• Wheat flour properties and end product quality

      Dwyer, Elizabeth; O'Halloran, Grainne R.; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine (Teagasc, 1999-01)
      For pizza production, the flour quality values identified for the wheat cultivars, Promessa, Quintus (spring), and Soissons (winter) should be used as guidelines in selecting new cultivars and in the development of flour specifications. Similarly for biscuit production, compositional and rheological data for the cultivars, Riband,Woodstock (soft-milling) and Brigadier (hardmilling) should be used for identifying biscuit flours. The rheological properties of dough (as measured by the alveograph, extensograph and farinograph) did not relate to the baking quality for some wheat cultivars. However the rheological properties of the gel protein prepared from these flours explained their baking quality. The very high elastic moduli of these gels explained the basis of shrinkage of pizza bases produced from Baldus and Lavett flours and biscuits produced from Ritmo flour.
    • Whey protein effects on energy balance link the intestinal mechanisms of energy absorption with adiposity and hypothalamic neuropeptide gene expression

      Nilaweera, Kanishka N.; Cabrera-Rubio, Raul; Speakman, John R.; O'Connor, Paula M.; McAuliffe, Ann Marie; Guinane, Caitriona M.; Lawton, Elaine M.; Crispie, Fiona; Aguillera, Monica; Stanley, Maurice; et al. (American Physiological Society, 19/06/2017)
      We tested the hypothesis that dietary whey protein isolate (WPI) affects the intestinal mechanisms related to energy absorption and that the resulting energy deficit is compensated by changes in energy balance to support growth. C57BL/6 mice were provided a diet enriched with WPI with varied sucrose content, and the impact on energy balance-related parameters was investigated. As part of a high-sucrose diet, WPI reduced the hypothalamic expression of pro-opiomelanocortin gene expression and increased energy intake. The energy expenditure was unaffected, but epididymal weight was reduced, indicating an energy loss. Notably, there was a reduction in the ileum gene expression for amino acid transporter SLC6a19, glucose transporter 2, and fatty acid transporter 4. The composition of the gut microbiota also changed, where Firmicutes were reduced. The above changes indicated reduced energy absorption through the intestine. We propose that this mobilized energy in the adipose tissue and caused hypothalamic changes that increased energy intake, acting to counteract the energy deficit arising in the intestine. Lowering the sucrose content in the WPI diet increased energy expenditure. This further reduced epididymal weight and plasma leptin, whereupon hypothalamic ghrelin gene expression and the intestinal weight were both increased. These data suggest that when the intestine-adipose-hypothalamic pathway is subjected to an additional energy loss (now in the adipose tissue), compensatory changes attempt to assimilate more energy. Notably, WPI and sucrose content interact to enable the component mechanisms of this pathway.
    • Whey protein effects on energy balance link the intestinal mechanisms of energy absorption with adiposity and hypothalamic neuropeptide gene expression

      Nilaweera, Kanishka N.; Cabrera-Rubio, Raul; Speakman, John R.; O'Connor, Paula M.; McAuliffe, Ann Marie; Guinane, Caitriona M.; Lawton, Elaine M.; Crispie, Fiona; Aguillera, Monica; Stanley, Maurice; et al. (American Physiological Society, 21/03/2017)
      We tested the hypothesis that dietary whey protein isolate (WPI) affects the intestinal mechanisms related to energy absorption and that the resulting energy deficit is compensated by changes in energy balance to support growth. C57BL/6 mice were provided a diet enriched with WPI with varied sucrose content, and the impact on energy balance-related parameters was investigated. As part of a high-sucrose diet, WPI reduced the hypothalamic expression of pro-opiomelanocortin gene expression and increased energy intake. The energy expenditure was unaffected, but epididymal weight was reduced, indicating an energy loss. Notably, there was a reduction in the ileum gene expression for amino acid transporter SLC6a19, glucose transporter 2, and fatty acid transporter 4. The composition of the gut microbiota also changed, where Firmicutes were reduced. The above changes indicated reduced energy absorption through the intestine. We propose that this mobilized energy in the adipose tissue and caused hypothalamic changes that increased energy intake, acting to counteract the energy deficit arising in the intestine. Lowering the sucrose content in the WPI diet increased energy expenditure. This further reduced epididymal weight and plasma leptin, whereupon hypothalamic ghrelin gene expression and the intestinal weight were both increased. These data suggest that when the intestine-adipose-hypothalamic pathway is subjected to an additional energy loss (now in the adipose tissue), compensatory changes attempt to assimilate more energy. Notably, WPI and sucrose content interact to enable the component mechanisms of this pathway.
    • Whey protein isolate decreases murine stomach weight and intestinal length and alters the expression of Wnt signalling-associated genes

      McAllan, Liam; Speakman, John R.; Cryan, John F.; Nilaweera, Kanishka N. (Cambridge University Press, 13/01/2015)
      The present study examined the underlying mechanisms by which whey protein isolate (WPI) affects energy balance. C57BL/6J mice were fed a diet containing 10 % energy from fat, 70 % energy from carbohydrate (35 % energy from sucrose) and 20 % energy from casein or WPI for 15 weeks. Mice fed with WPI had reduced weight gain, cumulative energy intake and dark-phase VO2 compared with casein-fed mice (P< 0·05); however, WPI intake had no significant effects on body composition, meal size/number, water intake or RER. Plasma levels of insulin, TAG, leptin, glucose and glucagon-like peptide 1 remained unchanged. Notably, the intake of WPI reduced stomach weight and both length and weight of the small intestine (P< 0·05). WPI intake reduced the gastric expression of Wingless/int-1 5a (Wnt5a) (P< 0·01) and frizzled 4 (Fzd4) (P< 0·01), with no change in the expression of receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 2 (Ror2) and LDL receptor-related protein 5 (Lrp5). In the ileum, WPI increased the mRNA expression of Wnt5a (P< 0·01) and caused a trend towards an increase in the expression of Fzd4 (P= 0·094), with no change in the expression of Ror2 and Lrp5. These genes were unresponsive in the duodenum. Among the nutrient-responsive genes, WPI specifically reduced ileal mRNA expression of peptide YY (P< 0·01) and fatty acid transporter protein 4 (P< 0·05), and decreased duodenal mRNA expression of the insulin receptor (P= 0·05), with a trend towards a decreased expression of Na–glucose co-transporter 1 (P= 0·07). The effects of WPI on gastrointestinal Wnt signalling may explain how this protein affects gastrointestinal structure and function and, in turn, energy intake and balance.
    • Whey protein isolate polydispersity affects enzymatic hydrolosis outcomes

      O'Loughlin, Ian B.; Murray, Brian A.; Brodkorb, Andre; Fitzgerald, Richard J.; Robinson, A. A.; Holton, T. A.; Kelly, Tom A.; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme; Enterprise Ireland; CC/2008/0001/A. (Elsevier, 24/05/2013)
      The effects of heat-induced denaturation of whey protein isolate (WPI) on the enzymatic breakdown of α-La, caseinomacropeptide (CMP), β-Lg A and β-Lg B were observed as hydrolysis proceeded to a 5% degree of hydrolysis (DH) in both unheated and heat-treated (80 °C, 10 min) WPI dispersions (100 g L−1). Hydrolysis of denatured WPI favoured the generation of higher levels of free essential amino acids; lysine, phenylalanine and arginine compared to the unheated substrate. LC–MS/MS identified 23 distinct peptides which were identified in the denatured WPI hydrolysate – the majority of which were derived from β-Lg. The mapping of the detected regions in α-La, β-Lg, and CMP enabled specific cleavage points to be associated with certain serine endo-protease activities. The outcomes of the study emphasise how a combined approach of substrate heat pre-treatment and enzymology may be used to influence proteolysis with attendant opportunities for targeting unique peptide production and amino acid release
    • Whole-Genome Shotgun Sequence of Salmonella bongori, First Isolated in Northwestern Italy

      Romano, Angelo; Bellio, Alberto; Macori, Guerrino; Cotter, Paul D.; Manila Bianchi, Daniela; Gallina, Silvia; Decastelli, Lucia (American Society for Microbiology, 06/07/2017)
      This study describes the whole-genome shotgun sequence of Salmonella bongori 48:z35:–, originally isolated from a 1-year-old symptomatic patient in northwest Italy, a typically nonendemic area. The draft genome sequence contained 4.56 Mbp and the G+C content was 51.27%.
    • β-lactoglobulin as a molecular carrier of linoleate: characterisation and effects on intestinal epithelial cells in vitro

      Le Maux, Solene; Giblin, Linda; Croguennec, Thomas; Bouhallab, Said; Brodkorb, Andre; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; Irish Research Council for Science, Engineering and Technology; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme; 08/RD/TMFRC/650 (American Chemical Society, 27/08/2012)
      The dairy protein β-lactoglobulin (βlg) is known to bind hydrophobic ligands such as fatty acids. In the present work, we investigated the biological activity in vitro of linoleate once complexed to bovine βlg. Binding of linoleate (C18:2) to bovine βlg was achieved by heating at 60 °C for 30 min at pH 7.4, resulting in a linoleate/βlg molar binding stoichiometry of 1.1, 2.1, and 3.4. Two types of binding sites were determined by ITC titrations. Binding of linoleate induced the formation of covalent dimers and trimers of βlg. The LD50 on Caco-2 cells after 24 h was 58 μM linoleate. However, cell viability was unaffected when 200 μM linoleate was presented to the Caco-2 cells as part of the βlg complex. The Caco-2 cells did not increase mRNA transcript levels of long chain fatty acid transport genes, FATP4 and FABPpm, or increase levels of the cAMP signal, in response to the presence of 50 μM linoleate alone or as part of the βlg complex. Therefore, it is proposed that βlg can act as a molecular carrier and alter the bioaccessibility of linoleate/linoleic acid.
    • β-Lactoglobulin-linoleate complexes: In vitro digestion and the role of protein in fatty acids uptake

      Le Maux, Solene; Brodkorb, Andre; Croguennec, Thomas; Hennessy, Alan A.; Bouhallab, Said; Giblin, Linda; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; Irish Research Council for Science, Engineering and Technology; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme; 08/RD/TMFRC/650 (Elsevier Inc and American Dairy Science Association, 2013-07)
      The dairy protein β-lactoglobulin (BLG) is known to bind fatty acids such as the salt of the essential longchain fatty acid linoleic acid (cis,cis-9,12-octadecadienoic acid, n-6, 18:2). The aim of the current study was to investigate how bovine BLG-linoleate complexes, of various stoichiometry, affect the enzymatic digestion of BLG and the intracellular transport of linoleate into enterocyte-like monolayers. Duodenal and gastric digestions of the complexes indicated that BLG was hydrolyzed more rapidly when complexed with linoleate. Digested as well as undigested BLG-linoleate complexes reduced intracellular linoleate transport as compared with free linoleate. To investigate whether enteroendocrine cells perceive linoleate differently when part of a complex, the ability of linoleate to increase production or secretion of the enteroendocrine satiety hormone, cholecystokinin, was measured. Cholecystokinin mRNA levels were different when linoleate was presented to the cells alone or as part of a protein complex. In conclusion, understanding interactions between linoleate and BLG could help to formulate foods with targeted fatty acid bioaccessibility and, therefore, aid in the development of food matrices with optimal bioactive efficacy