• Optimisation of Ultrasound Frequency, Extraction Time and Solvent for the Recovery of Polyphenols, Phlorotannins and Associated Antioxidant Activity from Brown Seaweeds

      Ummat, Viruja; Tiwari, Brijesh K; Jaiswal, Amit K; Condon, Kevin; Garcia-Vaquero, Marco; O’Doherty, John; O’Donnell, Colm; Rajauria, Gaurav; Science Foundation Ireland; 16/RC/3889; et al. (MDPI AG, 2020-05-11)
      This study investigates ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) process parameters (time, frequency and solvent) to obtain high yields of phlorotannins, flavonoids, total phenolics and associated antioxidant activities from 11 brown seaweed species. Optimised UAE conditions (35 kHz, 30 min and 50% ethanol) significantly improved the extraction yield from 1.5-fold to 2.2-fold in all seaweeds investigated compared to solvent extraction. Using ultrasound, the highest recovery of total phenolics (TPC: 572.3 ± 3.2 mg gallic acid equivalent/g), total phlorotannins (TPhC: 476.3 ± 2.2 mg phloroglucinol equivalent/g) and total flavonoids (TFC: 281.0 ± 1.7 mg quercetin equivalent/g) was obtained from Fucus vesiculosus seaweed. While the lowest recovery of TPC (72.6 ± 2.9 mg GAE/g), TPhC (50.3 ± 2.0 mg PGE/g) and TFC (15.2 ± 3.3 mg QE/g) was obtained from Laminaria digitata seaweed. However, extracts from Fucus serratus obtained by UAE exhibited the strongest 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity (29.1 ± 0.25 mg trolox equivalent/g) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) value (63.9 ± 0.74 mg trolox equivalent/g). UAE under optimised conditions was an effective, low-cost and eco-friendly technique to recover biologically active polyphenols from 11 brown seaweed species.