• Influence of herd diet on the metabolome of Maasdam cheeses

      Panthi, Ram R.; Sundekilde, Ulrik; Kelly, Alan L.; Hennessy, Deirdre; Kilcawley, Kieran; Mannion, David T.; Fenelon, Mark; Sheehan, Diarmuid (JJ); Dairy Research Ireland.; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme; et al. (Elsevier, 2019-05-20)
      The untargeted metabolic profiles of ripened Maasdam cheese samples prepared from milk derived from three herd groups, fed: (1) indoors on total mixed ration (TMR), or outdoors on (2) grass only pasture (GRA) or (3) grass and white clover pasture (CLO) were studied using high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR), high resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (1H HRMAS NMR) and headspace (HS) gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 31 compounds were identified using 1H NMR and 32 volatile compounds including 7 acids, 5 esters, 4 alcohols, 4 ketones, 4 sulfur compounds, 2 aldehydes, 3 hydrocarbons, 2 terpenes and a lactone were identified using GC–MS in Maasdam cheeses ripened for 97-d. On comparing the 1H NMR metabolic profiles, TMR-derived cheese had higher levels of citrate compared to GRA-derived cheese. The toluene content of cheese was significantly higher in GRA or CLO compared to TMR cheeses and dimethyl sulfide was identified only in CLO-derived cheese samples as detected using HS GC–MS. These compounds are proposed as indicator compounds for Maasdam cheese derived from pasture-fed milk. Clear differences between outdoor or indoor feeding systems in terms of cheese metabolites were detected in the lipid phase, as indicated by principal component analysis (PCA) from 1H HRMAS NMR spectra, although differences based on PCA of all 1H NMR spectra and HS-GC–MS were less clear. Overall, this study presented the metabolite profile and identified specific compounds which may be useful for discriminating between ripened Maasdam cheese and related cheese varieties manufactured from indoor or outdoor herd-feeding systems.