• A Cross-Cultural Evaluation of Liking and Perception of Salted Butter Produced from Different Feed Systems

      C. Garvey, Emer; Sander, Thorsten; O’Callaghan, Tom F.; Drake, MaryAnne; Fox, Shelley; G. O’Sullivan, Maurice; Kerry, Joseph P.; Kilcawley, Kieran; Department of Agriculture, Food amd the Marine; 14F 812 (MDPI, 2020-11-28)
      Perception and liking among Irish, German and USA consumers of salted butter produced from different feed systems—outdoor grass (FS-GRSS), grass/clover (FS-CLVR), and indoor concentrate (FS-TMR)—was investigated. A consumer study was conducted in all three countries. Irish and German assessors participated in ranking descriptive analysis (RDA), whereas descriptive analysis (DA) was carried out by a trained panel in the USA. Volatile analysis was conducted to identify differences in aroma compounds related to cow diet. Overall, there was no significant difference in overall liking of the butters, among USA, German and Irish consumers, although cross-cultural preferences were evident. Sensory attribute differences based on cow diet were evident across the three countries, as identified by German and Irish assessors and trained USA panelists, which are likely influenced by familiarity. The abundance of specific volatile aromatic compounds, especially some aldehydes and ketones, were significantly impacted by the feed system and may also contribute to some of the perceived sensory attribute differences in these butters.
    • Detection and Enumeration of Spore-Forming Bacteria in Powdered Dairy Products

      McHugh, Aoife; Feehily, Conor; Hill, Colin; Cotter, Paul D.; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine (Frontiers, 2017-01-31)
      With the abolition of milk quotas in the European Union in 2015, several member states including Ireland, Luxembourg, and Belgium have seen year on year bi-monthly milk deliveries to dairies increase by up to 35%. Milk production has also increased outside of Europe in the past number of years. Unsurprisingly, there has been a corresponding increased focus on the production of dried milk products for improved shelf life. These powders are used in a wide variety of products, including confectionery, infant formula, sports dietary supplements and supplements for health recovery. To ensure quality and safety standards in the dairy sector, strict controls are in place with respect to the acceptable quantity and species of microorganisms present in these products. A particular emphasis on spore-forming bacteria is necessary due to their inherent ability to survive extreme processing conditions. Traditional microbiological detection methods used in industry have limitations in terms of time, efficiency, accuracy, and sensitivity. The following review will explore the common spore-forming bacterial contaminants of milk powders, will review the guidelines with respect to the acceptable limits of these microorganisms and will provide an insight into recent advances in methods for detecting these microbes. The various advantages and limitations with respect to the application of these diagnostics approaches for dairy food will be provided. It is anticipated that the optimization and application of these methods in appropriate ways can ensure that the enhanced pressures associated with increased production will not result in any lessening of safety and quality standards.
    • Detection and Enumeration of Spore-Forming Bacteria in Powdered Dairy Products

      McHugh, Aoife; Feehily, Conor; Hill, Colin; Cotter, Paul D.; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, Ireland (Frontiers, 31/01/2017)
      With the abolition of milk quotas in the European Union in 2015, several member states including Ireland, Luxembourg, and Belgium have seen year on year bi-monthly milk deliveries to dairies increase by up to 35%. Milk production has also increased outside of Europe in the past number of years. Unsurprisingly, there has been a corresponding increased focus on the production of dried milk products for improved shelf life. These powders are used in a wide variety of products, including confectionery, infant formula, sports dietary supplements and supplements for health recovery. To ensure quality and safety standards in the dairy sector, strict controls are in place with respect to the acceptable quantity and species of microorganisms present in these products. A particular emphasis on spore-forming bacteria is necessary due to their inherent ability to survive extreme processing conditions. Traditional microbiological detection methods used in industry have limitations in terms of time, efficiency, accuracy, and sensitivity. The following review will explore the common spore-forming bacterial contaminants of milk powders, will review the guidelines with respect to the acceptable limits of these microorganisms and will provide an insight into recent advances in methods for detecting these microbes. The various advantages and limitations with respect to the application of these diagnostics approaches for dairy food will be provided. It is anticipated that the optimization and application of these methods in appropriate ways can ensure that the enhanced pressures associated with increased production will not result in any lessening of safety and quality standards.
    • Dietary Compounds Influencing the Sensorial, Volatile and Phytochemical Properties of Bovine Milk

      Clarke, Holly J.; Griffin, Carol; Rai, Dilip K.; O’Callaghan, Tom F.; O’Sullivan, Maurice G.; Kerry, Joseph P.; Kilcawley, Kieran N.; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme; 2016071 (MDPI AG, 2019-12-19)
      The main aim of this study was to evaluate the volatile profile, sensory perception, and phytochemical content of bovine milk produced from cows fed on three distinct feeding systems, namely grass (GRS), grass/clover (CLV), and total mixed ration (TMR). Previous studies have identified that feed type can influence the sensory perception of milk directly via the transfer of volatile aromatic compounds, or indirectly by the transfer of non-volatile substrates that act as precursors for volatile compounds. In the present study, significant differences were observed in the phytochemical profile of the different feed and milk samples. The isoflavone formonoetin was significantly higher in CLV feed samples, but higher in raw GRS milk, while other smaller isoflavones, such as daidzein, genistein, and apigenin were highly correlated to raw CLV milk. This suggests that changes in isoflavone content and concentration in milk relate to diet, but also to metabolism in the rumen. This study also found unique potential volatile biomarkers in milk (dimethyl sulfone) related to feeding systems, or significant differences in the concentration of others (toluene, p-cresol, ethyl and methyl esters) based on feeding systems. TMR milk scored significantly higher for hay-like flavor and white color, while GRS and CLV milk scored significantly higher for a creamy color. Milk samples were easily distinguishable by their volatile profile based on feeding system, storage time, and pasteurization.
    • Editorial: Microbial Food Safety along the Dairy Chain

      Fox, Edward M.; Fanning, Seamus; Corsetti, Aldo; Jordan, Kieran (Frontiers, 2017-08-23)
      Milk is susceptible to contamination with pathogenic and spoilage organisms and, therefore, Microbial food safety along the dairy chain is an important topic, from public health and industry perspectives. The dairy chain is an integral part of global food supply, with dairy food products a staple component of recommended healthy diets. The dairy food chain from production through to the consumer is complex, with various opportunities for microbial contamination of ingredients or food products, and as such interventions are key to preventing or controlling such contamination. Dairy foods often include a microbial control step in their production such as pasteurization, but in some cases may not, as with raw milk products. Microbial contamination may lead to a deterioration in food quality due to spoilage organisms, or may become a health risk to consumers should the contaminant be a pathogenic microorganism. As such food safety and food production are intrinsically linked.
    • Editorial: Microbial Food Safety along the Dairy Chain

      Fox, Edward M.; Fanning, Seamus; Corsetti, Aldo; Jordan, Kieran (Frontiers, 2017-08-23)
    • Evaluation of the Potential of Lactobacillus paracasei Adjuncts for Flavor Compounds Development and Diversification in Short-Aged Cheddar Cheese

      Stefanovic, Ewelina; Kilcawley, Kieran; Roces, Clara; Rea, Mary; O'Sullivan, Maurice G.; Sheehan, Diarmuid (JJ); McAuliffe, Olivia; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme; 2012040 (Frontiers, 2018-07-05)
      The non-starter microbiota of Cheddar cheese mostly comprises mesophilic lactobacilli, such as Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and Lactobacillus plantarum. These bacteria are recognized for their potential to improve Cheddar cheese flavor when used as adjunct cultures. In this study, three strains of L. paracasei (DPC2071, DPC4206, and DPC4536) were evaluated for their contribution to the enhancement and diversification of flavor in short-aged Cheddar cheese. The strains were selected based on their previously determined genomic diversity, variability in proteolytic enzyme activities and metabolic capability in cheese model systems. The addition of adjunct cultures did not affect the gross composition or levels of lipolysis of the cheeses. The levels of free amino acids (FAA) in cheeses showed a significant increase after 28 days of ripening. However, the concentrations of individual amino acids in the cheeses did not significantly differ except for some amino acids (aspartic acid, threonine, serine, and tryptophan) at Day 14. Volatile profile analysis revealed that the main compounds that differentiated the cheeses were of lipid origin, such as long chain aldehydes, acids, ketones, and lactones. This study demonstrated that the adjunct L. paracasei strains contributed to the development and diversification of compounds related to flavor in short-aged Cheddar cheeses.
    • Future Protein Supply and Demand: Strategies and Factors Influencing a Sustainable Equilibrium

      Henchion, Maeve; Hayes, Maria; Mullen, Anne Maria; Fenelon, Mark; Tiwari, Brijesh K; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, Ireland; 11/F/043 (MDPI, 20/07/2017)
      A growing global population, combined with factors such as changing socio-demographics, will place increased pressure on the world’s resources to provide not only more but also different types of food. Increased demand for animal-based protein in particular is expected to have a negative environmental impact, generating greenhouse gas emissions, requiring more water and more land. Addressing this “perfect storm” will necessitate more sustainable production of existing sources of protein as well as alternative sources for direct human consumption. This paper outlines some potential demand scenarios and provides an overview of selected existing and novel protein sources in terms of their potential to sustainably deliver protein for the future, considering drivers and challenges relating to nutritional, environmental, and technological and market/consumer domains. It concludes that different factors influence the potential of existing and novel sources. Existing protein sources are primarily hindered by their negative environmental impacts with some concerns around health. However, they offer social and economic benefits, and have a high level of consumer acceptance. Furthermore, recent research emphasizes the role of livestock as part of the solution to greenhouse gas emissions, and indicates that animal-based protein has an important role as part of a sustainable diet and as a contributor to food security. Novel proteins require the development of new value chains, and attention to issues such as production costs, food safety, scalability and consumer acceptance. Furthermore, positive environmental impacts cannot be assumed with novel protein sources and care must be taken to ensure that comparisons between novel and existing protein sources are valid. Greater alignment of political forces, and the involvement of wider stakeholders in a governance role, as well as development/commercialization role, is required to address both sources of protein and ensure food security.
    • Future Protein Supply and Demand: Strategies and Factors Influencing a Sustainable Equilibrium

      Henchion, Maeve; Hayes, Maria; Mullen, Anne Maria; Fenelon, Mark; Tiwari, Brijesh K; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; 11/F/043 (MDPI, 2017-07-20)
      A growing global population, combined with factors such as changing socio-demographics, will place increased pressure on the world’s resources to provide not only more but also different types of food. Increased demand for animal-based protein in particular is expected to have a negative environmental impact, generating greenhouse gas emissions, requiring more water and more land. Addressing this “perfect storm” will necessitate more sustainable production of existing sources of protein as well as alternative sources for direct human consumption. This paper outlines some potential demand scenarios and provides an overview of selected existing and novel protein sources in terms of their potential to sustainably deliver protein for the future, considering drivers and challenges relating to nutritional, environmental, and technological and market/consumer domains. It concludes that different factors influence the potential of existing and novel sources. Existing protein sources are primarily hindered by their negative environmental impacts with some concerns around health. However, they offer social and economic benefits, and have a high level of consumer acceptance. Furthermore, recent research emphasizes the role of livestock as part of the solution to greenhouse gas emissions, and indicates that animal-based protein has an important role as part of a sustainable diet and as a contributor to food security. Novel proteins require the development of new value chains, and attention to issues such as production costs, food safety, scalability and consumer acceptance. Furthermore, positive environmental impacts cannot be assumed with novel protein sources and care must be taken to ensure that comparisons between novel and existing protein sources are valid. Greater alignment of political forces, and the involvement of wider stakeholders in a governance role, as well as development/commercialization role, is required to address both sources of protein and ensure food security.
    • Future Protein Supply and Demand: Strategies and Factors Influencing a Sustainable Equilibrium

      Henchion, Maeve; Hayes, Maria; Mullen, Anne Maria; Fenelon, Mark; Tiwari, Brijesh K; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, Ireland (MDPI, 20/07/2017)
      A growing global population, combined with factors such as changing socio-demographics, will place increased pressure on the world’s resources to provide not only more but also different types of food. Increased demand for animal-based protein in particular is expected to have a negative environmental impact, generating greenhouse gas emissions, requiring more water and more land. Addressing this “perfect storm” will necessitate more sustainable production of existing sources of protein as well as alternative sources for direct human consumption. This paper outlines some potential demand scenarios and provides an overview of selected existing and novel protein sources in terms of their potential to sustainably deliver protein for the future, considering drivers and challenges relating to nutritional, environmental, and technological and market/consumer domains. It concludes that different factors influence the potential of existing and novel sources. Existing protein sources are primarily hindered by their negative environmental impacts with some concerns around health. However, they offer social and economic benefits, and have a high level of consumer acceptance. Furthermore, recent research emphasizes the role of livestock as part of the solution to greenhouse gas emissions, and indicates that animal-based protein has an important role as part of a sustainable diet and as a contributor to food security. Novel proteins require the development of new value chains, and attention to issues such as production costs, food safety, scalability and consumer acceptance. Furthermore, positive environmental impacts cannot be assumed with novel protein sources and care must be taken to ensure that comparisons between novel and existing protein sources are valid. Greater alignment of political forces, and the involvement of wider stakeholders in a governance role, as well as development/commercialization role, is required to address both sources of protein and ensure food security
    • Influence of Supplemental Feed Choice for Pasture-Based Cows on the Fatty Acid and Volatile Profile of Milk

      O'Callaghan, Tom; Mannion, David; Apopei, Diana; McCarthy, Noel; Hogan, Sean; Kilcawley, Kieran; Egan, Michael; Irish Dairy Levy; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme (MDPI, 2019-04-22)
      The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of a variety of supplemental feeds on the composition and quality of milk in a pasture-based dairy system. Four pasture-supplemented feeding systems were compared: Group 1 supplementation with 16% crude protein parlour concentrate (CONC); Group 2 supplementation with palm kernel expeller plus parlour concentrate (PKE); Group 3 supplemented with soya hulls plus parlour concentrate (SOYA); Group 4 was supplemented with molassed beet pulp plus parlour concentrate (BEET). Supplemental feeding system was demonstrated to have a significant effect on the size of native casein micelles and the gelation properties of milks. While CONC feeding produced significantly higher casein micelle size, gel strength (Young’s Modulus) was significantly negatively correlated with casein micelle size. Supplemental feeding system had a significant effect on a number of fatty acids (FA) and indices derived therefrom, including total saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, de novo produced FA, omega 3, and omega 6 FA. The volatile profile of milks was also affected by supplemental feed choice, whereby multivariate analysis demonstrated that the CONC diet was distinctly different to that of the PALM, SOYA, and BEET milks. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that it is possible to distinguish milks from different pasture-supplemented feeding systems by their FA profile.
    • Microbial Succession and Flavor Production in the Fermented Dairy Beverage Kefir

      Walsh, Aaron M.; Crispie, Fiona; Kilcawley, Kieran; O'Sullivan, Orla; O'Sullivan, Maurice G.; Claesson, Marcus J.; Cotter, Paul D.; Science Foundation Ireland; SFI/12/RC/2273; SFI/11/PI/1137; et al. (2018-11-05)
      Kefir is a putatively health-promoting dairy beverage that is produced when a kefir grain, consisting of a consortium of microorganisms, is added to milk to initiate a natural fermentation. Here, a detailed analysis was carried out to determine how the microbial population, gene content, and flavor of three kefirs from distinct geographic locations change over the course of 24-h fermentations. Metagenomic sequencing revealed that Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens was the dominant bacterial species in kefir during early stages of fermentations but that Leuconostoc mesenteroides became more prevalent in later stages. This pattern is consistent with an observation that genes involved in aromatic amino acid biosynthesis were absent from L. kefiranofaciens but were present in L. mesenteroides. Additionally, these shifts in the microbial community structure, and associated pathways, corresponded to changes in the levels of volatile compounds. Specifically, Acetobacter spp. correlated with acetic acid; Lactobacillus spp. correlated with carboxylic acids, esters and ketones; Leuconostoc spp. correlated with acetic acid and 2,3-butanedione; and Saccharomyces spp. correlated with esters. The correlation data suggest a causal relationship between microbial taxa and flavor that is supported by observations that addition of L. kefiranofaciens NCFB 2797 increased the levels of esters and ketones whereas addition of L. mesenteroides 213M0 increased the levels of acetic acid and 2,3-butanedione. Finally, we detected genes associated with probiotic functionalities in the kefir microbiome. Our results illustrate the dynamic nature of kefir fermentations and microbial succession patterns therein and can be applied to optimize the fermentation processes, flavors, and health-related attributes of this and other fermented foods. IMPORTANCE Traditional fermented foods represent relatively low-complexity microbial environments that can be used as model microbial communities to understand how microbes interact in natural environments. Our results illustrate the dynamic nature of kefir fermentations and microbial succession patterns therein. In the process, the link between individual species, and associated pathways, with flavor compounds is revealed and several genes that could be responsible for the purported gut health-associated benefits of consuming kefir are identified. Ultimately, in addition to providing an important fundamental insight into microbial interactions, this information can be applied to optimize the fermentation processes, flavors, and health-related attributes of this and other fermented foods.
    • Processing and Technology of Dairy Products: A Special Issue

      Deeth, Hilton; Kelly, Philip (MDPI AG, 2020-03-03)
      This is the Editorial for a Special Issue " Processing and Technology of Dairy Products"
    • Recipe for a Healthy Gut: Intake of Unpasteurised Milk Is Associated with Increased Lactobacillus Abundance in the Human Gut Microbiome

      Butler, Mary I.; Bastiaanssen, Thomaz F. S.; Long-Smith, Caitriona; Berding, Kirsten; Morkl, Sabrina; Cusack, Anne-Marie; Strain, Conall; Busca, Kizkitza; Porteous-Allen, Penny; Claesson, Marcus J.; et al. (MDPI AG, 2020-05-19)
      Introduction: The gut microbiota plays a role in gut–brain communication and can influence psychological functioning. Diet is one of the major determinants of gut microbiota composition. The impact of unpasteurised dairy products on the microbiota is unknown. In this observational study, we investigated the effect of a dietary change involving intake of unpasteurised dairy on gut microbiome composition and psychological status in participants undertaking a residential 12-week cookery course on an organic farm. Methods: Twenty-four participants completed the study. The majority of food consumed during their stay originated from the organic farm itself and included unpasteurised milk and dairy products. At the beginning and end of the course, participants provided faecal samples and completed self-report questionnaires on a variety of parameters including mood, anxiety and sleep. Nutrient intake was monitored with a food frequency questionnaire. Gut microbiota analysis was performed with 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Additionally, faecal short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were measured. Results: Relative abundance of the genus Lactobacillus increased significantly between pre- and post-course time points. This increase was associated with participants intake of unpasteurised milk and dairy products. An increase in the faecal SCFA, valerate, was observed along with an increase in the functional richness of the microbiome profile, as determined by measuring the predictive neuroactive potential using a gut–brain module approach. Conclusions: While concerns in relation to safety need to be considered, intake of unpasteurised milk and dairy products appear to be associated with the growth of the probiotic bacterial genus, Lactobacillus, in the human gut. More research is needed on the effect of dietary changes on gut microbiome composition, in particular in relation to the promotion of bacterial genera, such as Lactobacillus, which are recognised as being beneficial for a range of physical and mental health outcomes.
    • Tracking the Dairy Microbiota from Farm Bulk Tank to Skimmed Milk Powder

      McHugh, Aoife; Feehily, Conor; Fenelon, Mark; Gleeson, David E; Hill, Colin; Cotter, Paul D.; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; Science Foundation Ireland; European Union; 14/F/883; et al. (American Society for Microbiology, 2020-04-07)
      Microorganisms from the environment can enter the dairy supply chain at multiple stages, including production, milk collection, and processing, with potential implications for quality and safety. The ability to track these microorganisms can be greatly enhanced by the use of high-throughput DNA sequencing (HTS). Here HTS, both 16S rRNA gene amplicon and shotgun metagenomic sequencing were applied to investigate the microbiomes of fresh mid- and late-lactation milk collected from farm bulk tanks, collection tankers, milk silos, skimmed milk silos, a cream silo, and powder samples to investigate the microbial changes throughout a skim milk powder manufacturing process. 16S rRNA gene analysis established that the microbiota of raw milks from farm bulk tanks and in collection tankers were very diverse but that psychrotrophic genera associated with spoilage, Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter, were present in all samples. Upon storage within the whole-milk silo at the processing facility, the species Pseudomonas fluorescens and Acinetobacter baumannii became dominant. The skimmed milk powder generated during the mid-lactation period had a microbial composition that was very different from that of raw milk; specifically, two thermophilic genera, Thermus and Geobacillus, were enriched. In contrast, the microbiota of skimmed milk powder generated from late-lactation milk more closely resembled that of the raw milk and was dominated by spoilage-associated psychrotrophic bacteria. This study demonstrates that the dairy microbiota can differ significantly across different sampling days. More specifically, HTS can be used to trace microbial species from raw milks through processing to final powdered products.
    • Tracking the Dairy Microbiota from Farm Bulk Tank to Skimmed Milk Powder.

      McHugh, Aoife; Feehily, Conor; Fenelon, Mark; Gleeson, David E; Hill, Colin; Cotter, Paul D.; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; Science Foundation Ireland; European Union; 14/F/883; et al. (American Society for Microbiology, 2020-04-07)
      Microorganisms from the environment can enter the dairy supply chain at multiple stages, including production, milk collection, and processing, with potential implications for quality and safety. The ability to track these microorganisms can be greatly enhanced by the use of high-throughput DNA sequencing (HTS). Here HTS, both 16S rRNA gene amplicon and shotgun metagenomic sequencing were applied to investigate the microbiomes of fresh mid- and late-lactation milk collected from farm bulk tanks, collection tankers, milk silos, skimmed milk silos, a cream silo, and powder samples to investigate the microbial changes throughout a skim milk powder manufacturing process. 16S rRNA gene analysis established that the microbiota of raw milks from farm bulk tanks and in collection tankers were very diverse but that psychrotrophic genera associated with spoilage, Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter, were present in all samples. Upon storage within the whole-milk silo at the processing facility, the species Pseudomonas fluorescens and Acinetobacter baumannii became dominant. The skimmed milk powder generated during the mid-lactation period had a microbial composition that was very different from that of raw milk; specifically, two thermophilic genera, Thermus and Geobacillus, were enriched. In contrast, the microbiota of skimmed milk powder generated from late-lactation milk more closely resembled that of the raw milk and was dominated by spoilage-associated psychrotrophic bacteria. This study demonstrates that the dairy microbiota can differ significantly across different sampling days. More specifically, HTS can be used to trace microbial species from raw milks through processing to final powdered products.IMPORTANCE Microorganisms can enter and persist in dairy at several stages of the processing chain. Detection of microorganisms within dairy food processing is currently a time-consuming and often inaccurate process. This study provides evidence that high-throughput sequencing can be used as an effective tool to accurately identify microorganisms along the processing chain. In addition, it demonstrates that the populations of microbes change from raw milk to the end product. Routine implementation of high-throughput sequencing would elucidate the factors that influence population dynamics. This will enable a manufacturer to adopt control measures specific to each stage of processing and respond in an effective manner, which would ultimately lead to increased food safety and quality.