• Bioactivity of beta-lactoglobulin and alpha-lactalbumin-Technological implications for processing

      Chatterton, Dereck E.W.; Smithers, Geoffrey; Roupas, Peter; Brodkorb, Andre (Elsevier, 17/08/2006)
      The dairy industry faces new technological challenges in order to exploit and maintain some of the bioactive properties of dairy components throughout processing. This review outlines these issues with respect to the two major whey proteins β-lactoglobulin (β-lg) and α-lactalbumin (α-la). Biological activities of both the intact proteins, and peptides derived from the proteins, are discussed e.g. inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), anti-microbial activity, anti-carcinogenic activity, hypocholesterolemic effect, metabolic and physiological effects. The levels necessary to provide beneficial effects and, if available, evidence from clinical trials are reported. Developments in the purification and enrichment of the proteins are discussed, and the technological implications of industrial processing on the bio-activity of the proteins are examined. The supplementation of infant formulas with α-lactalbumin enriched whey proteins is also discussed in light of its potentially improved bioactive properties.
    • Complexes between linoleate and native or aggregated β-lactoglobulin: Interaction parameters and in vitro cytotoxic effect.

      Le Maux, Solene; Bouhallab, Said; Giblin, Linda; Brodkorb, Andre; Croguennec, Thomas; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme; Irish Research Council for Science, Engineering and Technology; 08/RD/TMFRC/650 (Elsevier, 2013-11)
      Iron is essential for human health, but it sometimes causes an unpleasant taste, rusty colour and a decrease in the stability of food products. Previously, we found that ethanol-treated yeast (ETY) cells could remove iron from wine and juice, and reduce the fishy aftertaste induced by iron in wine–seafood pairings. However, the mechanism of iron sorption by ETY cells is undefined; thus, there is no indicator that can be used to estimate the iron sorption capacity of these cells. In this study, we showed that cell wall components are not mainly associated with iron sorption by investigating ETY cells with the cell wall removed. Moreover, plasma membrane permeability was correlated with the iron sorbing capacity of the cells. Microscopic analysis showed that iron accumulated within ETY cells. Proteinase-treated ETY cells had no iron sorbing capacity. On the basis of these results, we conclude that intracellular proteins are involved in iron sorption by ETY cells.
    • Cytotoxic Complexes of Sodium Oleate with β-Lactoglobulin

      Liskova, Kamila; Auty, Mark; Chaurin, Valerie; Min, Soyoung; Mok, K. Hun; O'Brien, Nora M.; Kelly, Alan L.; Brodkorb, Andre; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme; et al. (Wiley VCH-Verlag GmbH & Co., 19/08/2011)
      A complex of α-lactalbumin and oleic acid has previously been shown to induce apoptosis in cancer cells in a number of in vitro and in vivo trials. This complex is called HAMLET or BAMLET, depending on the origin of α-la (human/bovine alpha-lactalbumin made lethal to tumour cells). In the current study, it was shown that bovine β-lactoglobulin (β-lg), upon binding sodium oleate (NaOle), the salt of oleic acid, also acquires cytotoxicity towards tumour cells (human monocytic cells U937), analogously to HAMLET/BAMLET complexes. The properties of the complex were characterized using FIR spectroscopy, HPLC and SDS-PAGE. It was shown that the level of covalent oligomerization (dimers and trimers) of β-lg increased with increasing the molar ratio of sodium oleate NaOle:β-lg in the preparation procedure. At the same time, increasing the molar ratio of NaOle:β-lg increased the cytotoxicity of the complex. The increase in cytotoxicity appeared to be dependent on the amount of bound NaOle in the complex, but not on the content of multimeric forms of β-lg. The NaOle/β-lg complex also showed similarity with BAMLET in penetrating the cell membrane and co-localizing with the cell nucleus. Furthermore, DNA fragmentation studies suggested that tumour cells (U937) treated with the complex died by apoptosis, as in the case of BAMLET, and healthy cells appeared to be less affected by treatment, as shown with model rat adrenal pheochromocytoma cells PC12. In conclusion, β-lg and NaOle can form complexes with apoptosis-inducing qualities comparable to those of BAMLET.
    • Exploring the Use of a Modified High-Temperature, Short-Time Continuous Heat Exchanger with Extended Holding Time (HTST-EHT) for Thermal Inactivation of Trypsin Following Selective Enzymatic Hydrolysis of the β-Lactoglobulin Fraction in Whey Protein Isolate.

      Sáez, Laura; Murphy, Eoin; FitzGerald, Richard J; Kelly, Philip; Enterprise Ireland; TC20130001 (MDPI, 2019-08-26)
      Tryptic hydrolysis of whey protein isolate under specific incubation conditions including a relatively high enzyme:substrate (E:S) ratio of 1:10 is known to preferentially hydrolyse β-lactoglobulin (β-LG), while retaining the other major whey protein fraction, i.e., α-lactalbumin (α-LA) mainly intact. An objective of the present work was to explore the effects of reducing E:S (1:10, 1:30, 1:50, 1:100) on the selective hydrolysis of β-LG by trypsin at pH 8.5 and 25 °C in a 5% (w/v) WPI solution during incubation periods ranging from 1 to 7 h. In addition, the use of a pilot-scale continuous high-temperature, short-time (HTST) heat exchanger with an extended holding time (EHT) of 5 min as a means of inactivating trypsin to terminate hydrolysis was compared with laboratory-based acidification to <pH 3 by the addition of HCl, and batch sample heating in a water bath at 85 °C. An E:S of 1:10 resulted in 100% and 30% of β-LG and α-LA hydrolysis, respectively, after 3 h, while an E:S reduction to 1:30 and 1:50 led >90% β-LG hydrolysis after respective incubation periods of 4 and 6 h, with <5% hydrolysis of α-LA in the case of 1:50. Continuous HTST-EHT treatment was shown to be an effective inactivation process allowing for the maintenance of substrate selectivity. However, HTST-EHT heating resulted in protein aggregation, which negatively impacts the downstream recovery of intact α-LA. An optimum E:S was determined to be 1:50, with an incubation time ranging from 3 h to 7 h leading to 90% β-LG hydrolysis and minimal degradation of α-LA. Alternative batch heating by means of a water bath to inactivate trypsin caused considerable digestion of α-LA, while acidification to <pH 3.0 restricted subsequent functional applications of the protein.
    • The influence of bovine serum albumin on β-lactoglobulin denaturation, aggregation and gelation

      Kehoe, Joseph James; Morris, Edwin R; Brodkorb, Andre; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme (Elsevier, 22/11/2006)
      The effect of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on the heat-induced denaturation, aggregation and subsequent acid-induced gelation of β-lactoglobulin (β-lg) was investigated in this work. Changes in the denaturation kinetics of β-lg during heating at 78 °C were determined by monitoring the disappearance of the native protein by reverse-phase chromatography. Replacing β-lg with increasing amounts of BSA, while keeping the total protein concentration constant at 5% (w/w), significantly increased the denaturation rate of β-lg from 2.57±0.30×10−3(g L−1)(1−n)s−1 to 5.07±0.72×10−3(g L−1)(1−n)s−1 (β-lg: BSA ratio of 3:1 w/w). The reaction order for β-lg was 1.40±0.09. Partial replacement of β-lg with BSA (β-lg: BSA ratio of 3:1 w/w) significantly increased the reaction order to 1.67±0.13. Heat-induced aggregates between β-lg and BSA were studied by dynamic light scattering, two-dimensional electrophoresis and size exclusion chromatography. The partial replacement of β-lg with BSA significantly changed the gelling properties of the acid-induced gels. A rapid rate of acidification resulted in a significant decrease, while a slow acidification rate resulted in a significant increase in gel strength. Size exclusion chromatography demonstrated that intermolecular disulphide bond formation occurred during both heat-induced denaturation/aggregation and subsequent acid-induced gelation. Results clearly indicate that BSA contributed to the formation of these disulphide bonds.
    • β-lactoglobulin as a molecular carrier of linoleate: characterisation and effects on intestinal epithelial cells in vitro

      Le Maux, Solene; Giblin, Linda; Croguennec, Thomas; Bouhallab, Said; Brodkorb, Andre; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; Irish Research Council for Science, Engineering and Technology; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme; 08/RD/TMFRC/650 (American Chemical Society, 27/08/2012)
      The dairy protein β-lactoglobulin (βlg) is known to bind hydrophobic ligands such as fatty acids. In the present work, we investigated the biological activity in vitro of linoleate once complexed to bovine βlg. Binding of linoleate (C18:2) to bovine βlg was achieved by heating at 60 °C for 30 min at pH 7.4, resulting in a linoleate/βlg molar binding stoichiometry of 1.1, 2.1, and 3.4. Two types of binding sites were determined by ITC titrations. Binding of linoleate induced the formation of covalent dimers and trimers of βlg. The LD50 on Caco-2 cells after 24 h was 58 μM linoleate. However, cell viability was unaffected when 200 μM linoleate was presented to the Caco-2 cells as part of the βlg complex. The Caco-2 cells did not increase mRNA transcript levels of long chain fatty acid transport genes, FATP4 and FABPpm, or increase levels of the cAMP signal, in response to the presence of 50 μM linoleate alone or as part of the βlg complex. Therefore, it is proposed that βlg can act as a molecular carrier and alter the bioaccessibility of linoleate/linoleic acid.