• Correlating Volatile Lipid Oxidation Compounds with Consumer Sensory Data in Dairy Based Powders during Storage

      Clarke, Holly J.; O’Sullivan, Maurice G.; Kerry, Joseph P.; Kilcawley, Kieran; Teagasc Walsh Scholarship Programme; 2016071 (MDPI AG, 2020-04-20)
      Lipid oxidation (LO) is a recognised problem in dairy powders due to the formation of volatile odour compounds that can negatively impact sensory perception. Three commercial dairy powders, fat-filled whole milk powder (FFWMP), skim milk powder (SMP), and infant milk formula (IMF), stored under different conditions (21 °C, 37 °C, or 25 °C with 50% humidity), were evaluated by consumer acceptance studies, ranked descriptive sensory analysis, and LO volatile profiling using headspace solid phase microextraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-SPME GCMS) over 16 weeks. Significant (p = 0.001) differences in the concentration of LO compounds and sensory perception were evident between sample types in the different storage conditions. The sensory acceptance scores for FFWMP and SMP remained stable throughout storage in all conditions, despite the increased perception of some LO products. The IMF sample was perceived negatively in each storage condition and at each time point. Overall increases in hexanal, heptanal, and pentanal correlated with “painty”, “oxidised”, “cooked”, and “caramelised” attributes in all samples. The concentration of some LO volatiles in the IMF was far in excess of those in FFWMP and SMP. High levels of LO volatiles in IMF were presumably due to the addition of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the formulation.
    • Detection and Enumeration of Spore-Forming Bacteria in Powdered Dairy Products

      McHugh, Aoife; Feehily, Conor; Hill, Colin; Cotter, Paul D.; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine (Frontiers, 2017-01-31)
      With the abolition of milk quotas in the European Union in 2015, several member states including Ireland, Luxembourg, and Belgium have seen year on year bi-monthly milk deliveries to dairies increase by up to 35%. Milk production has also increased outside of Europe in the past number of years. Unsurprisingly, there has been a corresponding increased focus on the production of dried milk products for improved shelf life. These powders are used in a wide variety of products, including confectionery, infant formula, sports dietary supplements and supplements for health recovery. To ensure quality and safety standards in the dairy sector, strict controls are in place with respect to the acceptable quantity and species of microorganisms present in these products. A particular emphasis on spore-forming bacteria is necessary due to their inherent ability to survive extreme processing conditions. Traditional microbiological detection methods used in industry have limitations in terms of time, efficiency, accuracy, and sensitivity. The following review will explore the common spore-forming bacterial contaminants of milk powders, will review the guidelines with respect to the acceptable limits of these microorganisms and will provide an insight into recent advances in methods for detecting these microbes. The various advantages and limitations with respect to the application of these diagnostics approaches for dairy food will be provided. It is anticipated that the optimization and application of these methods in appropriate ways can ensure that the enhanced pressures associated with increased production will not result in any lessening of safety and quality standards.
    • Detection and Enumeration of Spore-Forming Bacteria in Powdered Dairy Products

      McHugh, Aoife; Feehily, Conor; Hill, Colin; Cotter, Paul D.; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, Ireland (Frontiers, 31/01/2017)
      With the abolition of milk quotas in the European Union in 2015, several member states including Ireland, Luxembourg, and Belgium have seen year on year bi-monthly milk deliveries to dairies increase by up to 35%. Milk production has also increased outside of Europe in the past number of years. Unsurprisingly, there has been a corresponding increased focus on the production of dried milk products for improved shelf life. These powders are used in a wide variety of products, including confectionery, infant formula, sports dietary supplements and supplements for health recovery. To ensure quality and safety standards in the dairy sector, strict controls are in place with respect to the acceptable quantity and species of microorganisms present in these products. A particular emphasis on spore-forming bacteria is necessary due to their inherent ability to survive extreme processing conditions. Traditional microbiological detection methods used in industry have limitations in terms of time, efficiency, accuracy, and sensitivity. The following review will explore the common spore-forming bacterial contaminants of milk powders, will review the guidelines with respect to the acceptable limits of these microorganisms and will provide an insight into recent advances in methods for detecting these microbes. The various advantages and limitations with respect to the application of these diagnostics approaches for dairy food will be provided. It is anticipated that the optimization and application of these methods in appropriate ways can ensure that the enhanced pressures associated with increased production will not result in any lessening of safety and quality standards.