• Partitioning of starter bacteria and added exogenous enzyme activities between curd and whey during Cheddar cheese manufacture

      Doolan, I. A.; Nongonierma, Alice B.; Kilcawley, Kieran N; Wilkinson, M.G.; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, Ireland; 04/R&D/C/238 (Elsevier, 26/07/2013)
      Partitioning of starter bacteria and enzyme activities was investigated at different stages of Cheddar cheese manufacture using three exogenous commercial enzyme preparations added to milk or at salting. The enzyme preparations used were: Accelase AM317, Accelase AHC50, Accelerzyme CPG. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that AHC50 or AM317 consisted of permeabilised or dead cells and contained a range of enzyme activities. The CPG preparation contained only carboxypeptidase activity. Approximately 90% of starter bacteria cells partitioned with the curd at whey drainage. However, key enzyme activities partitioned with the bulk whey in the range of 22%–90%. An increased level of enzyme partitioning with the curd was observed for AHC50 which was added at salting, indicating that the mode of addition influenced partitioning. These findings suggest that further scope exists to optimise both bacterial and exogenous enzyme incorporation into cheese curd to accelerate ripening.
    • Paste structure and rheological properties of lotus seed starch–glycerin monostearate complexes formed by high-pressure homogenization

      Chen, Bingyan; Guo, Zebin; Zeng, Shaoxiao; Tian, Yuting; Miao, Song; Zheng, Baodong; National Natural Science Foundation of China; Scientific and Technological Innovation Team Support Plan of Institution of Higher Learning in Fujian Province; Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University of China; 31501485; et al. (Elsevier, 2017-10-31)
      Starch–lipid complexes were prepared using lotus seed starch (LS) and glycerin monostearate (GMS) via a high-pressure homogenization (HPH) process, and the effect of HPH on the paste structure and rheological properties of LS–GMS was investigated. Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA) profiles showed that HPH treatment inhibited the formation of the second viscosity peak of the LS–GMS paste, and the extent of this change was dependent on the level of homogenized pressure. Analysis of the size-exclusion chromatography, light microscopy, and low-field 1H nuclear magnetic resonance results revealed that high homogenized pressure (70–100 MPa) decreased molecular weight and size by degrading the branch structure of amylopectin; however, intact LS–GMS granules can optimize the network structure by filler–matrix interaction, which causes free water to transition into immobile water in the starch paste. The steady-shear results showed that the LS–GMS pastes presented non-Newtonian shear-thinning behavior, with higher homogenized pressure producing a smaller hysteresis loop area. During the oscillation process, the LS–GMS pastes prepared at 100 MPa exhibited the lowest loss tangent values in all the complexes, indicating a stronger resistance to vibration.
    • Performances of full cross-validation partial least squares regression models developed using Raman spectral data for the prediction of bull beef sensory attributes

      Zhao, Ming; Nian, Yingqun; Allen, Paul; Downey, Gerard; Kerry, Joseph P.; O’Donnell, Colm P.; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme (Elsevier BV, 2018-04-23)
      The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled “Application of Raman spectroscopy and chemometric techniques to assess sensory characteristics of young dairy bull beef” [1]. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) models were developed on Raman spectral data pre-treated using Savitzky Golay (S.G.) derivation (with 2nd or 5th order polynomial baseline correction) and results of sensory analysis on bull beef samples (n = 72). Models developed using selected Raman shift ranges (i.e. 250–3380 cm−1, 900–1800 cm−1 and 1300–2800 cm−1) were explored. The best model performance for each sensory attributes prediction was obtained using models developed on Raman spectral data of 1300–2800 cm−1.
    • Phages of non-dairy lactococci: isolation and characterization of ΦL47, a phage infecting the grass isolate Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris DPC6860

      Cavanagh, Daniel; Guinane, Caitriona M.; Neve, Horst; Coffey, Aidan; Ross, R Paul; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; McAuliffe, Olivia; Irish Dairy Levy Research Trust; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme (Frontiers, 13/01/2014)
      Lactococci isolated from non-dairy sources have been found to possess enhanced metabolic activity when compared to dairy strains. These capabilities may be harnessed through the use of these strains as starter or adjunct cultures to produce more diverse flavor profiles in cheese and other dairy products. To understand the interactions between these organisms and the phages that infect them, a number of phages were isolated against lactococcal strains of non-dairy origin. One such phage, ΦL47, was isolated from a sewage sample using the grass isolate L. lactis ssp. cremoris DPC6860 as a host. Visualization of phage virions by transmission electron microscopy established that this phage belongs to the family Siphoviridae and possesses a long tail fiber, previously unseen in dairy lactococcal phages. Determination of the lytic spectrum revealed a broader than expected host range, with ΦL47 capable of infecting 4 industrial dairy strains, including ML8, HP and 310, and 3 additional non-dairy isolates. Whole genome sequencing of ΦL47 revealed a dsDNA genome of 128, 546 bp, making it the largest sequenced lactococcal phage to date. In total, 190 open reading frames (ORFs) were identified, and comparative analysis revealed that the predicted products of 117 of these ORFs shared greater than 50% amino acid identity with those of L. lactis phage Φ949, a phage isolated from cheese whey. Despite their different ecological niches, the genomic content and organization of ΦL47 and Φ949 are quite similar, with both containing 4 gene clusters oriented in different transcriptional directions. Other features that distinguish ΦL47 from Φ949 and other lactococcal phages, in addition to the presence of the tail fiber and the genome length, include a low GC content (32.5%) and a high number of predicted tRNA genes (8). Comparative genome analysis supports the conclusion that ΦL47 is a new member of the 949 lactococcal phage group which currently includes the dairy Φ949.
    • Phenotypic, fermentation characterization, and resistance mechanism analysis of bacteriophage-resistant mutants of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus isolated from traditional Chinese dairy products

      Deng, Kaibo; Fang, Wei; Zheng, Baodong; Miao, Song; Huo, Guicheng; International Technological Cooperation and Exchange Plan of Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University; National Natural Science Funds of China; Scientific and Technological Innovation Team Support Plan of Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University; KXGH17001; 31171717; et al. (Elsevier, 2017-12-21)
      Bacteriophage infection is a large factor in dairy industrial production failure on the basis of pure inoculation fermentation, and developing good commercial starter cultures from wild dairy products and improving the environmental vigor of starter cultures by enhancing their phage resistance are still the most effective solutions. Here we used a spontaneous isolation method to obtain bacteriophage-resistant mutants of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus strains that are used in traditional Chinese fermented dairy products. We analyzed their phenotypes, fermentation characteristics, and resistance mechanisms. The results showed that bacteriophage-insensitive mutants (BIM) BIM8 and BIM12 had high bacteriophage resistance while exhibiting fermentation and coagulation attributes that were as satisfying as those of their respective parent strains KLDS1.1016 and KLDS1.1028. According to the attachment receptor detection, mutants BIM8 and BIM12 exhibited reduced absorption to bacteriophage phiLdb compared with their respective bacteriophage-sensitive parent strains because of changes to the polysaccharides or teichoic acids connected to their peptidoglycan layer. Additionally, genes, including HSDR, HSDM, and HSDS, encoding 3 subunits of a type I restriction-modification system were identified in their respective parent strains. We also discovered that HSDR and HSDM were highly conserved but that HSDS was variable because it is responsible for the DNA specificity of the complex. The late lysis that occurred only in strain KLDS1.1016 and not in strain KLDS1.1028 suggests that the former and its mutant BIM8 also may have an activatable restriction-modification mechanism. We conclude that the L. bulgaricus BIM8 and BIM12 mutants have great potential in the dairy industry as starter cultures, and their phage-resistance mechanism was effective mainly due to the adsorption interference and restriction-modification system.
    • Physical and interfacial characterization of phytosterols in oil-in-water triacylglycerol-based emulsions

      Zychowski, Lisa; Mettu, Srinivas; Dagastine, Raymond; Kelly, Alan L.; O’Mahony, James A.; Auty, Mark; Teagasc (Elsevier, 2018-11-16)
      Phytosterols possess the ability to significantly lower low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels in the blood, but their bioaccessibility is highly dependent upon the solubility of the phytosterol within the carrier matrix. Currently, there is a limited amount of knowledge on how phytosterols interact at oil-water interfaces, despite research indicating that these interfaces could promote the crystallization of phytosterols and thus decrease bioaccessibility. In order to fill this knowledge gap, this work expands upon a previously studied emulsion system for encapsulating phytosterols and addresses whether phytosterols can crystalize at an oil-in-water emulsion interface. Images from multiple microscopic techniques suggest interfacial phytosterol crystallization in 0.6% phytosterol-enriched emulsions, while interfacial tension results and calculated models showed that whey protein and phytosterols had a synergistic effect on interfacial tension. A deeper understanding of the interfacial behavior of phytosterols in emulsions can provide the functional food and pharmaceutical industry with the knowledge needed to design more bioaccessible phytosterol-enriched products.
    • Physicochemical properties and issues associated with trypsin hydrolyses of bovine casein-dominant protein ingredients

      Lim, Aaron S. L.; Fenelon, Mark A.; McCarthy, Noel; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; 11/F/061 (Elsevier, 2019-06-06)
      Milk protein concentrate (MPC) and sodium caseinate (NaCas) were hydrolysed using the enzyme trypsin and the subsequent physical properties of the two ingredients were examined. Trypsin hydrolysis was carried out at pH 7 and at 45 °C on 11.1% (w/w) protein solutions. Heat inactivation of trypsin was carried out when the degree of hydrolysis reached either 10 or 15%. Size-exclusion chromatography and electrophoresis confirmed a significant reduction in protein molecular weight in both ingredients. However, whey proteins in MPC were more resistant to trypsin hydrolysis than casein. Oil-in-water emulsions were prepared using intact or hydrolysed protein, maltodextrin, and sunflower oil. Protein hydrolysis had a negative effect on the subsequent physical properties of emulsions, compared with non-hydrolysed proteins, with a larger particle size (only for NaCas stabilised emulsions), faster creaming rate, lower heat stability, and increased sedimentation observed in hydrolysed protein emulsions.
    • Physicochemical properties of whole milk powder derived from cows fed pasture or total mixed ration diets

      Magan, Jonathan B.; Tobin, John; O'Callaghan, Tom F.; Kelly, Alan L.; Fenelon, Mark A.; Hennessy, Deirdre; McCarthy, Noel A.; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme; Irish Dairy Levy (American Dairy Science Association, 2019-08)
      This study examined the effect of dietary factors on compositional and functional properties of whole milk powder (WMP) produced from bovine milk. Raw milk samples were obtained from 3 groups of 18 Holstein Friesian spring-calving cows randomly assigned to diets based on perennial ryegrass (GRS), perennial ryegrass/white clover sward (CLV), and total mixed ration (TMR). Raw milks obtained in late lactation were subsequently standardized for fat, heat-treated (90°C for 30 s), evaporated, and homogenized before spray drying. The WMP produced from each diet were analyzed to determine differences in color, particle size distribution, heat coagulation time, yogurt gelation, texture profile, and protein profile due to each diet. Significant differences in heat coagulation time were observed between the CLV and TMR samples, whereas color values were significantly different between GRS and TMR samples. No significant differences in gross composition, protein profile, or whey protein nitrogen index were found between the 3 WMP samples. Average D90 values (the particle size at which 90% of the particles were smaller than the specified size) for fat globules were significantly lower in the TMR sample compared with the GRS and CLV samples. Yogurts produced from GRS- and CLV-derived WMP had significantly higher elastic moduli (G′) than those produced from TMR-derived WMP. Similarly, texture profile analysis revealed significantly higher firmness values in yogurt samples derived from CLV compared with TMR samples. Our data characterize the effect of these diets on the composition and functional properties of fat-standardized WMP, suggesting better yogurt functionality and thermal stability in WMP derived from pasture-based bovine diets.
    • Physicochemical properties of whole milk powder derived from cows fed pasture or total mixed ration diets

      Magan, Jonathan B.; Tobin, John; O'Callaghan, Tom F.; Kelly, Alan L.; Fenelon, Mark A.; Hennessy, Deirdre; McCarthy, Noel A.; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme; The Irish Dairy Levy; MDDT0044 (Elsevier, 2019-08-22)
      This study examined the effect of dietary factors on compositional and functional properties of whole milk powder (WMP) produced from bovine milk. Raw milk samples were obtained from 3 groups of 18 Holstein Friesian spring-calving cows randomly assigned to diets based on perennial ryegrass (GRS), perennial ryegrass/white clover sward (CLV), and total mixed ration (TMR). Raw milks obtained in late lactation were subsequently standardized for fat, heat-treated (90°C for 30 s), evaporated, and homogenized before spray drying. The WMP produced from each diet were analyzed to determine differences in color, particle size distribution, heat coagulation time, yogurt gelation, texture profile, and protein profile due to each diet. Significant differences in heat coagulation time were observed between the CLV and TMR samples, whereas color values were significantly different between GRS and TMR samples. No significant differences in gross composition, protein profile, or whey protein nitrogen index were found between the 3 WMP samples. Average D90 values (the particle size at which 90% of the particles were smaller than the specified size) for fat globules were significantly lower in the TMR sample compared with the GRS and CLV samples. Yogurts produced from GRS- and CLV-derived WMP had significantly higher elastic moduli (G′) than those produced from TMR-derived WMP. Similarly, texture profile analysis revealed significantly higher firmness values in yogurt samples derived from CLV compared with TMR samples. Our data characterize the effect of these diets on the composition and functional properties of fat-standardized WMP, suggesting better yogurt functionality and thermal stability in WMP derived from pasture-based bovine diets.
    • Physiological Gut Oxygenation Alters GLP‐1 Secretion from the Enteroendocrine Cell Line STC‐1

      Kondrashina, Alina; Papkovsky, Dmitri; Giblin, Linda; Enterprise Ireland; TC20130001 (Wiley, 29/09/2017)
      1 Scope Enteroendocrine cell lines are routinely assayed in simple buffers at ≈20% oxygen to screen foods for bioactives that boost satiety hormone levels. However, in vivo, enteroendocrine cells are exposed to different phases of food digestion and function at low oxygen concentration, ranging from 7.5% in the stomach to 0.5% in the colon–rectal junction. 2 Methods and results The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of physiologically relevant O2 concentrations of the gut on the production and secretion of the satiety hormone, glucagon‐like peptide 1 (GLP‐1), from the murine enteroendocrine cell line, secretin tumor cell line (STC‐1), in response to dairy macronutrients as they transit the gut. GLP‐1 exocytosis from STC‐1 cells is influenced by both oxygen concentration and by individual macronutrients. At low oxygen, STC‐1 cell viability is significantly improved for all macronutrient stimulations and cyclic adenosine monophosphate levels are dampened. GLP‐1 secretion from STC‐1 cells is influenced by both the phase of yogurt digestion and corresponding O2 concentration. Atmospheric oxygen at 4.5% combined with upper gastric digesta, which simulates ileum conditions, yields the highest GLP‐1 response. 3 Conclusion This demonstrates the importance of considering physiological oxygen levels and food digestion along gastrointestinal tract for reliable in vitro analysis of gut hormone secretion.
    • Phytosterol crystallisation within bulk and dispersed triacylglycerol matrices as influenced by oil droplet size and low molecular weight surfactant addition

      Zychowski, Lisa M.; Logan, Amy; Augustin, Mary Ann; Kelly, Alan L.; O'Mahony, James A.; Conn, Charlotte E.; Auty, Mark; Teagasc; Australian Research Council; 6412; et al. (Elsevier, 2018-04-12)
      Phytosterols can lower LDL-cholesterol and are frequently used by the functional food industry. However, little is known regarding how phytosterol crystallisation can be controlled, despite solubilised phytosterols having improved bioaccessibility. This study investigates phytosterol crystallisation in bulk milk fat and in model dairy emulsion systems at two average droplet sizes, 1.0 and 0.2 µm. The effect of lecithin and monoacylglycerol addition on phytosterol crystallisation for both emulsion and bulk systems was also evaluated. Results demonstrated that lecithin and monoacylglycerols enrichment into the bulk system minimised phytosterol crystallisation. However, in emulsions, phytosterol crystallisation was mainly influenced by decreasing the droplet size. Smaller emulsion droplets containing lecithin showed the greatest potential for decreasing phytosterol crystallisation and had improved physicochemical stability. This information can be employed by the functional food industry to minimise phytosterol crystallisation and possibly improve bioaccessibility.
    • A pilot study demonstrating the altered gut microbiota functionality in stable adults with Cystic Fibrosis

      Fouhy, Fiona; Ronan, N. J.; O'Sullivan, Orla; McCarthy, Y.; Walsh, Aaron M.; Murphy, D.M.; Daly, M.; Flanagan, E. T.; Fleming, C.; McCarthy, M.; et al. (Nature Publishing Group, 2017-07-27)
      Cystic Fibrosis (CF) and its treatment result in an altered gut microbiota composition compared to non-CF controls. However, the impact of this on gut microbiota functionality has not been extensively characterised. Our aim was to conduct a proof-of-principle study to investigate if measurable changes in gut microbiota functionality occur in adult CF patients compared to controls. Metagenomic DNA was extracted from faecal samples from six CF patients and six non-CF controls and shotgun metagenomic sequencing was performed on the MiSeq platform. Metabolomic analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was conducted on faecal water. The gut microbiota of the CF group was significantly different compared to the non-CF controls, with significantly increased Firmicutes and decreased Bacteroidetes. Functionality was altered, with higher pathway abundances and gene families involved in lipid (e.g. PWY 6284 unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis (p = 0.016)) and xenobiotic metabolism (e.g. PWY-5430 meta-cleavage pathway of aromatic compounds (p = 0.004)) in CF patients compared to the controls. Significant differences in metabolites occurred between the two groups. This proof-of-principle study demonstrates that measurable changes in gut microbiota functionality occur in CF patients compared to controls. Larger studies are thus needed to interrogate this further.
    • Pilot-scale formation of whey protein aggregates determine the stability of heat-treated whey protein solutions—Effect of pH and protein concentration

      Buggy, Aoife K.; McManus, Jennifer J.; Brodkorb, Andre; Hogan, Sean A.; Fenelon, Mark A.; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; 11/F/037 (American Dairy Science Association, 2018-09-20)
      Denaturation and consequent aggregation in whey protein solutions is critical to product functionality during processing. Solutions of whey protein isolate (WPI) prepared at 1, 4, 8, and 12% (wt/wt) and pH 6.2, 6.7, or 7.2 were subjected to heat treatment (85°C × 30 s) using a pilot-scale heat exchanger. The effects of heat treatment on whey protein denaturation and aggregation were determined by chromatography, particle size, turbidity, and rheological analyses. The influence of pH and WPI concentration during heat treatment on the thermal stability of the resulting dispersions was also investigated. Whey protein isolate solutions heated at pH 6.2 were more extensively denatured, had a greater proportion of insoluble aggregates, higher particle size and turbidity, and were significantly less heat-stable than equivalent samples prepared at pH 6.7 and 7.2. The effects of WPI concentration on denaturation/aggregation behavior were more apparent at higher pH where the stabilizing effects of charge repulsion became increasingly influential. Solutions containing 12% (wt/wt) WPI had significantly higher apparent viscosities, at each pH, compared with lower protein concentrations, with solutions prepared at pH 6.2 forming a gel. Smaller average particle size and a higher proportion of soluble aggregates in WPI solutions, pre-heated at pH 6.7 and 7.2, resulted in improved thermal stability on subsequent heating. Higher pH during secondary heating also increased thermal stability. This study offers insight into the interactive effects of pH and whey protein concentration during pilot-scale processing and demonstrates how protein functionality can be controlled through manipulation of these factors.
    • Pilot-scale Production of Hydrolysates with Altered Bio-functionalities based on Thermally-denatured Whey Protein Isolate

      O'Loughlin, Ian B.; Murray, Brian A.; Fitzgerald, Richard J.; Brodkorb, Andre; Kelly, Philip M.; Enterprise Ireland; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme; CC20080001 (Elsevier, 13/08/2013)
      Whey protein isolate (WPI) solutions (100 g L−1 protein) were subjected to a heat-treatment of 80 °C for 10 min. Unheated and heat-treated WPI solutions were hydrolysed with Corolase® PP at pilot-scale to either 5 or 10% degree of hydrolysis (DH). Hydrolysates were subsequently processed via cascade membrane fractionation using 0.14 μm, and 30, 10, 5 and 1 kDa cut-off membranes. The compositional and molecular mass distribution profiles of the substrate hydrolysates and membrane processed fractions were determined. Whole and fractionated hydrolysates were assayed for both angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity and ferrous chelating capabilities. A strong positive correlation (P < 0.01) was established between the average molecular mass of the test samples and the concentration needed to chelate 50% of the iron (CC50) in solution. The lowest ACE inhibition concentration (IC50 = 0.23 g L−1 protein) was determined for the 1 kDa permeate of the heat-treated 10% DH hydrolysate
    • Polymorphisms in bovine immune genes and their associations with somatic cell count and milk production in dairy cattle

      Beecher, Christine; Daly, Mairead; Childs, Stuart; Berry, Donagh P.; Magee, David A; McCarthy, Tommie V; Giblin, Linda (Biomed Central, 05/11/2010)
      Background: Mastitis, an inflammation of the mammary gland, is a major source of economic loss on dairy farms. The aim of this study was to quantify the associations between two previously identified polymorphisms in the bovine toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and chemokine receptor 1 (CXCR1) genes and mammary health indictor traits in (a) 246 lactating dairy cow contemporaries representing five breeds from one research farm and (b) 848 Holstein-Friesian bulls that represent a large proportion of the Irish dairy germplasm. To expand the study, a further 14 polymorphisms in immune genes were included for association studies in the bull population. Results: TLR4-2021 associated (P < 0.05) with both milk protein and fat percentage in late lactation (P < 0.01) within the cow cohort. No association was observed between this polymorphism and either yield or composition of milk within the bull population. CXCR1-777 significantly associated (P < 0.05) with fat yield in the bull population and tended to associate (P < 0.1) with somatic cell score (SCS) in the cows genotyped. CD14-1908 A allele was found to associate with increased (P < 0.05) milk fat and protein yield and also tended to associate with increased (P < 0.1) milk yield. A SERPINA1 haplotype with superior genetic merit for milk protein yield and milk fat percentage (P < 0.05) was also identified. Conclusion: Of the sixteen polymorphisms in seven immune genes genotyped, just CXCR1-777 tended to associate with SCS, albeit only in the on-farm study. The lack of an association between the polymorphisms with SCS in the Holstein-Friesian data set would question the potential importance of these variants in selection for improved mastitis resistance in the Holstein-Friesian cow.
    • Potential applications for virtual and augmented reality technologies in sensory science

      Crofton, Emily C.; Botinestean, Cristina; Fenelon, Mark A.; Gallagher, Eimear (Elsevier, 2019-06-19)
      Sensory science has advanced significantly in the past decade and is quickly evolving to become a key tool for predicting food product success in the marketplace. Increasingly, sensory data techniques are moving towards more dynamic aspects of sensory perception, taking account of the various stages of user-product interactions. Recent technological advancements in virtual reality and augmented reality have unlocked the potential for new immersive and interactive systems which could be applied as powerful tools for capturing and deciphering the complexities of human sensory perception. This paper reviews recent advancements in virtual and augmented reality technologies and identifies and explores their potential application within the field of sensory science. The paper also considers the possible benefits for the food industry as well as key challenges posed for widespread adoption. The findings indicate that these technologies have the potential to alter the research landscape in sensory science by facilitating promising innovations in five principal areas: consumption context, biometrics, food structure and texture, sensory marketing and augmenting sensory perception. Although the advent of augmented and virtual reality in sensory science offers new exciting developments, the exploitation of these technologies is in its infancy and future research will understand how they can be fully integrated with food and human responses. Industrial relevance: The need for sensory evaluation within the food industry is becoming increasingly complex as companies continuously compete for consumer product acceptance in today's highly innovative and global food environment. Recent technological developments in virtual and augmented reality offer the food industry new opportunities for generating more reliable insights into consumer sensory perceptions of food and beverages, contributing to the design and development of new products with optimised consumer benefits. These technologies also hold significant potential for improving the predictive validity of newly launched products within the marketplace.
    • Potential of cultivar and crop management to affect phytochemical content in winter-grown sprouting broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica)

      Reilly, Kim; Valverde, Juan; Finn, Leo; Rai, Dilip K.; Brunton, Nigel; Sorenson, Jens C; Sorenson, Hilmer; Gaffney, Michael; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, Ireland; 06/NITAFRC6 (Wiley, 08/07/2013)
      BACKGROUND: Variety and crop management strategies affect the content of bioactive compounds (phenolics, flavonoids and glucosinolates) in green broccoli (calabrese) types, which are cultivated during summer and autumn in temperate European climates. Sprouting broccoli types are morphologically distinct and are grown over the winter season and harvested until early spring. Thus they show considerable potential for development as an import substitution crop for growers and consumers during the ‘hungry gap’ of early spring. The present study investigated the effect of variety and management practices on phytochemical content in a range of sprouting broccoli varieties. RESULTS: Yields were significantly higher in white sprouting broccoli varieties. Levels of phenolics and flavonoids were in the range 81.6-270.4 and 16.9–104.8 mg 100g -1 FW respectively depending on year and cultivar, and were highest in varieties TZ 5052, TZ 5055, Red Admiral and Improved White Sprouting. In-row spacing did not affect flavonoid content. Phenolic and flavonoid content generally increased with increasing floret maturity and levels were high in edible portions of the crop. Crop wastes (leaf and flower) contained 145.9-239.3 and 21.5–116.6 mg 100g -1 FW total phenolics and flavonoids respectively depending on cultivar, tissue and year. Climatic factors had a significant effect on phenolic and flavonoid content. Levels of total and some individual glucosinolates were higher in sprouting broccoli than in the green broccoli variety Ironman. CONCLUSION: Levels of total phenolics, flavonoids and glucosinolates are higher in sprouting than green broccoli types. Sprouting broccoli represents an excellent source of dietary bioactive compounds.
    • Potential Use of Biotherapeutic Bacteria to Target Colorectal Cancer-Associated Taxa

      Lawrence, Garreth W.; Begley, Máire; Cotter, Paul D.; Guinane, Caitriona M. (MDPI AG, 2020-01-30)
      The role of the gut microbiome in human health and disease is the focus of much attention. It has been widely agreed upon that our gut bacteria play a role in host immunity, nutrient absorption, digestion, metabolism, and other key drivers of health. Furthermore, certain microbial signatures and specific taxa have also been associated with the development of diseases, such as obesity; inflammatory bowel disease; and, indeed, colorectal cancer (CRC), which is the focus of this review. By extension, such taxa represent potential therapeutic targets. In particular, the emerging human pathogen Fusobacterium nucleatum represents an important agent in CRC development and its control within the gastrointestinal tract is desirable. This paper reviews the principal bacterial pathogens that have been associated with CRC to date and discusses the in vitro and human studies that have shown the potential use of biotherapeutic strains as a means of targeting CRC-associated bacteria.
    • Potentially modifiable determinants of malnutrition in older adults: A systematic review

      O'Keeffe, M.; Kelly, M.; O'Herlihy, E.; O'Toole, P.W.; Kearney, P.M.; Timmons, S.; O'Shea, E.; Stanton, C.; Hickson, M.; Rolland, Y.; et al. (Elsevier BV, 2018-12-11)
      Background & aims Malnutrition in older adults results in significant personal, social, and economic burden. To combat this complex, multifactorial issue, evidence-based knowledge is needed on the modifiable determinants of malnutrition. Systematic reviews of prospective studies are lacking in this area; therefore, the aim of this systematic review was to investigate the modifiable determinants of malnutrition in older adults. Methods A systematic approach was taken to conduct this review. Eight databases were searched. Prospective cohort studies with participants of a mean age of 65 years or over were included. Studies were required to measure at least one determinant at baseline and malnutrition as outcome at follow-up. Study quality was assessed using a modified version of the Quality in Prognosis Studies (QUIPS) tool. Pooling of data in a meta-analysis was not possible therefore the findings of each study were synthesized narratively. A descriptive synthesis of studies was used to present results due the heterogeneity of population source and setting, definitions of determinants and outcomes. Consistency of findings was assessed using the schema: strong evidence, moderate evidence, low evidence, and conflicting evidence. Results Twenty-three studies were included in the final review. Thirty potentially modifiable determinants across seven domains (oral, psychosocial, medication and care, health, physical function, lifestyle, eating) were included. The majority of studies had a high risk of bias and were of a low quality. There is moderate evidence that hospitalisation, eating dependency, poor self-perceived health, poor physical function and poor appetite are determinants of malnutrition. Moderate evidence suggests that chewing difficulties, mouth pain, gum issues co-morbidity, visual and hearing impairments, smoking status, alcohol consumption and physical activity levels, complaints about taste of food and specific nutrient intake are not determinants of malnutrition. There is low evidence that loss of interest in life, access to meals and wheels, and modified texture diets are determinants of malnutrition. Furthermore, there is low evidence that psychological distress, anxiety, loneliness, access to transport and wellbeing, hunger and thirst are not determinants of malnutrition. There appears to be conflicting evidence that dental status, swallowing, cognitive function, depression, residential status, medication intake and/or polypharmacy, constipation, periodontal disease are determinants of malnutrition. Conclusion There are multiple potentially modifiable determinants of malnutrition however strong robust evidence is lacking for the majority of determinants. Better prospective cohort studies are required. With an increasingly ageing population, targeting modifiable factors will be crucial to the effective treatment and prevention of malnutrition.
    • Prawn Shell Chitosan Has Anti-Obesogenic Properties, Influencing Both Nutrient Digestibility and Microbial Populations in a Pig Model

      Egan, Aine M.; Sweeney, Torres; Hayes, Maria; O'Doherty, John V.; Marine Institute; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; MFFRI/07/01 (PLOS, 04/12/2015)
      The potential of natural products to prevent obesity have been investigated, with evidence to suggest that chitosan has anti-obesity effects. The current experiment investigated the anti-obesity potential of prawn shell derived chitosan on a range of variables relevant to obesity in a pig model. The two dietary treatment groups included in this 63 day study were: T1) basal diet and T2) basal diet plus 1000 ppm chitosan (n = 20 gilts per group (70 ± 0.90 kg). The parameter categories which were assessed included: performance, nutrient digestibility, serum leptin concentrations, nutrient transporter and digestive enzyme gene expression and gut microbial populations. Pigs offered chitosan had reduced feed intake and final body weight (P< 0.001), lower ileal digestibility of dry matter (DM), gross energy (GE) (P< 0.05) and reduced coefficient of apparent total tract digestibility (CATTD) of gross energy and nitrogen (P<0.05) when compared to the basal group. Fatty acid binding protein 2 (FABP2) gene expression was down-regulated in pigs offered chitosan (P = 0.05) relative to the basal diet. Serum leptin concentrations increased (P< 0.05) in animals offered the chitosan diet compared to pigs offered the basal diet. Fatness traits, back-fat depth (mm), fat content (kg), were significantly reduced while lean meat (%) was increased (P<0.05) in chitosan supplemented pigs. Pigs offered chitosan had decreased numbers of Firmicutes in the colon (P <0.05), and Lactobacillus spp. in both the caecum (P <0.05) and colon (P <0.001). Bifidobacteria populations were increased in the caecum of animals offered the chitosan diet (P <0.05). In conclusion, these findings suggest that prawn shell chitosan has potent anti-obesity/body weight control effects which are mediated through multiple biological systems in vivo.