• Antioxidant, Antidiabetic, and Anticholinesterase Activities and Phytochemical Profile of Wedd.

      Faraone, Immacolata; Rai, Dilip K.; Russo, Daniela; Chiummiento, Lucia; Fernandez, Eloy; Choudhary, Alka; Milella, Luigi; Regione Basilicata; Fondazione Enrico Mattei DGR; Regional Project ALIMINTEGRA, GO NUTRIBAS; et al. (MDPI, 2019-08-03)
      Oxidative stress is involved in different diseases, such as diabetes and neurodegenerative diseases. The genus Azorella includes about 70 species of flowering plant species; most of them are commonly used as food and in particular as a tea infusion in the Andean region of South America in folk medicine to treat various chronic diseases. Azorella glabra Wedd. aerial parts were firstly analyzed for their in vitro antioxidant activity using different complementary assays. In particular, radical scavenging activity was tested against biological neutral radical DPPH; ferric reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibitory capacity (FRAP and Beta-Carotene Bleaching tests) were also determined. The Relative Antioxidant Capacity Index (RACI) was used to compare data obtained by different assays. Then, the inhibitory ability of samples was investigated against α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes involved in diabetes and against acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase enzymes considered as strategy for the treatment of Parkinson's or Alzheimer's diseases. Moreover, the phytochemical profile of the sample showing the highest RACI (1.35) and interesting enzymatic activities (IC50 of 163.54 ± 9.72 and 215.29 ± 17.10 μg/mL in α-glucosidase and acetylcholinesterase inhibition, respectively) was subjected to characterization and quantification of its phenolic composition using LC-MS/MS analysis. In fact, the ethyl acetate fraction derived from ethanol extract by liquid/liquid extraction showed 29 compounds, most of them are cinnamic acid derivatives, flavonoid derivatives, and a terpene. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report about the evaluation of significant biological activities and phytochemical profile of A. glabra, an important source of health-promoting phytochemicals.
    • Antioxidant, Antidiabetic, and Anticholinesterase Activities and Phytochemical Profile of Azorella glabra Wedd

      Faraone, Immacolata; Rai, Dilip K.; Russo, Daniela; Chiummiento, Lucia; Fernandez, Eloy; Choudhary, Alka; Milella, Luigi; Regione Basilicata; Fondazione Enrico Mattei DGR; ALIMINTEGRA, GO NUTRIBAS; et al. (MDPI, 2019-08-03)
      Oxidative stress is involved in different diseases, such as diabetes and neurodegenerative diseases. The genus Azorella includes about 70 species of flowering plant species; most of them are commonly used as food and in particular as a tea infusion in the Andean region of South America in folk medicine to treat various chronic diseases. Azorella glabra Wedd. aerial parts were firstly analyzed for their in vitro antioxidant activity using different complementary assays. In particular, radical scavenging activity was tested against biological neutral radical DPPH; ferric reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibitory capacity (FRAP and Beta-Carotene Bleaching tests) were also determined. The Relative Antioxidant Capacity Index (RACI) was used to compare data obtained by different assays. Then, the inhibitory ability of samples was investigated against α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes involved in diabetes and against acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase enzymes considered as strategy for the treatment of Parkinson’s or Alzheimer’s diseases. Moreover, the phytochemical profile of the sample showing the highest RACI (1.35) and interesting enzymatic activities (IC50 of 163.54 ± 9.72 and 215.29 ± 17.10 μg/mL in α-glucosidase and acetylcholinesterase inhibition, respectively) was subjected to characterization and quantification of its phenolic composition using LC-MS/MS analysis. In fact, the ethyl acetate fraction derived from ethanol extract by liquid/liquid extraction showed 29 compounds, most of them are cinnamic acid derivatives, flavonoid derivatives, and a terpene. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report about the evaluation of significant biological activities and phytochemical profile of A. glabra, an important source of health-promoting phytochemicals.
    • Application of broadband acoustic resonance dissolution spectroscopy (BARDS) to the gas release behaviour during rehydration of milk protein isolate agglomerates

      Wu, Shaozong; Fitzpatrick, John; Cronin, Kevin; Ahmed, M. Rizwan; Fitzpatrick, Dara; Miao, Song; China Scholarship Council; Teagasc; 201606350091; MDDT0153 (Elsevier, 2019-02-13)
      The BARDS technique was applied in this study to acoustically assess the rehydration behaviour of milk protein isolate (MPI) agglomerates and to compare with regular MPI powder. The results showed that BARDS has potential to monitor the rehydration behaviour of agglomerates. The greater porosity (>70%) of agglomerated powders introduced more compressible gas into the water. The BARDS profile showed that there was faster initial gas release from the agglomerates, indicating better wetting and dispersion ability of the agglomerates with shorter tM (time of maximum gas volume in solution). At 0.10% powder addition, agglomerated MPI reached tM within 109 s, which was significantly less than the control MPI at 140 s. MPI with lactose binder (MPI-L) had a tM of 80 s at 0.10% powder addition and, larger size MPI-L had a tM of 60 s. At 0.20% and 0.30% powder addition, more time was required to wet and disperse the powders.
    • Application of class-modelling techniques to near infrared data for food authentication purposes

      Oliveri, P.; Di Egidio, V.; Woodcock, T.; Downey, Gerard; European Union (Elsevier, 2011)
      Following the introduction of legal identifiers of geographic origin within Europe, methods for confirming any such claims are required. Spectroscopic techniques provide a method for rapid and non-destructive data collection and a variety of chemometric approaches have been deployed for their interrogation. In this present study, class-modelling techniques (SIMCA, UNEQ and POTFUN) have been deployed after data compression by principal component analysis for the development of class-models for a set of olive oil and honey. The number of principal components, the confidence level and spectral pre-treatments (1st and 2nd derivative, standard normal variate) were varied, and a strategy for variable selection was tried. Models were evaluated on a separate validation sample set. The outcomes are reported and criteria for selection of the most appropriate models for any given application are discussed.
    • The Application of Next Generation Sequencing to Profile Microbe Related Cheese Quality Defects

      O'Sullivan, Daniel; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme (2015)
      High throughput next generation sequencing, together with advanced molecular methods, has considerably enhanced the field of food microbiology. By overcoming biases associated with culture dependant approaches, it has become possible to achieve novel insights into the nature of food-borne microbial communities. In this thesis, several different sequencingbased approaches were applied with a view to better understanding microbe associated quality defects in cheese. Initially, a literature review provides an overview of microbeassociated cheese quality defects as well as molecular methods for profiling complex microbial communities. Following this, 16S rRNA sequencing revealed temporal and spatial differences in microbial composition due to the time during the production day that specific commercial cheeses were manufactured. A novel Ion PGM sequencing approach, focusing on decarboxylase genes rather than 16S rRNA genes, was then successfully employed to profile the biogenic amine producing cohort of a series of artisanal cheeses. Investigations into the phenomenon of cheese pinking formed the basis of a joint 16S rRNA and whole genome shotgun sequencing approach, leading to the identification of Thermus species and, more specifically, the pathway involved in production of lycopene, a red coloured carotenoid. Finally, using a more traditional approach, the effect of addition of a facultatively heterofermentative Lactobacillus (Lactobacillus casei) to a Swiss-type cheese, in which starter activity was compromised, was investigated from the perspective of its ability to promote gas defects and irregular eye formation. X-ray computed tomography was used to visualise, using a non-destructive method, the consequences of the undesirable gas formation that resulted. Ultimately this thesis has demonstrated that the application of molecular techniques, such as next generation sequencing, can provide a detailed insight into defect-causing microbial populations present and thereby may underpin approaches to optimise the quality and consistency of a wide variety of cheeses.
    • The application of process analytical technologies (PAT) to the dairy industry for real time product characterization - process viscometry

      O’Shea, Norah; O'Callaghan, Tom F.; Tobin, John; Dairy Processing Technology (DPTC) Centre; Enterprise Ireland; TC/2014/0016 (Elsevier, 2019-05-03)
      The ideal PAT tool is an inline instrument that can monitor and measure process parameters simultaneously in real time while operating in a highly automated environment. Instruments must be of sanitary design, operate robustly within the full process cycle (production and cleaning). Inline determination of the rheological properties of moving fluids (i.e. dairy concentrates) is one of the process parameters where PAT tools can be add real value in terms of optimising process control. Measurement of process viscosity is crucial in the monitoring and control of a variety of concentration processes in the dairy industry. Continuous monitoring of the rheological behaviour of the fluid can allow for optimisation of the process e.g. pumping (avoid pump blockage and failure), evaporation (limit fouling and maximise water removal) and spray drying (avoidance of nozzle fouling). This review concentrates on the state of the art developments being made in the area of process viscometry.
    • Aroma compound diacetyl suppresses glucagon-like peptide-1 production and secretion in STC-1 cells

      McCarthy, Triona; Bruen, Christine; O'Halloran, Fiona; Schellekens, Harriet; Kilcawley, Kieran N; Cryan, John F.; Giblin, Linda; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme; Enterprise Ireland; CC20080001 (Elsevier, 21/01/2017)
      Diacetyl is a volatile flavour compound that has a characteristic buttery aroma and is widely used in the flavour industry. The aroma of a food plays an important role in food palatability and thus intake. This study investigates the effect of diacetyl on the satiety hormone, glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1), using the enteroendocrine cell line, STC-1. Diacetyl decreased proglucagon mRNA and total GLP-1 from glucose stimulated STC-1 cells. This dampening effect on GLP-1 appears to be mediated by increasing intracellular cAMP levels, increasing synthesis of the G protein coupled receptor, GPR120, and its recruitment to the cell surface. Voltage gated Ca2+ channels, K+ATP channels and the α-gustducin taste pathway do not appear to be involved. These findings demonstrate that components contributing to food palatability suppress GLP-1. This ability of diacetyl to reduce satiety signals may contribute to overconsumption of some palatable foods.
    • Association of bovine leptin polymorphisms with energy output and energy storage traits in progeny tested Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle sires

      Giblin, Linda; Butler, Stephen T.; Kearney, Breda M.; Waters, Sinead M.; Callanan, Michael J.; Berry, Donagh P.; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, Ireland; Irish Dairy Levy Research Trust; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship Programme; RSF-06-0353; et al. (Biomed Central, 29/07/2010)
      Background: Leptin modulates appetite, energy expenditure and the reproductive axis by signalling via its receptor the status of body energy stores to the brain. The present study aimed to quantify the associations between 10 novel and known single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes coding for leptin and leptin receptor with performance traits in 848 Holstein-Friesian sires, estimated from performance of up to 43,117 daughter-parity records per sire. Results: All single nucleotide polymorphisms were segregating in this sample population and none deviated (P > 0.05) from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Complete linkage disequilibrium existed between the novel polymorphism LEP-1609, and the previously identified polymorphisms LEP-1457 and LEP-580. LEP-2470 associated (P < 0.05) with milk protein concentration and calf perinatal mortality. It had a tendency to associate with milk yield (P < 0.1). The G allele of LEP-1238 was associated (P < 0.05) with reduced milk fat concentration, reduced milk protein concentration, longer gestation length and tended to associate (P < 0.1) with an increase in calving difficulty, calf perinatal mortality and somatic cells in the milk. LEP-963 exhibited an association (P < 0.05) with milk fat concentration, milk protein concentration, calving difficulty and gestation length. It also tended to associate with milk yield (P < 0.1). The R25C SNP associated (P < 0.05) with milk fat concentration, milk protein concentration, calving difficulty and length of gestation. The T allele of the Y7F SNP significantly associated with reduced angularity (P < 0.01) and reduced milk protein yield (P < 0.05). There was also a tendency (P < 0.1) for Y7F to associate with increased body condition score, reduced milk yield and shorter gestation (P < 0.1). A80V associated with reduced survival in the herd (P < 0.05). Conclusions Several leptin polymorphisms (LEP-2470, LEP-1238, LEP-963, Y7F and R25C) associated with the energetically expensive process of lactogenesis. Only SNP Y7F associated with energy storage. Associations were also observed between leptin polymorphisms and calving difficulty, gestation length and calf perinatal mortality. The lack of an association between the leptin variants investigated with calving interval in this large data set would question the potential importance of these leptin variants, or indeed leptin, in selection for improved fertility in the Holstein-Friesian dairy cow.
    • Atypical Listeria innocua strains possess an intact LIPI-3

      Clayton, Evelyn M; Daly, Karen M.; Guinane, Caitriona M.; Hill, Colin; Cotter, Paul D.; Ross, R Paul; Enterprise Ireland; Science Foundation Ireland; 06/IN.1/B98; 10/IN.1/B3027 (Biomed Central, 08/03/2014)
      Background: Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne pathogen which is the causative agent of listeriosis and can be divided into three evolutionary lineages I, II and III. While all strains possess the well established virulence factors associated with the Listeria pathogenicity island I (LIPI-1), lineage I strains also possess an additional pathogenicity island designated LIPI-3 which encodes listeriolysin S (LLS), a post-translationally modified cytolytic peptide. Up until now, this pathogenicity island has been identified exclusively in a subset of lineage I isolates of the pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. Results: In total 64 L. innocua strains were screened for the presence of LIPI-3. Here we report the identification of an intact LIPI-3 in 11 isolates of L. innocua and the remnants of the cluster in several others. Significantly, we can reveal that placing the L. innocua lls genes under the control of a constitutive promoter results in a haemolytic phenotype, confirming that the cluster is capable of encoding a functional haemolysin. Conclusions: Although the presence of the LIPI-3 gene cluster is confined to lineage I isolates of L. monocytogenes, a corresponding gene cluster or its remnants have been identified in many L. innocua strains.
    • Automated detection and characterisation of foodborne pathogens

      Duffy, Geraldine; O'Hanlon, Karen; Catarame, Terese; Smyth, Davida S.; McCann, Máiréad (Teagasc, 2007-06)
      This study focused on the development of molecular tools for the rapid detection and characterisation of food-borne pathogens including Verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) (serotypes O157, O26 and O111) and Salmonella spp. The study involved the development of enrichment systems and the identification of unique genetic targets in these pathogens which could be amplified and detected by Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR).
    • Bacteriocin-Antimicrobial Synergy: A Medical and Food Perspective

      Mathur, Harsh; Field, Des; Rea, Mary C.; Cotter, Paul D.; Hill, Colin; Ross, R Paul; Science Foundation Ireland; SFI/12/RC/2273 (Frontiers, 29/06/2017)
      The continuing emergence of multi-drug resistant pathogens has sparked an interest in seeking alternative therapeutic options. Antimicrobial combinatorial therapy is one such avenue. A number of studies have been conducted, involving combinations of bacteriocins with other antimicrobials, to circumvent the development of antimicrobial resistance and/or increase antimicrobial potency. Such bacteriocin-antimicrobial combinations could have tremendous value, in terms of reducing the likelihood of resistance development due to the involvement of two distinct mechanisms of antimicrobial action. Furthermore, antimicrobial synergistic interactions may also have potential financial implications in terms of decreasing the costs of treatment by reducing the concentration of an expensive antimicrobial and utilizing it in combination with an inexpensive one. In addition, combinatorial therapies with bacteriocins can broaden antimicrobial spectra and/or result in a reduction in the concentration of an antibiotic required for effective treatments to the extent that potentially toxic or adverse side effects can be reduced or eliminated. Here, we review studies in which bacteriocins were found to be effective in combination with other antimicrobials, with a view to targeting clinical and/or food-borne pathogens. Furthermore, we discuss some of the bottlenecks which are currently hindering the development of bacteriocins as viable therapeutic options, as well as addressing the need to exercise caution when attempting to predict clinical outcomes of bacteriocin-antimicrobial combinations.
    • Bacteriocins: Novel Solutions to Age Old Spore-Related Problems?

      Egan, Kevin; Field, Des; Rea, Mary C.; Ross, R Paul; Hill, Colin; Cotter, Paul D.; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, Ireland; Science Foundation Ireland; DAFM 13/F/462; TIDA 14/TIDA/2286; et al. (Frontiers Media S. A., 08/04/2016)
      Bacteriocins are ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides produced by bacteria, which have the ability to kill or inhibit other bacteria. Many bacteriocins are produced by food grade lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Indeed, the prototypic bacteriocin, nisin, is produced by Lactococcus lactis, and is licensed in over 50 countries. With consumers becoming more concerned about the levels of chemical preservatives present in food, bacteriocins offer an alternative, more natural approach, while ensuring both food safety and product shelf life. Bacteriocins also show additive/synergistic effects when used in combination with other treatments, such as heating, high pressure, organic compounds, and as part of food packaging. These features are particularly attractive from the perspective of controlling sporeforming bacteria. Bacterial spores are common contaminants of food products, and their outgrowth may cause food spoilage or food-borne illness. They are of particular concern to the food industry due to their thermal and chemical resistance in their dormant state. However, when spores germinate they lose the majority of their resistance traits, making them susceptible to a variety of food processing treatments. Bacteriocins represent one potential treatment as they may inhibit spores in the post-germination/outgrowth phase of the spore cycle. Spore eradication and control in food is critical, as they are able to spoil and in certain cases compromise the safety of food by producing dangerous toxins. Thus, understanding the mechanisms by which bacteriocins exert their sporostatic/sporicidal activity against bacterial spores will ultimately facilitate their optimal use in food. This review will focus on the use of bacteriocins alone, or in combination with other innovative processing methods to control spores in food, the current knowledge and gaps therein with regard to bacteriocin-spore interactions and discuss future research approaches to enable spores to be more effectively targeted by bacteriocins in food settings.
    • Bactofencin A, a New Type of Cationic Bacteriocin with Unusual Immunity

      O'Shea, Eileen F.; O'Connor, Paula M.; O'Sullivan, Orla; Cotter, Paul D.; Ross, R Paul; Hill, Colin; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, Ireland; Science Foundation Ireland; 04R; 07/CE/B1368 (American Society for Microbiology, 29/10/2013)
      Bacteriocin production is an important probiotic trait of intestinal bacteria. In this study, we identify a new type of bacteriocin, bactofencin A, produced by a porcine intestinal isolate Lactobacillus salivarius DPC6502, and assess its potency against pathogenic species including Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes. Genome sequencing of the bacteriocin producer revealed bfnA, which encodes the mature and highly basic (pI 10.59), 22-amino-acid defensin-like peptide. Matrixassisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectral analysis determined that bactofencin A has a molecular mass of 2,782 Da and contains two cysteine residues that form an intramolecular disulfide bond. Although an ABC transporter and transport accessory protein were also present within the bacteriocin gene cluster, a classical bacteriocin immunity gene was not detected. Interestingly, a dltB homologue was identified downstream of bfnA. DltB is usually encoded within the dlt operon of many Gram-positive bacteria. It is responsible for D-alanylation of teichoic acids in the cell wall and has previously been associated with bacterial resistance to cationic antimicrobial peptides. Heterologous expression of this gene conferred bactofencin A-specific immunity on sensitive strains of L. salivarius and S. aureus (although not L. monocytogenes), establishing its role in bacteriocin immunity. An analysis of the distribution of bfnA revealed that it was present in four additional isolates derived from porcine origin and absent from five human isolates, suggesting that its distribution is host specific. Given its novelty, we anticipate that bactofencin A represents the prototype of a new class of bacteriocins characterized as being cationic, with a DltB homologue providing a cognate immunity function.
    • Beneficial modulation of the gut microbiota

      Walsh, Calum J.; Guinane, Caitriona M.; O'Toole, Paul W.; Cotter, Paul D.; Science Foundation Ireland; 11/PI/1137 (Elsevier, 26/03/2014)
      The human gut microbiota comprises approximately 100 trillion microbial cells and has a significant effect on many aspects of human physiology including metabolism, nutrient absorption and immune function. Disruption of this population has been implicated in many conditions and diseases, including examples such as obesity, inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer that are highlighted in this review. A logical extension of these observations suggests that the manipulation of the gut microbiota can be employed to prevent or treat these conditions. Thus, here we highlight a variety of options, including the use of changes in diet (including the use of prebiotics), antimicrobial-based intervention, probiotics and faecal microbiota transplantation, and discuss their relative merits with respect to modulating the intestinal community in a beneficial way.
    • Beneficial modulation of the gut microbiota

      Cotter, Paul D. (Elsevier, 2016-03-29)
      As the scientific community continues to develop an ever-greater understanding of the composition and function of the human gut microbiota, and the role of specific microbial populations in health and disease, attention has turned to the tools that are at our disposal with respect to altering these microbes in a beneficial way. The options available include the use of diet, probiotics/prebiotics, antimicrobials and, potentially, exercise. Here, our recent investigations of the relationship between protein, bacteriocin producing probiotics and exercise and the gut microbiota and, in turn, health will be described.
    • Benzimidazole carbamate residues in milk: Detection by Surface Plasmon Resonance-biosensor, using a modified QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) method for extraction

      Keegan, Jemma; Whelan, Michelle; Danaher, Martin; Crooks, Steven; Sayers, Riona; Anastasio, Aniello; Elliott, C.; Brandon, David; Furey, A.; O'Kennedy, Richard (Elsevier, 2009-09-26)
      A surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor screening assay was developed and validated to detect 11 benzimidazole carbamate (BZT) veterinary drug residues in milk. The polyclonal antibody used was raised in sheep against a methyl 5(6)-[(carboxypentyl)-thio]-2-benzimidazole carbamate protein conjugate. A sample preparation procedure was developed using a modified QuEChERS method. BZT residues were extracted from milk using liquid extraction/partition with a dispersive solid phase extraction clean-up step. The assay was validated in accordance with the performance criteria described in 2002/657/EC. The limit of detection of the assay was calculated from the analysis of 20 known negative milk samples to be 2.7 μg kg−1. The detection capability (CCβ) of the assay was determined to be 5 μg kg−1 for 11 benzimidazole residues and the mean recovery of analytes was in the range 81–116%. A comparison was made between the SPR-biosensor and UPLC–MS/MS analyses of milk samples (n = 26) taken from cows treated different benzimidazole products, demonstrating the SPR-biosensor assay to be fit for purpose.
    • Bifidobacterium breve with α-Linolenic Acid and Linoleic Acid Alters Fatty Acid Metabolism in the Maternal Separation Model of Irritable Bowel Syndrome

      Barrett, Eoin; Fitzgerald, Patrick; Dinan, Timothy G.; Cryan, John F.; Ross, R Paul; Quigley, Eamonn M.; Shanahan, Fergus; Kiely, Barry; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; O'Toole, Paul W.; et al. (PLOS, 20/11/2012)
      The aim of this study was to compare the impact of dietary supplementation with a Bifidobacterium breve strain together with linoleic acid & α-linolenic acid, for 7 weeks, on colonic sensitivity and fatty acid metabolism in rats. Maternally separated and non-maternally separated Sprague Dawley rats (n = 15) were orally gavaged with either B. breve DPC6330 (109 microorganisms/day) alone or in combination with 0.5% (w/w) linoleic acid & 0.5% (w/w) α-linolenic acid, daily for 7 weeks and compared with trehalose and bovine serum albumin. Tissue fatty acid composition was assessed by gas-liquid chromatography and visceral hypersensitivity was assessed by colorectal distension. Significant differences in the fatty acid profiles of the non-separated controls and maternally separated controls were observed for α-linolenic acid and arachidonic acid in the liver, oleic acid and eicosenoic acid (c11) in adipose tissue, and for palmitoleic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in serum (p<0.05). Administration of B. breve DPC6330 to MS rats significantly increased palmitoleic acid, arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in the liver, eicosenoic acid (c11) in adipose tissue and palmitoleic acid in the prefrontal cortex (p<0.05), whereas feeding B. breve DPC6330 to non separated rats significantly increased eicosapentaenoic acid and docosapentaenoic acid in serum (p<0.05) compared with the NS un-supplemented controls. Administration of B. breve DPC6330 in combination with linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid to maternally separated rats significantly increased docosapentaenoic acid in the serum (p<0.01) and α-linolenic acid in adipose tissue (p<0.001), whereas feeding B. breve DPC6330 with fatty acid supplementation to non-separated rats significantly increased liver and serum docosapentaenoic acid (p<0.05), and α-linolenic acid in adipose tissue (p<0.001). B. breve DPC6330 influenced host fatty acid metabolism. Administration of B. breve DPC6330 to maternally separated rats significantly modified the palmitoleic acid, arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid contents in tissues. The effect was not observed in non-separated animals.
    • Bile acids at the cross-roads of gut microbiome–host cardiometabolic interactions

      Ryan, Paul M; Stanton, Catherine; Caplice, Noel M; Science Foundation Ireland; Enterprise Ireland; SFI/12/RC/2273; CF/2013/3030A/B (Biomed Central, 28/12/2017)
      While basic and clinical research over the last several decades has recognized a number of modifiable risk factors associated with cardiometabolic disease progression, additional and alternative biological perspectives may offer novel targets for prevention and treatment of this disease set. There is mounting preclinical and emerging clinical evidence indicating that the mass of metabolically diverse microorganisms which inhabit the human gastrointestinal tract may be implicated in initiation and modulation of cardiovascular and metabolic disease outcomes. The following review will discuss this gut microbiome–host metabolism axis and address newly proposed bile-mediated signaling pathways through which dysregulation of this homeostatic axis may influence host cardiovascular risk. With a central focus on the major nuclear and membrane-bound bile acid receptor ligands, we aim to review the putative impact of microbial bile acid modification on several major phenotypes of metabolic syndrome, from obesity to heart failure. Finally, attempting to synthesize several separate but complementary hypotheses, we will review current directions in preclinical and clinical investigation in this evolving field.
    • Bioactivity in Whey Proteins Influencing Energy Balance

      McAllan, Liam; Cotter, Paul D.; Roche, Helen M.; Korpela, Riitta; Nilaweera, Kanishka N. (OMICS Publishing Group, 30/03/2012)
      Obesity develops due to energy (food) intake exceeding energy expenditure. Nutrients that reduce the positive energy balance are thus being considered as therapies to combat obesity. Here, we review the literature related to the physiological, cellular and endocrine effects of intake of whey proteins, namely α-lactalbumin, β-lactoglobulin, glycomacropeptide and lactoferrin. Moreover, we discuss how dietary composition and obesity may influence whey protein effects on the above parameters. Evidence suggests that intake of whey proteins causes a decrease in energy intake, increase in energy expenditure, influence insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis and alter lipid metabolism in the adipose, liver and muscle. These physiological changes are accompanied by alterations in the plasma levels of energy balance related hormones (cholecystokinin, ghrelin, insulin and glucagon-like peptide-1) and the expression of catabolic and anabolic genes in the above tissue in the direction to cause a negative energy balance.
    • Bioactivity of beta-lactoglobulin and alpha-lactalbumin-Technological implications for processing

      Chatterton, Dereck E.W.; Smithers, Geoffrey; Roupas, Peter; Brodkorb, Andre (Elsevier, 17/08/2006)
      The dairy industry faces new technological challenges in order to exploit and maintain some of the bioactive properties of dairy components throughout processing. This review outlines these issues with respect to the two major whey proteins β-lactoglobulin (β-lg) and α-lactalbumin (α-la). Biological activities of both the intact proteins, and peptides derived from the proteins, are discussed e.g. inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), anti-microbial activity, anti-carcinogenic activity, hypocholesterolemic effect, metabolic and physiological effects. The levels necessary to provide beneficial effects and, if available, evidence from clinical trials are reported. Developments in the purification and enrichment of the proteins are discussed, and the technological implications of industrial processing on the bio-activity of the proteins are examined. The supplementation of infant formulas with α-lactalbumin enriched whey proteins is also discussed in light of its potentially improved bioactive properties.