      In this study, maize kernels and starch with different amylose contents at the same concentration were added to coconut milk. The nonionic composite surfactants were used to prepare various types of coconut milk beverages with optimal stability, and their fluid properties were studied. The steady and dynamic rheological property tests show that the loss modulus (G″) of coconut milk is larger than the storage modulus (G′), which is suitable for the pseudoplastic fluid model and has a shear thinning effect. As the droplet size of the coconut milk fluid changed by the addition of maize kernels and starch, the color intensity, ζ-potential, interfacial tension and stability of the sample significantly improved. The addition of the maize kernels significantly reduced the size of the droplets (p < 0.05). The potential values of zeta (ζ) and the surface tension of the coconut milk increased. Based on the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurement, the addition of maize kernels leads to an increase in the transition temperature, especially in samples with a high amylose content. The higher transition temperature can be attributed to the formation of some starches and lipids and the partial denaturation of proteins in coconut milk, but phase separation occurs. These results may be helpful for determining the properties of maize kernels in food-containing emulsions (such as sauces, condiments, and beverages) that achieve the goal of physical stability.
    • Separation of Oligosaccharides from Lotus Seeds via Medium-pressure Liquid Chromatography Coupled with ELSD and DAD

      Lu, Xu; Zheng, Zhichang; Miao, Song; Li, Huang; Guo, Zebin; Zhang, Yi; Zheng, Yafeng; Zheng, Baodong; Xiao, Jianbo; National Natural Science Foundation of China; et al. (Springer Science, 2017-03-09)
      Lotus seeds were identified by the Ministry of Public Health of China as both food and medicine. One general function of lotus seeds is to improve intestinal health. However, to date, studies evaluating the relationship between bioactive compounds in lotus seeds and the physiological activity of the intestine are limited. In the present study, by using medium pressure liquid chromatography coupled with evaporative light-scattering detector and diode-array detector, five oligosaccharides were isolated and their structures were further characterized by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In vitro testing determined that LOS3-1 and LOS4 elicited relatively good proliferative effects on Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. These results indicated a structure-function relationship between the physiological activity of oligosaccharides in lotus seeds and the number of probiotics applied, thus providing room for improvement of this particular feature. Intestinal probiotics may potentially become a new effective drug target for the regulation of immunity.
    • Slowly digestible properties of lotus seed starch-glycerine monostearin complexes formed by high pressure homogenization

      Chen, Bingyan; Jia, Xiangze; Miao, Song; Zeng, Shaoxiao; Guo, Zebin; Zhang, Yi; Zheng, Baodong; National Natural Science Foundation of China; Scientific and Technological Innovation Team Support Plan of Institution of Higher Learning in Fujian Province; Fujian Agriculture and Forestry university doctoral programme; et al. (Elsevier, 2018-01-06)
      Starch-lipid complexes were prepared using lotus seed starch (LS) and glycerin monostearate (GMS) via a high-pressure homogenization process, and the effect of high pressure homogenization (HPH) on the slow digestion properties of LS-GMS was investigated. The digestion profiles showed HPH treatment reduced the digestive rate of LS-GMS, and the extent of this change was dependent on homogenized pressure. Scanning electron microscopy displayed HPH treatment change the morphology of LS-GMS, with high pressure producing more compact block-shape structure to resist enzyme digestion. The results of Gel-permeation chromatography and Small-angle X-ray scattering revealed high homogenization pressure impacted molecular weight distribution and semi-crystalline region of complexes, resulting in the formation of new semi-crystalline with repeat unit distance of 16–18 nm and molecular weight distribution of 2.50–2.80 × 105 Da, which displayed strong enzymatic resistance. Differential scanning calorimeter results revealed new semi-crystalline lamellar may originate from type-II complexes that exhibited a high transition temperature.
    • The synthesis and characterization of a xanthan gum-acrylamide-trimethylolpropane triglycidyl ether hydrogel

      Zheng, Meixia; Lian, Fengli; Xiong, Yao; Liu, Bo; Zhu, Yujing; Miao, Song; Zhang, Longtao; Zheng, Baodong; International Science and Technology Cooperation and Exchange Program of Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University; National Natural Science Foundation of China; et al. (Elsevier, 2018-08-21)
      To improve the thermal stability and adsorption performance, xanthan gum was modified with acrylamide and trimethylolpropane triglycidyl ether (TTE). The modified xanthan gum (XGTTE) was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffractogram (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The characteristic peaks at 3449, 1655, 1611 and 1420 cm−1 in the FT-IR confirm the modification. The XGTTE crystal grew well upon addition of TTE. The XRD and DSC data revealed that the XGTTE enhanced its thermal stability. Analysis of SEM revealed that the grafting introduced major changes on the microstructure making it porous and resulting in the adsorption of crystal violet (CV) with flocculation. The CV adsorption capacity of the hydrogel with different dosages of TTE (XGTTE2, XGTTE3, XGTTE4, XGTTE5 and XGTTE6) were between 28.13 with 35.12 mg/g. In addition, the adsorption capacity, thermal stability, and swelling property of XGTTE4 were the best.
    • Using polysaccharides for the enhancement of functionality of foods: A review

      Lu, Xu; Chen, Jinghao; Guo, Zebin; Zheng, Yafeng; Rea, Mary; Su, Han; Zheng, Xiuhua; Zheng, Baodong; Miao, Song; National Natural Science Foundation of China; et al. (Elsevier, 2019-02-10)
      Background: Flavor, taste and functional ingredients are important ingredients of food, but they are easily lost or react during heating and are not stable. Carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions (CCIs) and carbohydrate-protein interactions (CPIs) are involved in a variety of regulatory biological processes in nature, including cell differentiation, proliferation, adhesion, inflammation and immune responses. Polysaccharides have high molecular weights and many intramolecular hydrogen bonds, can be easily modified chemically and biochemically to enhance bioadhesive and biostability of tissues. Therefore, polysaccharides are the foundation for building complex and stable biosystems that are non-toxic with highydrophilicity and easily biodegradable. Scope and approach: In this review, we summarize the principles and applications of polysaccharide delivery systems in a variety of foods. Key findings and conclusions: This review focuses on the self-assembly of carbohydrates with complex structures and discusses the latest advances in self-assembly systems. The host-guest complexes formed by polyvalent sugar conjugates have the potential to provide, control or target delivery or release systems. They can also extend the shelf life of food and prevent oxidation and isomerization during food storage. Moreover, very few studies have outlined a comprehensive overview of the use of various types of food polysaccharide matrixes for the assembly and protection of food ingredients, which is a very important area for further study.