• Evaluation of a fluorescence and infrared backscatter sensor to monitor acid induced coagulation of skim milk

      Panikuttira, Bhavya; Payne, Frederick A.; O'Shea, Norah; Tobin, John; O'Donnell, Colm P.; Dairy Processing Technology Centre; TC/2014/0016 (Elsevier, 2019-05-03)
      A prototype sensor that employs both ultraviolet excited fluorescence and infrared light backscatter was evaluated as an in-line process analytical technology (PAT) tool to monitor acid induced coagulation kinetics of skim milk. Coagulation experiments were carried out at 32 °C using three concentrations of glucono-delta-lactone (GDL). Measurement of storage modulus (G′) of acidified skim milk gel was used as a reference rheological method to monitor the coagulation kinetics. Prediction models were developed to predict the times required for acidified skim milk coagulum to reach selected G′ values (0.5 Pa, 1 Pa, 5 Pa, 10 Pa and 15 Pa) using time parameters extracted from the ultraviolet excited fluorescence and infrared light backscatter profiles. A strong correlation was observed between the predicted times developed using time parameters extracted from the prototype sensor profiles and the measured G′ times extracted from the rheometer (R2 = 0.97, standard error of prediction = 2.8 min). This study concluded that the prototype fluorescence and infrared backscatter sensor investigated combined with the developed rheological prediction model can be used as a potential PAT tool for in-line monitoring of coagulation kinetics in the manufacture of acid induced milk gels. Industrial relevance: The prototype fluorescence and infrared backscatter sensor investigated in this study combined with the developed rheological prediction model can be employed to monitor and control coagulation kinetics in a wide range of dairy processing applications including fresh cheese varieties and yoghurt manufacture.
    • Paste structure and rheological properties of lotus seed starch–glycerin monostearate complexes formed by high-pressure homogenization

      Chen, Bingyan; Guo, Zebin; Zeng, Shaoxiao; Tian, Yuting; Miao, Song; Zheng, Baodong; National Natural Science Foundation of China; Scientific and Technological Innovation Team Support Plan of Institution of Higher Learning in Fujian Province; Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University of China; 31501485; et al. (Elsevier, 2017-10-31)
      Starch–lipid complexes were prepared using lotus seed starch (LS) and glycerin monostearate (GMS) via a high-pressure homogenization (HPH) process, and the effect of HPH on the paste structure and rheological properties of LS–GMS was investigated. Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA) profiles showed that HPH treatment inhibited the formation of the second viscosity peak of the LS–GMS paste, and the extent of this change was dependent on the level of homogenized pressure. Analysis of the size-exclusion chromatography, light microscopy, and low-field 1H nuclear magnetic resonance results revealed that high homogenized pressure (70–100 MPa) decreased molecular weight and size by degrading the branch structure of amylopectin; however, intact LS–GMS granules can optimize the network structure by filler–matrix interaction, which causes free water to transition into immobile water in the starch paste. The steady-shear results showed that the LS–GMS pastes presented non-Newtonian shear-thinning behavior, with higher homogenized pressure producing a smaller hysteresis loop area. During the oscillation process, the LS–GMS pastes prepared at 100 MPa exhibited the lowest loss tangent values in all the complexes, indicating a stronger resistance to vibration.