• Observations on the water distribution and extractable sugar content in carrot slices after pulsed electric field treatment

      Aguilo-Aguayo, Ingrid; Downey, Gerard; Keenan, Derek F.; Lyng, James G.; Brunton, Nigel; Rai, Dilip K; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; Generalitat of Catalonia; Lifelong Learning Programme; FIRM 06/TNI/AFRC6; BP-DGR2010; 201 1-1-ES1-LEO02-34225 (Elsevier, 13/06/2014)
      The impact of pulsed electric field (PEF) processing conditions on the distribution of water in carrot tissue and extractability of soluble sugars from carrot slices was studied. Time domain NMR relaxometry was used to investigate the water proton mobility in PEF-treated carrot samples. Three distinct transverse relaxation peaks were observed in untreated carrots. After PEF treatment only two slightly-overlapping peaks were found; these were attributed to water present in the cytoplasm and vacuole of carrot xylem and phloem tissues. This post-treatment observation indicated an increase in water permeability of tissues and/or a loss of integrity in the tonoplast. In general, the stronger the electric field applied, the lower the area representing transverse relaxation (T2) values irrespective of treatment duration. Moreover an increase in sucrose, β- and α-glucose and fructose concentrations of carrot slice extracts after PEF treatment suggested increases in both cell wall and vacuole permeability as a result of exposure to pulsed electric fields.
    • Offspring subcutaneous adipose markers are sensitive to the timing of maternal gestational weight gain

      Giblin, Linda; Darimont, Christian; Leone, Patricia; McNamara, Louise B.; Blancher, Florence; Berry, Donagh P.; Castaneda-Gutierrez, Euridice; Lawlor, Peadar G; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme (Biomed Central, 08/03/2015)
      Background Excessive maternal weight gain during pregnancy impacts on offspring health. This study focused on the timing of maternal gestational weight gain, using a porcine model with mothers of normal pre-pregnancy weight. Methods Trial design ensured the trajectory of maternal gestational weight gain differed across treatments in early, mid and late gestation. Diet composition did not differ. On day 25 gestation, sows were assigned to one of five treatments: Control sows received a standard gestation diet of 2.3 kg/day (30 MJ DE/day) from early to late gestation (day 25–110 gestation). E sows received 4.6 kg food/day in early gestation (day 25–50 gestation). M sows doubled their food intake in mid gestation (day 50–80 gestation). EM sows doubled their food intake during both early and mid gestation (day 25–80 gestation). L sows consumed 3.5 kg food/day in late gestation (day 80–110 gestation). Offspring body weight and food intake levels were measured from birth to adolescence. Markers of lipid metabolism, hypertrophy and inflammation were investigated in subcutaneous adipose tissue of adolescent offspring. Results The trajectory of gestational weight gain differed across treatments. However total gestational weight gain did not differ except for EM sows who were the heaviest and fattest mothers at parturition. Offspring birth weight did not differ across treatments. Subcutaneous adipose tissue from EM offspring differed significantly from controls, with elevated mRNA levels of lipogenic (CD36, ACACB and LPL), nutrient transporters (FABP4 and GLUT4), lipolysis (HSL and ATGL), adipocyte size (MEST) and inflammation (PAI-1) indicators. The subcutaneous adipose depot from L offspring exhibited elevated levels of CD36, ACACB, LPL, GLUT4 and FABP4 mRNA transcripts compared to control offspring. Conclusions Increasing gestational weight gain in early gestation had the greatest impact on offspring postnatal growth rate. Increasing maternal food allowance in late gestation appeared to shift the offspring adipocyte focus towards accumulation of fat. Mothers who gained the most weight during gestation (EM mothers) gave birth to offspring whose subcutaneous adipose tissue, at adolescence, appeared hyperactive compared to controls. This study concluded that mothers, who gained more than the recommended weight gain in mid and late gestation, put their offspring adipose tissue at risk of dysfunction.
    • Offspring subcutaneous adipose markers are sensitive to the timing of maternal gestational weight gain

      Giblin, Linda; Darimont, Christian; Leone, Patricia; McNamara, Louise B.; Blancher, Florence; Berry, Donagh P.; Castaneda-Gutierrez, Eurídice; Lawlor, Peadar G; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme (Biomed Central, 08/03/2015)
      Background Excessive maternal weight gain during pregnancy impacts on offspring health. This study focused on the timing of maternal gestational weight gain, using a porcine model with mothers of normal pre-pregnancy weight. Methods Trial design ensured the trajectory of maternal gestational weight gain differed across treatments in early, mid and late gestation. Diet composition did not differ. On day 25 gestation, sows were assigned to one of five treatments: Control sows received a standard gestation diet of 2.3 kg/day (30 MJ DE/day) from early to late gestation (day 25–110 gestation). E sows received 4.6 kg food/day in early gestation (day 25–50 gestation). M sows doubled their food intake in mid gestation (day 50–80 gestation). EM sows doubled their food intake during both early and mid gestation (day 25–80 gestation). L sows consumed 3.5 kg food/day in late gestation (day 80–110 gestation). Offspring body weight and food intake levels were measured from birth to adolescence. Markers of lipid metabolism, hypertrophy and inflammation were investigated in subcutaneous adipose tissue of adolescent offspring. Results The trajectory of gestational weight gain differed across treatments. However total gestational weight gain did not differ except for EM sows who were the heaviest and fattest mothers at parturition. Offspring birth weight did not differ across treatments. Subcutaneous adipose tissue from EM offspring differed significantly from controls, with elevated mRNA levels of lipogenic (CD36, ACACB and LPL), nutrient transporters (FABP4 and GLUT4), lipolysis (HSL and ATGL), adipocyte size (MEST) and inflammation (PAI-1) indicators. The subcutaneous adipose depot from L offspring exhibited elevated levels of CD36, ACACB, LPL, GLUT4 and FABP4 mRNA transcripts compared to control offspring. Conclusions Increasing gestational weight gain in early gestation had the greatest impact on offspring postnatal growth rate. Increasing maternal food allowance in late gestation appeared to shift the offspring adipocyte focus towards accumulation of fat. Mothers who gained the most weight during gestation (EM mothers) gave birth to offspring whose subcutaneous adipose tissue, at adolescence, appeared hyperactive compared to controls. This study concluded that mothers, who gained more than the recommended weight gain in mid and late gestation, put their offspring adipose tissue at risk of dysfunction.
    • Optimisation of plant protein and transglutaminase content in novel beef restructured steaks for older adults by central composite design

      Baugreet, Sephora; Kerry, Joseph P.; Brodkorb, Andre; Gomez, Carolina; Auty, Mark A.; Allen, Paul; Hamill, Ruth M; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, Ireland; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme; 11/F/045 (Elsevier, 2018-03-29)
      With the goal of optimising a protein-enriched restructured beef steak targeted at the nutritional and chemosensory requirements of older adults, technological performance of thirty formulations, containing plant-based ingredients, pea protein isolate (PPI), rice protein (RP) and lentil flour (LF) with transglutaminase (TG) to enhance binding of meat pieces, were analysed. Maximal protein content of 28% in cooked product was achieved with PPI, RP and LF. Binding strength was primarily affected by TG, while textural parameters were improved with LF inclusion. Optimal formulation (F) to obtain a protein-enriched steak with lowest hardness values was achieved with TG (2%), PPI (8%), RP (9.35%) and LF (4%). F, F1S (optimal formulation 1 with added seasoning) and control restructured products (not containing plant proteins or seasonings) were scored by 120 consumers' aged over-65 years. Controls were most preferred (P < .05), while F1S were least liked by the older consumers. Consumer testing suggests further refinement and optimisation of restructured products with plant proteins should be undertaken.
    • Optimization of protein recovery from bovine lung by pH shift process using response surface methodology

      Lynch, Sarah A.; Alvarez Garcia, Carlos; O'Neill, Eileen E.; Keenan, Derek F.; Mullen, Anne Maria; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, Ireland; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme; 11/F/043 (Wiley, 2017-09)
      BACKGROUND Response surface methodology (RSM) was used in a sequential manner to optimize solubilization and precipitation conditions in the recovery of protein from bovine lung using pH shift. RESULTS Separate D‐optimal designs were employed for protein solubilization and precipitation. Independent variables investigated for protein solubilization were time (10–120 min), temperature (4–20 °C), pH (8.0–11.0) and solvent/sample ratio (2.5–10). Variables for protein precipitation were time (0–60 min) and pH (4.25–6.00). Soluble protein yields ranged from 323 to 649 g kg−1 and the quadratic model for protein solubilization revealed a coefficient of determination R2 of 0.9958. Optimal conditions for maximum protein solubility were extraction time 140 min, temperature 19 °C, pH 10.8 and solvent/sample ratio 13.02. Protein precipitation yields varied from 407 to 667 g kg−1, giving a coefficient of determination R2 of 0.9335. Optimal conditions for maximum protein precipitation were pH 5.03 and 60 min. Based on the RSM model, solubilization conditions were manipulated to maximize protein solubilization under reduced water and alkaline usage. These conditions were also validated. CONCLUSION Models for solubilization and precipitation using bovine and porcine lung were validated; predicted and actual yields were in good agreement, showing cross‐species applicability of the results. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry
    • Oral Delivery of Nisin in Resistant Starch Based Matrices Alters the Gut Microbiota in Mice

      Gough, Ronan; Cabrera-Rubio, Raul; O'Connor, Paula M.; Crispie, Fiona; Miao, Song; Hill, Colin; Ross, R Paul; Cotter, Paul D.; Nilaweera, Kanishka N.; Rea, Mary C.; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, Ireland; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme; Science Foundation Ireland; BBSRC; Teagasc; 10/RD/TMFRC/701; 2012221; SFI/12/RC2273; SFI/16/BBSRC/3389; BB/P009875/1 (Frontiers, 15/06/2018)
      There is a growing recognition of the role the gastrointestinal microbiota plays in health and disease. Ingested antimicrobial proteins and peptides have the potential to alter the gastrointestinal microbiota; particularly if protected from digestion. Nisin is an antimicrobial peptide that is used as a food preservative. This study examined the ability of nisin to affect the murine microbiota when fed to mice in two different starch based matrices; a starch dough comprising raw starch granules and a starch gel comprising starch that was gelatinized and retrograded. The effects of the two starch matrices by themselves on the microbiota were also examined. Following 16S rRNA compositional sequencing, beta diversity analysis highlighted a significant difference (p = 0.001, n = 10) in the murine microbiota between the four diet groups. The differences between the two nisin containing diets were mainly attributable to differences in the nisin release from the starch matrices while the differences between the carriers were mainly attributable to the type of resistant starch they possessed. Indeed, the differences in the relative abundance of several genera in the mice consuming the starch dough and starch gel diets, in particular Akkermansia, the relative abundance of which was 0.5 and 11.9%, respectively (p = 0.0002, n = 10), points to the potential value of resistance starch as a modulator of beneficial gut microbes. Intact nisin and nisin digestion products (in particular nisin fragment 22–31) were detected in the feces and the nisin was biologically active. However, despite a three-fold greater consumption of nisin in the group fed the nisin in starch dough diet, twice as much nisin was detected in the feces of the group which consumed the nisin in starch gel diet. In addition, the relative abundance of three times as many genera from the lower gastrointestinal tract (GIT) were significantly different (p < 0.001, n = 10) to the control for the group fed the nisin in starch gel diet, implying that the starch gel afforded a degree of protection from digestion to the nisin entrapped within it.
    • Oral Delivery of Nisin in Resistant Starch Based Matrices Alters the Gut Microbiota in Mice

      Gough, Ronan; Cabrera Rubio, Raúl; O’Connor, Paula M.; Crispie, Fiona; Brodkorb, Andre; Miao, Song; Hill, Colin; Ross, R Paul; Cotter, Paul D.; Nilaweera, Kanishka N.; Rea, Mary C.; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme; Science Foundation Ireland; UK Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council; 10/RD/TMFRC/701; 2012221; SFI/12/RC2273; SFI/16/BBSRC/3389; BB/P009875 (Frontiers, 15/06/2018)
      There is a growing recognition of the role the gastrointestinal microbiota plays in health and disease. Ingested antimicrobial proteins and peptides have the potential to alter the gastrointestinal microbiota; particularly if protected from digestion. Nisin is an antimicrobial peptide that is used as a food preservative. This study examined the ability of nisin to affect the murine microbiota when fed to mice in two different starch based matrices; a starch dough comprising raw starch granules and a starch gel comprising starch that was gelatinized and retrograded. The effects of the two starch matrices by themselves on the microbiota were also examined. Following 16S rRNA compositional sequencing, beta diversity analysis highlighted a significant difference (p = 0.001, n = 10) in the murine microbiota between the four diet groups. The differences between the two nisin containing diets were mainly attributable to differences in the nisin release from the starch matrices while the differences between the carriers were mainly attributable to the type of resistant starch they possessed. Indeed, the differences in the relative abundance of several genera in the mice consuming the starch dough and starch gel diets, in particular Akkermansia, the relative abundance of which was 0.5 and 11.9%, respectively (p = 0.0002, n = 10), points to the potential value of resistance starch as a modulator of beneficial gut microbes. Intact nisin and nisin digestion products (in particular nisin fragment 22–31) were detected in the feces and the nisin was biologically active. However, despite a three-fold greater consumption of nisin in the group fed the nisin in starch dough diet, twice as much nisin was detected in the feces of the group which consumed the nisin in starch gel diet. In addition, the relative abundance of three times asmany genera fromthe lower gastrointestinal tract (GIT) were significantly different (p < 0.001, n = 10) to the control for the group fed the nisin in starch gel diet, implying that the starch gel afforded a degree of protection from digestion to the nisin entrapped within it.
    • Overview of seafood research at Ashtown food research centre (1990 - 2007)

      Gormley, Ronan T.; Downey, Gerard (Teagasc, 2008-02)
      In recent years, the Irish seafood industry has faced stringent quotas and dwindling fish stocks. The introduction of fish farming added a new dimension but falling prices also created difficulties for this sector. However, the recent report of the Seafood Industry Strategy Group on ‘Steering a New Course’ and the Sea Change Programme of the Marine Institute will add new impetus to the industry. The current report summarises R&D on seafood conducted at Ashtown Food Research Centre (AFRC) in the period 1990-2007 and represents a major portion of seafood R&D conducted nationally during that period.
    • Overview of Seafood Research at Ashtown Food Research Centre (1990 - 2007)

      Gormley, Ronan T.; Downey, Gerard (Teagasc, 01/02/2008)
      In recent years, the Irish seafood industry has faced stringent quotas and dwindling fish stocks. The introduction of fish farming added a new dimension but falling prices also created difficulties for this sector. However, the recent report of the Seafood Industry Strategy Group on ‘Steering a New Course’ and the Sea Change Programme of the Marine Institute will add new impetus to the industry. The current report summarises R&D on seafood conducted at Ashtown Food Research Centre (AFRC) in the period 1990-2007 and represents a major portion of seafood R&D conducted nationally during that period.
    • Partitioning of starter bacteria and added exogenous enzyme activities between curd and whey during Cheddar cheese manufacture

      Doolan, I. A.; Nongonierma, A. B.; Kilcawley, Kieran N; Wilkinson, M.G.; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, Ireland; 04/R&D/C/238 (Elsevier, 26/07/2013)
      Partitioning of starter bacteria and enzyme activities was investigated at different stages of Cheddar cheese manufacture using three exogenous commercial enzyme preparations added to milk or at salting. The enzyme preparations used were: Accelase AM317, Accelase AHC50, Accelerzyme CPG. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that AHC50 or AM317 consisted of permeabilised or dead cells and contained a range of enzyme activities. The CPG preparation contained only carboxypeptidase activity. Approximately 90% of starter bacteria cells partitioned with the curd at whey drainage. However, key enzyme activities partitioned with the bulk whey in the range of 22%–90%. An increased level of enzyme partitioning with the curd was observed for AHC50 which was added at salting, indicating that the mode of addition influenced partitioning. These findings suggest that further scope exists to optimise both bacterial and exogenous enzyme incorporation into cheese curd to accelerate ripening.
    • Phages of non-dairy lactococci: isolation and characterization of ΦL47, a phage infecting the grass isolate Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris DPC6860

      Cavanagh, Daniel; Guinane, Catriona M.; Neve, Horst; Coffey, Aidan; Ross, R Paul; Fitzgerald, Gerald F.; McAuliffe, Olivia; Irish Dairy Levy Research Trust; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme (Frontiers, 13/01/2014)
      Lactococci isolated from non-dairy sources have been found to possess enhanced metabolic activity when compared to dairy strains. These capabilities may be harnessed through the use of these strains as starter or adjunct cultures to produce more diverse flavor profiles in cheese and other dairy products. To understand the interactions between these organisms and the phages that infect them, a number of phages were isolated against lactococcal strains of non-dairy origin. One such phage, ΦL47, was isolated from a sewage sample using the grass isolate L. lactis ssp. cremoris DPC6860 as a host. Visualization of phage virions by transmission electron microscopy established that this phage belongs to the family Siphoviridae and possesses a long tail fiber, previously unseen in dairy lactococcal phages. Determination of the lytic spectrum revealed a broader than expected host range, with ΦL47 capable of infecting 4 industrial dairy strains, including ML8, HP and 310, and 3 additional non-dairy isolates. Whole genome sequencing of ΦL47 revealed a dsDNA genome of 128, 546 bp, making it the largest sequenced lactococcal phage to date. In total, 190 open reading frames (ORFs) were identified, and comparative analysis revealed that the predicted products of 117 of these ORFs shared greater than 50% amino acid identity with those of L. lactis phage Φ949, a phage isolated from cheese whey. Despite their different ecological niches, the genomic content and organization of ΦL47 and Φ949 are quite similar, with both containing 4 gene clusters oriented in different transcriptional directions. Other features that distinguish ΦL47 from Φ949 and other lactococcal phages, in addition to the presence of the tail fiber and the genome length, include a low GC content (32.5%) and a high number of predicted tRNA genes (8). Comparative genome analysis supports the conclusion that ΦL47 is a new member of the 949 lactococcal phage group which currently includes the dairy Φ949.
    • Physiological Gut Oxygenation Alters GLP‐1 Secretion from the Enteroendocrine Cell Line STC‐1

      Kondrashina, Alina; Papkovsky, Dmitri; Giblin, Linda; Enterprise Ireland; TC20130001 (Wiley, 29/09/2017)
      1 Scope Enteroendocrine cell lines are routinely assayed in simple buffers at ≈20% oxygen to screen foods for bioactives that boost satiety hormone levels. However, in vivo, enteroendocrine cells are exposed to different phases of food digestion and function at low oxygen concentration, ranging from 7.5% in the stomach to 0.5% in the colon–rectal junction. 2 Methods and results The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of physiologically relevant O2 concentrations of the gut on the production and secretion of the satiety hormone, glucagon‐like peptide 1 (GLP‐1), from the murine enteroendocrine cell line, secretin tumor cell line (STC‐1), in response to dairy macronutrients as they transit the gut. GLP‐1 exocytosis from STC‐1 cells is influenced by both oxygen concentration and by individual macronutrients. At low oxygen, STC‐1 cell viability is significantly improved for all macronutrient stimulations and cyclic adenosine monophosphate levels are dampened. GLP‐1 secretion from STC‐1 cells is influenced by both the phase of yogurt digestion and corresponding O2 concentration. Atmospheric oxygen at 4.5% combined with upper gastric digesta, which simulates ileum conditions, yields the highest GLP‐1 response. 3 Conclusion This demonstrates the importance of considering physiological oxygen levels and food digestion along gastrointestinal tract for reliable in vitro analysis of gut hormone secretion.
    • Pilot-scale Production of Hydrolysates with Altered Bio-functionalities based on Thermally-denatured Whey Protein Isolate

      O'Loughlin, Ian B.; Murray, Brian A.; FitzGerald, Richard J.; Brodkorb, Andre; Kelly, Philip M.; Enterprise Ireland; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme; CC20080001 (Elsevier, 13/08/2013)
      Whey protein isolate (WPI) solutions (100 g L−1 protein) were subjected to a heat-treatment of 80 °C for 10 min. Unheated and heat-treated WPI solutions were hydrolysed with Corolase® PP at pilot-scale to either 5 or 10% degree of hydrolysis (DH). Hydrolysates were subsequently processed via cascade membrane fractionation using 0.14 μm, and 30, 10, 5 and 1 kDa cut-off membranes. The compositional and molecular mass distribution profiles of the substrate hydrolysates and membrane processed fractions were determined. Whole and fractionated hydrolysates were assayed for both angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity and ferrous chelating capabilities. A strong positive correlation (P < 0.01) was established between the average molecular mass of the test samples and the concentration needed to chelate 50% of the iron (CC50) in solution. The lowest ACE inhibition concentration (IC50 = 0.23 g L−1 protein) was determined for the 1 kDa permeate of the heat-treated 10% DH hydrolysate
    • Polymorphisms in bovine immune genes and their associations with somatic cell count and milk production in dairy cattle

      Beecher, Christine; Daly, Mairead; Childs, Stuart; Berry, Donagh P.; Magee, David A; McCarthy, Tommie V; Giblin, Linda (Biomed Central, 05/11/2010)
      Background: Mastitis, an inflammation of the mammary gland, is a major source of economic loss on dairy farms. The aim of this study was to quantify the associations between two previously identified polymorphisms in the bovine toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and chemokine receptor 1 (CXCR1) genes and mammary health indictor traits in (a) 246 lactating dairy cow contemporaries representing five breeds from one research farm and (b) 848 Holstein-Friesian bulls that represent a large proportion of the Irish dairy germplasm. To expand the study, a further 14 polymorphisms in immune genes were included for association studies in the bull population. Results: TLR4-2021 associated (P < 0.05) with both milk protein and fat percentage in late lactation (P < 0.01) within the cow cohort. No association was observed between this polymorphism and either yield or composition of milk within the bull population. CXCR1-777 significantly associated (P < 0.05) with fat yield in the bull population and tended to associate (P < 0.1) with somatic cell score (SCS) in the cows genotyped. CD14-1908 A allele was found to associate with increased (P < 0.05) milk fat and protein yield and also tended to associate with increased (P < 0.1) milk yield. A SERPINA1 haplotype with superior genetic merit for milk protein yield and milk fat percentage (P < 0.05) was also identified. Conclusion: Of the sixteen polymorphisms in seven immune genes genotyped, just CXCR1-777 tended to associate with SCS, albeit only in the on-farm study. The lack of an association between the polymorphisms with SCS in the Holstein-Friesian data set would question the potential importance of these variants in selection for improved mastitis resistance in the Holstein-Friesian cow.
    • Potential of cultivar and crop management to affect phytochemical content in winter-grown sprouting broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica)

      Reilly, Kim; Valverde, Juan; Finn, Leo; Rai, Dilip K; Brunton, Nigel; Sorenson, Jens C; Sorenson, Hilmer; Gaffney, Michael; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, Ireland; 06/NITAFRC6 (Wiley, 08/07/2013)
      BACKGROUND: Variety and crop management strategies affect the content of bioactive compounds (phenolics, flavonoids and glucosinolates) in green broccoli (calabrese) types, which are cultivated during summer and autumn in temperate European climates. Sprouting broccoli types are morphologically distinct and are grown over the winter season and harvested until early spring. Thus they show considerable potential for development as an import substitution crop for growers and consumers during the ‘hungry gap’ of early spring. The present study investigated the effect of variety and management practices on phytochemical content in a range of sprouting broccoli varieties. RESULTS: Yields were significantly higher in white sprouting broccoli varieties. Levels of phenolics and flavonoids were in the range 81.6-270.4 and 16.9–104.8 mg 100g -1 FW respectively depending on year and cultivar, and were highest in varieties TZ 5052, TZ 5055, Red Admiral and Improved White Sprouting. In-row spacing did not affect flavonoid content. Phenolic and flavonoid content generally increased with increasing floret maturity and levels were high in edible portions of the crop. Crop wastes (leaf and flower) contained 145.9-239.3 and 21.5–116.6 mg 100g -1 FW total phenolics and flavonoids respectively depending on cultivar, tissue and year. Climatic factors had a significant effect on phenolic and flavonoid content. Levels of total and some individual glucosinolates were higher in sprouting broccoli than in the green broccoli variety Ironman. CONCLUSION: Levels of total phenolics, flavonoids and glucosinolates are higher in sprouting than green broccoli types. Sprouting broccoli represents an excellent source of dietary bioactive compounds.
    • Prawn Shell Chitosan Has Anti-Obesogenic Properties, Influencing Both Nutrient Digestibility and Microbial Populations in a Pig Model

      Egan, Aine M.; Sweeney, Torres; Hayes, Maria; O'Doherty, JohnV.; Marine Institute; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; MFFRI/07/01 (PLOS, 04/12/2015)
      The potential of natural products to prevent obesity have been investigated, with evidence to suggest that chitosan has anti-obesity effects. The current experiment investigated the anti-obesity potential of prawn shell derived chitosan on a range of variables relevant to obesity in a pig model. The two dietary treatment groups included in this 63 day study were: T1) basal diet and T2) basal diet plus 1000 ppm chitosan (n = 20 gilts per group (70 ± 0.90 kg). The parameter categories which were assessed included: performance, nutrient digestibility, serum leptin concentrations, nutrient transporter and digestive enzyme gene expression and gut microbial populations. Pigs offered chitosan had reduced feed intake and final body weight (P< 0.001), lower ileal digestibility of dry matter (DM), gross energy (GE) (P< 0.05) and reduced coefficient of apparent total tract digestibility (CATTD) of gross energy and nitrogen (P<0.05) when compared to the basal group. Fatty acid binding protein 2 (FABP2) gene expression was down-regulated in pigs offered chitosan (P = 0.05) relative to the basal diet. Serum leptin concentrations increased (P< 0.05) in animals offered the chitosan diet compared to pigs offered the basal diet. Fatness traits, back-fat depth (mm), fat content (kg), were significantly reduced while lean meat (%) was increased (P<0.05) in chitosan supplemented pigs. Pigs offered chitosan had decreased numbers of Firmicutes in the colon (P <0.05), and Lactobacillus spp. in both the caecum (P <0.05) and colon (P <0.001). Bifidobacteria populations were increased in the caecum of animals offered the chitosan diet (P <0.05). In conclusion, these findings suggest that prawn shell chitosan has potent anti-obesity/body weight control effects which are mediated through multiple biological systems in vivo.
    • Predicting beef carcass meat, fat and bone proportions from carcass conformation and fat scores or hindquarter dissection

      Conroy, S. B.; Drennan, Michael J; McGee, Mark; Keane, Michael G.; Kenny, David A.; Berry, Donagh P. (Cambridge University Press, 2009-10)
      Equations for predicting the meat, fat and bone proportions in beef carcasses using the European Union carcass classification scores for conformation and fatness, and hindquarter composition were developed and their accuracy was tested using data from 662 cattle. The animals included bulls, steers and heifers, and comprised of Holstein–Friesian, early- and late-maturing breeds x Holstein–Friesian, early-maturing X early-maturing, late-maturing X early-maturing and genotypes with 0.75 or greater late-maturing ancestry. Bulls, heifers and steers were slaughtered at 15, 20 and 24 months of age, respectively. The diet offered before slaughter includes grass silage only, grass or maize silage plus supplementary concentrates, or concentrates offered ad libitum plus 1 kg of roughage dry matter per head daily. Following the slaughter, carcasses were classified mechanically for conformation and fatness (scale 1 to 15), and the right side of each carcass was dissected into meat, fat and bone. Carcass conformation score ranged from 4.7 to 14.4, 5.4 to 10.9 and 2.0 to 12.0 for bulls, heifers and steers, respectively; the corresponding ranges for fat score were 2.7 to 11.5, 3.2 to 11.3 and 2.8 to 13.3. Prediction equations for carcass meat, fat and bone proportions were developed using multiple regression, with carcass conformation and fat score both included as continuous independent variables. In a separate series of analyses, the independent variable in the model was the proportion of the trait under investigation (meat, fat or bone) in the hindquarter. In both analyses, interactions between the independent variables and gender were tested. The predictive ability of the developed equations was assed using cross-validation on all 662 animals. Carcass classification scores accounted for 0.73, 0.67 and 0.71 of the total variation in carcass meat, fat and bone proportions, respectively, across all 662 animals. The corresponding values using hindquarter meat, fat and bone in the model were 0.93, 0.87 and 0.89, respectively. The bias of the prediction equations when applied across all animals was not different from zero, but bias did exist among some of the genotypes of animals present. In conclusion, carcass classification scores and hindquarter composition are accurate and efficient predictors of carcass meat, fat and bone proportions.
    • Predicting the eating quality of meat

      Mullen, Anne Maria; Murray, Brendan; Troy, Declan J.; European Union (Teagasc, 2000-12)
      A novel, water soluble protein fragment [1735Da] was isolated from beef striploin and characterised. As soluble components of the proteolytic system are easily extracted from muscle they may be suitable for routine factory analysis. This fragment originated from the important myofibrillar protein, troponin T and may serve as a tenderness indicator.
    • Prediction of cull cow carcass characteristics from live weight and body condition score measured pre slaughter

      Minchin, W.; Buckley, Frank; Kenny, David A.; Keane, Michael G.; Shalloo, Laurence; O'Donovan, Michael (Teagasc, Oak Park, Carlow, Ireland, 2009)
      A study was conducted to provide information on the degree of carcass finish of Irish cull cows and to investigate the usefulness of live animal measurements for the prediction beef breeds (albeit with a moderate R2 value compared to the carcass weight prediction) using objective, non-intrusive and easily measured live animal measurements, should be of benefit to farmers finishing cull cows in Ireland. of cull cow carcass characteristics. Live weight (LW) and body condition score (BCS) were recorded on cows entering an Irish commercial slaughter facility between September and November, 2005. Data pertaining to sire breed, age and carcass characteristics were collected and subsequently collated for each cow. For analysis, cows (n = 2163) were subdivided into three breed categories: dairy breed sired by Holstein/ Friesian (FR), sired by early-maturing beef breeds (EM) and sired by late-maturing beef breeds (LM). The proportion of cows slaughtered at the desired (TARGET) carcass standard (cold carcass weight ≥ 272 kg, carcass conformation class ≥ P+ and carcass fat class ≥ 3) was low (on average 0.30), but did differ (P < 0.001) between the dairy and beef breed categories (0.22, 0.47 and 0.53 for FR, EM and LM categories, respectively). Regression procedures were used to develop equations to predict cold carcass weight, carcass conformation score, carcass fat score and proportion in the TARGET category from LW and BCS. Equations predicting cold carcass weight had high R2 values for all breed categories (0.81, 0.85 and 0.79 for the FR, EM and LM, respectively). Equations predicting carcass fatness had moderate R2 values for the beef breed categories (0.65 and 0.59 for the EM and LM, respectively). Equations predicting carcass conformation and the TARGET category yielded lower R2 values. The successful prediction of carcass weight for all breed categories and of carcass fatness for the
    • Prediction of naturally-occurring, industrially-induced and total trans fatty acids in butter, dairy spreads and Cheddar cheese using vibrational spectroscopy and multivariate data analysis

      Zhao, Ming; Beattie, Renwick J.; Fearon, Anna M.; O'Donnell, Colm P.; Downey, Gerard; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme (Elsevier, 08/08/2015)
      This study investigated the use of vibrational spectroscopy [near infrared (NIR), Fourier-transform mid-infrared (FT-MIR), Raman] and multivariate data analysis for (1) quantifying total trans fatty acids (TT), and (2) separately predicting naturally-occurring (NT; i.e., C16:1 t9; C18:1 trans-n, n = 6 … 9, 10, 11; C18:2 trans) and industrially-induced trans fatty acids (IT = TT – NT) in Irish dairy products, i.e., butter (n = 60), Cheddar cheese (n = 44), and dairy spreads (n = 54). Partial least squares regression models for predicting NT, IT and TT in each type of dairy product were developed using FT-MIR, NIR and Raman spectral data. Models based on NIR, FT-MIR and Raman spectra were used for the prediction of NT and TT content in butter; best prediction performance achieved a coefficient of determination in validation (R2V) ∼ 0.91–0.95, root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) ∼ 0.07–0.30 for NT; R2V ∼ 0.92–0.95, RMSEP ∼ 0.23–0.29 for TT.