• An Overview on Cyclic Fatty Acids as Biomarkers of Quality and Authenticity in the Meat Sector

      Lolli, Veronica; Zanardi, Emanuela; Moloney, Aidan; Caligiani, Augusta (MDPI, 2020-11-27)
      A survey was conducted to determine the content of cyclopropane fatty acids (CPFAs) and ω-cyclohexyl fatty acids (CHFAs) by using gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) techniques in various meat samples from different species, including commercial samples and complex and thermally processed products (i.e., Bolognese sauce). The CPFAs concentration (as the sum of two isomers, namely dihydrosterculic acid and lactobacillic acid) in bovine meat fat (ranging between 70 and 465 mg/kg fat) was positively related to a silage-based diet, and therefore, they are potential biomarkers for monitoring the feeding system of cattle. CHFAs, such as 11-cyclohexylundecanoic and 13-cyclohexyltridecanoic acids, were only found in lipid profiles from ruminant species, and a linear trend was observed in their content, together with iso-branched fatty acids (iso-BCFAs) deriving from ruminal fermentation, as a function of bovine meat percentage in both raw and cooked minced meat. Thus, CHFAs are potential biomarkers for the assurance of the meat species and, combined with iso-BCFAs, of the beef/pork ratio even in complex meat matrices. The proposed approaches are valuable novel tools for meat authentication, which is pivotal in the management of meat quality, safety, and traceability.
    • Protein Array-Based Approach to Evaluate Biomarkers of Beef Tenderness and Marbling in Cows: Understanding of the Underlying Mechanisms and Prediction

      Gagaoua, Mohammed; Bonnet, Muriel; Picard, Brigitte; Pays de Loire Regional Council (MDPI AG, 2020-08-26)
      This study evaluated the potential of a panel of 20 protein biomarkers, quantified by Reverse Phase Protein Array (RPPA), to explain and predict two important meat quality traits, these being beef tenderness assessed by Warner–Bratzler shear force (WBSF) and the intramuscular fat (IMF) content (also termed marbling), in a large database of 188 Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) Maine-Anjou cows. Thus, the main objective was to move forward in the progression of biomarker-discovery for beef qualities by evaluating, at the same time for the two quality traits, a list of candidate proteins so far identified by proteomics and belonging to five interconnected biological pathways: (i) energy metabolic enzymes, (ii) heat shock proteins (HSPs), (iii) oxidative stress, (iv) structural proteins and (v) cell death and protein binding. Therefore, three statistical approaches were applied, these being Pearson correlations, unsupervised learning for the clustering of WBSF and IMF into quality classes, and Partial Least Squares regressions (PLS-R) to relate the phenotypes with the 20 biomarkers. Irrespective of the statistical method and quality trait, seven biomarkers were related with both WBSF and IMF, including three small HSPs (CRYAB, HSP20 and HSP27), two metabolic enzymes from the oxidative pathway (MDH1: Malate dehydrogenase and ALDH1A1: Retinal dehydrogenase 1), the structural protein MYH1 (Myosin heavy chain-IIx) and the multifunctional protein FHL1 (four and a half LIM domains 1). Further, three more proteins were retained for tenderness whatever the statistical method, among which two were structural proteins (MYL1: Myosin light chain 1/3 and TNNT1: Troponin T, slow skeletal muscle) and one was glycolytic enzyme (ENO3: β-enolase 3). For IMF, two proteins were, in this trial, specific for marbling whatever the statistical method: TRIM72 (Tripartite motif protein 72, negative) and PRDX6 (Peroxiredoxin 6, positive). From the 20 proteins, this trial allowed us to qualify 10 and 9 proteins respectively as strongly related with beef tenderness and marbling in PDO Maine-Anjou cows.