• Farm management factors associated with bulk tank somatic cell count in Irish dairy herds

      Kelly, P.T.; O'Sullivan, Kathleen; Berry, Donagh P.; More, Simon J; Meaney, William J; O'Callaghan, Edmond J; O'Brien, Bernadette (Biomed Central, 01/04/2009)
      The relationship between bulk tank somatic cell count (SCC) and farm management and infrastructure was examined using data from 398 randomly selected, yet representative, Irish dairy farms where the basal diet is grazed grass. Median bulk tank SCC for the farms was 282,887 cells/ml ranging from 82,209 to 773,028 cells/ml. Two questionnaires were administered through face-to-face contact with each farmer. Herd-level factors associated with bulk tank SCC were determined using linear models with annual somatic cell score (i.e., arithmetic mean of the natural logarithm of bulk tank SCC) included as the dependent variable. All herd level factors were analysed individually in separate regression models, which included an adjustment for geographical location of the farm; a multiple regression model was subsequently developed. Management practices associated with low SCC included the use of dry cow therapy, participation in a milk recording scheme and the use of teat disinfection post-milking. There was an association between low SCC and an increased level of hygiene and frequency of cleaning of the holding yard, passageways and cubicles. Herd management factors associated with bulk tank SCC in Irish grazing herds are generally in agreement with most previous studies from confinement systems of milk production.
    • Farm management factors associated with bulk tank total bacterial count in Irish dairy herds during 2006/07

      Kelly, P.T.; O'Sullivan, Kathleen; Berry, Donagh P.; More, Simon J; Meaney, William J; O'Callaghan, Edmond J; O'Brien, Bernadette (Biomed Central, 01/01/2009)
      Research has shown that total bacterial count (TBC), which is the bacterial growth per ml of milk over a fixed period of time, can be decreased by good hygiene and farm management practices. The objective of the current study was to quantify the associations between herd management factors and bulk tank TBC in Irish spring calving, grass-based dairy herds. The relationship between bulk tank TBC and farm management and infrastructure was examined using data from 400 randomly selected Irish dairy farms where the basal diet was grazed grass. Herd management factors associated with bulk tank TBC were identified using linear models with herd annual total bacterial score (i.e., arithmetic mean of the natural logarithm of bulk tank TBC) included as the dependent variable. All herd management factors were individually analysed in a separate regression model, that included an adjustment for geographical location of the farm. A multiple stepwise regression model was subsequently developed. Median bulk tank TBC for the sample herds was 18,483 cells/ml ranging from 10,441 to 130,458 cells/ml. Results from the multivariate analysis indicated that the following management practices were associated with low TBC; use of heated water in the milking parlour; participation in a milk recording scheme; and tail clipping of cows at a frequency greater than once per year. Increased level of hygiene of the parlour and cubicles were also associated with lower TBC. Herd management factors associated with bulk tank TBC in Irish grazing herds were generally in agreement with most previous studies from confinement systems of milk production.
    • Feasibility Study on the Use of Visible–Near-Infrared Spectroscopy for the Screening of Individual and Total Glucosinolate Contents in Broccoli

      Hernandez-Hierro, Jose Miguel; Valverde, Juan; Villacreces, Salvador; Reilly, Kim; Gaffney, Michael; Gonzalez-Miret, Maria Lourdes; Heredia, Francisco J.; Downey, Gerard; Spanish MICINN; Junta de Andalucia; et al. (American Chemical Society, 11/07/2012)
      The potential of visible–near-infrared spectroscopy to determine selected individual and total glucosinolates in broccoli has been evaluated. Modified partial least-squares regression was used to develop quantitative models to predict glucosinolate contents. Both the whole spectrum and different spectral regions were separately evaluated to develop the quantitative models; in all cases the best results were obtained using the near-infrared zone between 2000 and 2498 nm. These models have been externally validated for the screening of glucoraphanin, glucobrassicin, 4-methoxyglucobrassicin, neoglucobrassicin, and total glucosinolates contents. In addition, discriminant partial least-squares was used to distinguish between two possible broccoli cultivars and showed a high degree of accuracy. In the case of the qualitative analysis, best results were obtained using the whole spectrum (i.e., 400–2498 nm) with a correct classification rate of 100% in external validation being obtained.
    • Fermented beverages with health-promoting potential: Past and future perspectives

      Marsh, Alan J.; Hill, Colin; Ross, R Paul; Cotter, Paul D. (Elsevier, 16/07/2014)
      Fermentation is an ancient form of food preservation, which also improves the nutritional content of foods. In many regions of the world, fermented beverages have become known for their health-promoting attributes. In addition to harnessing traditional beverages for commercial use, there have recently been innovative efforts to develop non-dairy probiotic fermented beverages from a variety of substrates, including soy milk, whey, cereals and vegetable and fruit juices. On the basis of recent developments, it is anticipated that fermented beverages will continue to be a significant component within the functional food market.
    • Fermented beverages with health-promoting potential: Past and future perspectives

      Marsh, Alan J.; Hill, Colin; Ross, R Paul; Cotter, Paul D. (Elsevier, 20/05/2014)
      Highlights • Traditional fermented beverages are reviewed. • Microbiology and probiotic potential of beverages are considered. • Recent developments in novel probiotic beverage production. • Beverages produced from a number of different substrates are explored. • Review of enchancements (prebiotics, flavours and neutraceuticals). Fermentation is an ancient form of food preservation, which also improves the nutritional content of foods. In many regions of the world, fermented beverages have become known for their health-promoting attributes. In addition to harnessing traditional beverages for commercial use, there have recently been innovative efforts to develop non-dairy probiotic fermented beverages from a variety of substrates, including soy milk, whey, cereals and vegetable and fruit juices. On the basis of recent developments, it is anticipated that fermented beverages will continue to be a significant component within the functional food market.
    • Fluorescence-based analyser as a rapid tool for determining soluble protein content in dairy ingredients and infant milk formula

      Henihan, Lisa E.; O'Donnell, Colm P.; Esquerre, Carlos; Murphy, Eoin; O'Callaghan, Donal; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; 11/F/052 (Elsevier, 2018-12-03)
      Abstract: Milk protein, in particular native whey protein, is of interest to dairy manufacturers as a measure of functional and nutritional quality. However, quantification of soluble whey protein (SP) is time consuming; giving rise to the need to develop rapid, accurate, and portable at-line process analytical technology. In this study, the performance of a fluorescence-based analyser(F) (Amaltheys II, Spectralys Innovations, France) was evaluated for quantification of SPF and whey protein nitrogen index (WPNI)F in skim milk, whey protein concentrate and infant formula powders. Rehydration of powders prior to analysis was a key factor for ensuring repeatability and reproducibility. A comparison of the analyser with reference methods for SPF and WPNIF resulted in coefficient of determination (R2) > 0.993 for both SPKjeldahl method and WPNIGEA. The results show the fluorescence-based analyser to be rapid, compact, and accurate device, suited for providing reliable support to dairy ingredient and infant formula manufacturers. Industrial relevance: The fluorescence based analysis investigated in this article is suitable for application in the dairy industry where it can be used as a rapid, at-line PAT tool for both liquid and powder samples. The technology has the potential to replace well-established methods for measurement of soluble protein. The main benefit to industry is the ability to respond more rapidly to variations in soluble protein without compromising on the accuracy associated with more time consuming methods.
    • Food Authentication using Infrared Spectroscopic Methods

      Downey, Gerard; Kelly, J. Daniel (Teagasc, 01/06/2006)
      Confirmation of the authenticity of a food or food ingredient is an increasing challenge for food processors and regulatory authorities. This is especially the case when an added-value claim, such as one relating to geographic origin or a particular processing history, is made on the food label. Regulatory agencies are concerned with the prevention of economic fraud while the food processor needs confirmation of such claims in order to protect a brand, the image of which could be severely damaged should an adulterated ingredient make its way into the branded food product.To be of greatest value, any analytical tool deployed to confirm authenticity claims needs to be portable, easy to use, non-destructive and accurate. Infrared spectroscopy, near and mid-infrared, is a tool which has been demonstrated to possess these properties in a wide range of situations.While some applications in food authenticity have been reported, the work undertaken in this project was designed to explore their capabilities regarding a number of products and authenticity issues of particular interest to the Irish agri-food industry i.e. olive oil, honey, soft fruit purées and apple juice.
    • Food authentication using infrared spectroscopic methods

      Downey, Gerard; Kelly, J. Daniel (Teagasc, 2006-06)
      Confirmation of the authenticity of a food or food ingredient is an increasing challenge for food processors and regulatory authorities. This is especially the case when an added-value claim, such as one relating to geographic origin or a particular processing history, is made on the food label. Regulatory agencies are concerned with the prevention of economic fraud while the food processor needs confirmation of such claims in order to protect a brand, the image of which could be severely damaged should an adulterated ingredient make its way into the branded food product.
    • Food for thought: The role of nutrition in the microbiota-gut–brain axis

      Oriach, Clara Seira; Robertson, Ruairi C.; Stanton, Catherine; Cryan, John F.; Dinan, Timothy G.; Science Foundation Ireland; Health Research Board of Ireland; Sea Change Strategy, NutraMara programme; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; SFI/12/RC/2273; et al. (Elsevier, 2016-01-21)
      Recent research has provided strong evidence for the role of the commensal gut microbiota in brain function and behaviour. Many potential pathways are involved in this bidirectional communication between the gut microbiota and the brain such as immune mechanisms, the vagus nerve and microbial neurometabolite production. Dysbiosis of gut microbial function has been associated with behavioural and neurophysical deficits, therefore research focused on developing novel therapeutic strategies to treat psychiatric disorders by targeting the gut microbiota is rapidly growing. Numerous factors can influence the gut microbiota composition such as health status, mode of birth delivery and genetics, but diet is considered among the most crucial factors impacting on the human gut microbiota from infancy to old age. Thus, dietary interventions may have the potential to modulate psychiatric symptoms associated with gut–brain axis dysfunction. Further clinical and in vivo studies are needed to better understand the mechanisms underlying the link between nutrition, gut microbiota and control of behaviour and mental health.
    • Food for thought: The role of nutrition in the microbiota-gut–brain axis

      Oriach, Clara Seira; Robertson, Ruairi C; Stanton, Catherine; Cryan, John F.; Dinan, Timothy G.; Science Foundation Ireland; Health Research Board of Ireland; Sea Change Strategy NutraMara programme; SMART FOOD project; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; et al. (Elsevier, 2016-01-21)
      Recent research has provided strong evidence for the role of the commensal gut microbiota in brain function and behaviour. Many potential pathways are involved in this bidirectional communication between the gut microbiota and the brain such as immune mechanisms, the vagus nerve and microbial neurometabolite production. Dysbiosis of gut microbial function has been associated with behavioural and neurophysical deficits, therefore research focused on developing novel therapeutic strategies to treat psychiatric disorders by targeting the gut microbiota is rapidly growing. Numerous factors can influence the gut microbiota composition such as health status, mode of birth delivery and genetics, but diet is considered among the most crucial factors impacting on the human gut microbiota from infancy to old age. Thus, dietary interventions may have the potential to modulate psychiatric symptoms associated with gut–brain axis dysfunction. Further clinical and in vivo studies are needed to better understand the mechanisms underlying the link between nutrition, gut microbiota and control of behaviour and mental health.
    • Food for thought: The role of nutrition in the microbiota-gut–brain axis

      Oriach, Clara Seira; Robertson, Ruairi C.; Stanton, Catherine; Cryan, John F.; Dinan, Timothy G.; Science Foundation Ireland; Health Research Board of Ireland; Sea Change Strategy; NutraMara programme; SMART FOOD project; et al. (Elsevier BV, 2016-04)
      Recent research has provided strong evidence for the role of the commensal gut microbiota in brain function and behaviour. Many potential pathways are involved in this bidirectional communication between the gut microbiota and the brain such as immune mechanisms, the vagus nerve and microbial neurometabolite production. Dysbiosis of gut microbial function has been associated with behavioural and neurophysical deficits, therefore research focused on developing novel therapeutic strategies to treat psychiatric disorders by targeting the gut microbiota is rapidly growing. Numerous factors can influence the gut microbiota composition such as health status, mode of birth delivery and genetics, but diet is considered among the most crucial factors impacting on the human gut microbiota from infancy to old age. Thus, dietary interventions may have the potential to modulate psychiatric symptoms associated with gut–brain axis dysfunction. Further clinical and in vivo studies are needed to better understand the mechanisms underlying the link between nutrition, gut microbiota and control of behaviour and mental health.
    • Food Proteins and Bioactive Peptides: New and Novel Sources, Characterisation Strategies and Applications

      Hayes, Maria (MDPI, 2018-03-14)
      By 2050, the world population is estimated to reach 9.6 billion, and this growth continues to require more food, particularly proteins. Moreover, the Westernisation of society has led to consumer demand for protein products that taste good and are convenient to consume, but additionally have nutritional and health maintenance and well-being benefits. Proteins provide energy, but additionally have a wide range of functions from enzymatic activities in the body to bioactivities including those associated with heart health, diabetes-type 2-prevention and mental health maintenance; stress relief as well as a plethora of other health beneficial attributes. Furthermore, proteins play an important role in food manufacture and often provide the binding, water- or oil-holding, emulsifying, foaming or other functional attributes required to ensure optimum sensory and taste benefits for the consumer. The purpose of this issue is to highlight current and new protein sources and their associated functional, nutritional and health benefits as well as best practices for quantifying proteins and bioactive peptides in both a laboratory and industry setting. The bioaccessibility, bioavailability and bioactivities of proteins from dairy, cereal and novel sources including seaweeds and insect protein and how they are measured and the relevance of protein quality measurement methods including the Protein Digestibility Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS) and Digestible Indispensable Amino Acid Score (DIAAS) are highlighted. In addition, predicted future protein consumption trends and new markets for protein and peptide products are discussed.
    • Food residue database

      O'Keeffe, Michael; Kennedy, Orla; Farrell, Frank; Nolan, Marie-Louise; Dooley, Martin; Byrne, Patrick; Nugent, Audrey; Cantwell, Helen; Horne, Elizabeth; Nelson, Victor; et al. (Teagasc, 2001-11)
      The Food Residue Database contains a broad range of residue studies in foods of animal origin for the period 1995 to 2000, covering veterinary drugs, pesticides and contaminants. In most cases, such as antiparasitic drugs, beta-agonists, pesticides, dioxins, mycotoxins, heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, the picture for Irish dairy, meat and fish products is good with residue levels being low or non-measurable. In a few cases, such as ivermectin in farmed salmon and tetracycline residues in pork, improvements in the situation were observed with subsequent studies. Antimicrobial residues, in general, are not a problem but levels above MRL values have been found indicating the need for good practice in use of veterinary medicines. A problem with elevated nitrate levels in dairy powders may be resolved by the industry through observance of good manufacturing practices. Summary Reports on all the studies carried out for the Food Residue Database are available to food companies and other interested parties.
    • Food texture as affected by ohmic heating: Mechanisms involved, recent findings, benefits, and limitations

      Gavahian, Mohsen; Tiwari, Brijesh; Chu, Yan-Hwa; Ting, Yuwen; Farahnaky, Asgar; Ministry of Economic Affairs, Taiwan; 107-EC-17-A-22-0332; 108-EC-17-A-22-0332 (Elsevier, 2019-02-10)
      Background: Food texture is an important quality characteristic that affects sensory perception and consumer satisfaction. Thermal processing applies to food material for several reasons including palatability improvement and shelf life extension. Ohmic heating is an energy- and time-saving technique that was previously proposed as an alternative to conventional heating methods in the food industry. Scope and approach: Investigating the effects of ohmic processes on food quality parameters, such as texture, is an important step towards the industrial adaptation of ohmic heating technology. This review focuses specifically on the effects of ohmic heating on food texture and tries to elucidate the mechanisms behind the changes in textural attributes during an ohmic process as compared to the classical heating method. Key findings and conclusions: Achieving a predefined product texture in a shorter time and the uniformity of product texture are among the benefits of ohmic heating. However, several challenges (e.g. the possibility of negative effects on the chemical composition of the product and high capital investment) should be addressed for the industrial adoption of this emerging technology.
    • The Formation of an Anti-Cancer Complex Under Simulated Gastric Conditions

      Sullivan, Louise M.; Mok, K. Hun; Brodkorb, Andre; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme; COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology); 08RDTMFRC650; FA 1005 (Springer-Verlag, 01/05/2013)
      A potent anti-cancer complex has previously been formed from two major components of milk. Human/bovine α-lactalbumin made lethal to tumour cells (H/BAMLET) is a protein–fatty acid complex that has been produced using the whey protein α-lactalbumin (α-LA) and the fatty acid oleic acid (OA). It was shown that it possesses selective anti-tumour and anti-microbial activity, which was first identified in acidic fractions of human breast milk. The aim of this study was to determine whether the two components would form a bioactive complex during simulated gastric (GI) transit. Results showed that a complex consisting of α-LA and OA is formed as the protein unfolds under acidic conditions and subsequently refolds upon pH increase. Analysis of this complex using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) spectroscopies estimated a stoichiometry of 4.1 and 4.4 oleic acids per mole of protein, respectively. FTIR and fluorescence spectroscopies showed that the structure was similar to that of BAMLET. Cytotoxicity testing against cancer cell line U937 cells showed that the complex had an LC50 value of 14.08 μM compared to 9.15 μM for BAMLET. These findings suggest that a BAMLET-like complex may be formed under the tested in vitro GI conditions.
    • Formation of non-native β-lactoglobulin during heat-induced denaturation

      Kehoe, Joseph James; Wang, Lizhe; Morris, Edwin R; Brodkorb, Andre; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine (Springer, 01/12/2011)
      A mechanism describing the denaturation and aggregation behavior during heat-treatment of pure β-lactoglobulin and β-lactoglobulin in whey protein isolate (WPI) under selected conditions (20 to 90 gL−1 in water at pH 7.0, 78 °C) is presented. A combination of reversed-phase and gel permeation chromatography was used to study the disappearance of native β-lactoglobulin and the formation of non-native intermediates in the aggregation process. The mean reaction order for pure β-lactoglobulin and β-lactoglobulin in WPI were the same, 1.4. While the rate of β-lactoglobulin denaturation was greater in WPI there was less aggregation compared to that of pure β-lactoglobulin. More of the β-lactoglobulin in WPI remained in a non-native monomer intermediate state after 30 min of heating. After an initial lag period, during which non-native monomers appeared, aggregates formed and rapidly reached a plateau in terms of their size. These aggregates were visualized using atomic force microscopy. There was no significant effect of protein concentration on either aggregate size or the number of exposed sulfhydryls in the heated solutions.
    • Fortified Blended Food Base: Effect of Co-Fermentation Time on Composition, Phytic Acid Content and Reconstitution Properties

      Shevade, Ashwini; O’Callaghan, Yvonne; O’Brien, Nora; O’Connor, Tom; Guinee, Timothy; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; 14/F/805 (MDPI AG, 2019-09-03)
      Dehydrated blends of dairy-cereal combine the functional and nutritional properties of two major food groups. Fortified blended food base (FBFB) was prepared by blending fermented milk with parboiled wheat, co-fermenting the blend at 35 ◦C, shelf-drying and milling. Increasing co-fermentation time from 0 to 72 h resulted in powder with lower lactose, phytic acid and pH, and higher contents of lactic acid and galactose. Simultaneously, the pasting viscosity of the reconstituted base (16.7%, w/w, total solids) and its yield stress (σ0), consistency index (K) and viscosity on shearing decreased significantly. The changes in some characteristics (pH, phytic acid, η120) were essentially complete after 24 h co-fermentation while others (lactose, galactose and lactic acid, pasting viscosities, flowability) proceeded more gradually over 72 h. The reduction in phytic acid varied from 40 to 58% depending on the pH of the fermented milk prior to blending with the parboiled cereal. The reduction in phytic acid content of milk (fermented milk)-cereal blends with co-fermentation time is nutritionally desirable as it is conducive to an enhanced bioavailability of elements, such as Ca, Mg, Fe and Zn in milk-cereal blends, and is especially important where such blends serve as a base for fortified-blended foods supplied to food-insecure regions
    • Freeze-chilling and gas flushing of raw fish fillets

      Fagan, John; Gormley, Ronan T.; Uí Mhuircheartaigh, Mary M. (Teagasc, 2003-04)
      Freeze-chilling involves freezing and frozen storage followed by thawing and chilled storage. Trials with whiting and mackerel fillets/portions (Part 1) indicated no difference in odour scores (raw samples) between freeze-chilled and chilled samples; however, freeze-chilled salmon portions were inferior to chilled in terms of odour. Fresh fillets received the highest acceptability scores as cooked samples followed by frozen, chilled and freeze-chilled fillets. Freshness indicators were the same for the three species. Freeze-chilled fillets had the highest free fatty acid and peroxide values but the levels were low and did not influence sensory response. The effects of the four treatments on the colour and texture of the raw fillets were small in practical terms and typical shelf-lives in the chill phase of the freeze-chill process were 3 to 5 days. In Part 2, modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) was combined with freezechilling to further extend the shelf-life of raw whiting, mackerel and salmon fillets/portions. Typical shelf-lives in the chill phase for the freeze-chilled fillets were 5 (whiting and mackerel) and 7 (salmon) days. Good manufacturing practice coupled with HACCP and careful tempering (thawing) are essential for the successful freeze-chilling of raw fish fillets. Packs should be labelled ‘previously frozen’ for consumer information. It is concluded that freeze-chilling with MAP is a suitable technology for extending the shelf-life of raw fish fillets.
    • Freeze-chilling of ready-to-eat meal components

      Redmond, Grainne; Gormley, Ronan T.; Butler, Francis; Dempsey, Alan; Oxley, Eamon; Gerety, Ailis (Teagasc, 2004-03)
      Freeze-chilling of food consists of freezing and frozen storage followed by thawing and then retailing at chill storage temperatures. It offers logistic, transportation and storage advantages to food manufacturers. Freeze-chilling has particular application to ready-meals and their components. Mashed potato (three cultivars), steamed carrots, steamed green beans and beef lasagne were found suitable for freeze-chilling and their quality and sensory properties compared favourably with their frozen, chilled and fresh counterparts. Modified atmosphere packaging was combined with freeze-chilling but it had little impact on shelflife extension for the product range with the outcome similar to that for samples packed in air. Tests on the freeze-chilling of white sauces showed the importance of using freeze-thaw stable starches. Best-practice thawing procedures were established and the importance of stacking configurations for outer boxes (each with a number of lasagne ready-meals) was highlighted in the case of the commercial tempering unit. Trials on the re-freezing of freeze-chilled products indicated that re-freezing is an option provided the normal storage protocols for frozen and chilled foods are observed.
    • From Concept to Completion. A roadmap for Food Entrepreneurs

      Curtin, Aine; McCarthy, Paul; McDonagh, Ciara; O'Neill, Edward (Teagasc (Agriculture and Food Development Authority), Ireland, 2006)