• Bioactivity of beta-lactoglobulin and alpha-lactalbumin-Technological implications for processing

      Chatterton, Dereck E.W.; Smithers, Geoffrey; Roupas, Peter; Brodkorb, Andre (Elsevier, 17/08/2006)
      The dairy industry faces new technological challenges in order to exploit and maintain some of the bioactive properties of dairy components throughout processing. This review outlines these issues with respect to the two major whey proteins β-lactoglobulin (β-lg) and α-lactalbumin (α-la). Biological activities of both the intact proteins, and peptides derived from the proteins, are discussed e.g. inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), anti-microbial activity, anti-carcinogenic activity, hypocholesterolemic effect, metabolic and physiological effects. The levels necessary to provide beneficial effects and, if available, evidence from clinical trials are reported. Developments in the purification and enrichment of the proteins are discussed, and the technological implications of industrial processing on the bio-activity of the proteins are examined. The supplementation of infant formulas with α-lactalbumin enriched whey proteins is also discussed in light of its potentially improved bioactive properties.
    • Comparison of antioxidant activities of bovine whey proteins before and after simulated gastrointestinal digestion

      Corrochano, Alberto R.; Sariçay, Yunus; Arranz, Elena; Kelly, Philip; Buckin, Vitaly; Giblin, Linda; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme; 13 F 354-WheyGSH (Elsevier, 2018-10-24)
      Oxidative stress caused by free radicals has been implicated in several human disorders. Dietary antioxidants can help the body to counteract those reactive species and reduce oxidative stress. Antioxidant activity is one of the multiple health-promoting attributes assigned to bovine whey products. The present study investigated whether this activity was retained during upper gut transit using a static simulated in vitro gastrointestinal digestion (SGID) model. The capacity to scavenge free radicals and reduce ferric ion of whey protein isolate (WPI), individual whey proteins, and hydrolysates pre- and post-SGID were measured and compared using various antioxidant assays. In addition, the free AA released from individual protein fractions in physiological gut conditions were characterized. Our results indicated that the antioxidant activity of WPI after exposure to the harsh conditions of the upper gut significantly increased compared with intact WPI. From an antioxidant bioactivity viewpoint, this exposure negates the need for prior hydrolysis of WPI. The whey protein α-lactalbumin showed the highest antioxidant properties post-SGID (oxygen radical absorbance capacity = 1,825.94 ± 50.21 μmol of Trolox equivalents/g of powder) of the 4 major whey proteins tested with the release of the highest amount of the antioxidant AA tryptophan, 6.955 μmol of tryptophan/g of protein. Therefore, α-lactalbumin should be the preferred whey protein in food formulations to boost antioxidant defenses.
    • Exploring the Use of a Modified High-Temperature, Short-Time Continuous Heat Exchanger with Extended Holding Time (HTST-EHT) for Thermal Inactivation of Trypsin Following Selective Enzymatic Hydrolysis of the β-Lactoglobulin Fraction in Whey Protein Isolate.

      Sáez, Laura; Murphy, Eoin; FitzGerald, Richard J; Kelly, Philip; Enterprise Ireland; TC20130001 (MDPI, 2019-08-26)
      Tryptic hydrolysis of whey protein isolate under specific incubation conditions including a relatively high enzyme:substrate (E:S) ratio of 1:10 is known to preferentially hydrolyse β-lactoglobulin (β-LG), while retaining the other major whey protein fraction, i.e., α-lactalbumin (α-LA) mainly intact. An objective of the present work was to explore the effects of reducing E:S (1:10, 1:30, 1:50, 1:100) on the selective hydrolysis of β-LG by trypsin at pH 8.5 and 25 °C in a 5% (w/v) WPI solution during incubation periods ranging from 1 to 7 h. In addition, the use of a pilot-scale continuous high-temperature, short-time (HTST) heat exchanger with an extended holding time (EHT) of 5 min as a means of inactivating trypsin to terminate hydrolysis was compared with laboratory-based acidification to <pH 3 by the addition of HCl, and batch sample heating in a water bath at 85 °C. An E:S of 1:10 resulted in 100% and 30% of β-LG and α-LA hydrolysis, respectively, after 3 h, while an E:S reduction to 1:30 and 1:50 led >90% β-LG hydrolysis after respective incubation periods of 4 and 6 h, with <5% hydrolysis of α-LA in the case of 1:50. Continuous HTST-EHT treatment was shown to be an effective inactivation process allowing for the maintenance of substrate selectivity. However, HTST-EHT heating resulted in protein aggregation, which negatively impacts the downstream recovery of intact α-LA. An optimum E:S was determined to be 1:50, with an incubation time ranging from 3 h to 7 h leading to 90% β-LG hydrolysis and minimal degradation of α-LA. Alternative batch heating by means of a water bath to inactivate trypsin caused considerable digestion of α-LA, while acidification to <pH 3.0 restricted subsequent functional applications of the protein.