Brinkman, Christel Rothe; Brodkorb, Andre; Thiel, Steffen; Kehoe, Joseph James (Wiley, 17/04/2013)
Complexes of the milk protein, α-lactalbumin, and the fatty acid, oleic acid, have previously been shown to be cytotoxic. Complexes of α-lactalbumin and five different fatty acids (vaccenic, linoleic, palmitoleic, stearic, and elaidic acid) were prepared and compared to those formed with oleic acid. All complexes were cytotoxic to human promyelocytic leukemia-derived (HL-60) cells but to different degrees depending on the fatty acid. The amount of fatty acid per α-lactalbumin molecule was found to correlate with the cytotoxicity; the higher the number of fatty acids per protein, the more cytotoxic the complex. Importantly, all the tested fatty acids were also found to be cytotoxic on their own in a concentration dependent manner. The cytotoxic effect of complexes between α-lactalbumin and linoleic acid, vaccenic acid, or oleic acid was further investigated using flow cytometry and found to induce cell death resembling apoptosis on Jurkat cells.
Practical applications: Cytotoxic complexes of α-lactalbumin and several different fatty acids could be produced. The cytotoxicity of all the variants is similar to that previously determined for α-lactalbumin/oleic acid complexes.
Le Maux, Solene; Bouhallab, Said; Giblin, Linda; Brodkorb, Andre; Croguennec, Thomas (Elsevier, 2013-11)
Iron is essential for human health, but it sometimes causes an unpleasant taste, rusty colour and a decrease in the stability of food products. Previously, we found that ethanol-treated yeast (ETY) cells could remove iron from wine and juice, and reduce the fishy aftertaste induced by iron in wine–seafood pairings. However, the mechanism of iron sorption by ETY cells is undefined; thus, there is no indicator that can be used to estimate the iron sorption capacity of these cells. In this study, we showed that cell wall components are not mainly associated with iron sorption by investigating ETY cells with the cell wall removed. Moreover, plasma membrane permeability was correlated with the iron sorbing capacity of the cells. Microscopic analysis showed that iron accumulated within ETY cells. Proteinase-treated ETY cells had no iron sorbing capacity. On the basis of these results, we conclude that intracellular proteins are involved in iron sorption by ETY cells.
O'Loughlin, Ian B.; Murray, Brian A.; Kelly, Philip M.; Fitzgerald, Richard J.; Brodkorb, Andre (American Chemical Society, 26/04/2012)
The effects of heat induced denaturation and subsequent aggregation of Whey Protein Isolate (WPI) solutions on the rate of enzymatic hydrolysis was investigated.
Denaturation of whey proteins was monitored by reversed-phase and size exclusion
HPLC and observed by native- and SDS-PAGE. Treated and un-treated WPI solutions
(100 g L-1 protein) were hydrolysed to a target degree of hydrolysis (DH) of 5 % with
Corolase® PP. Aggregate formation was monitored using light microscopy, with size
distribution determined by particle size. Viscosity and surface hydrophobicity
exhibited large increases with heat-treatment and the major protein components in
WPI showed differences in their rates of aggregation. Results revealed an increased
rate of hydrolysis of protein solutions, which were subjected to a pre-hydrolysis heattreatment. Light and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM) images illustrated
the optical clarification of the solution, weakening of the gel network and
disintegration of aggregates indicative of hydrolysis. Comparison of samples where
there was a heat-treatment prior to hydrolysis and a control non-treated hydrolysis reaction, revealed significant differences in the time to reach 5 %DH (P < 0.001). The heat-treatments ≥ 75 ºC for 5 min produced significantly (P < 0.001) more rapid reactions than the other 5 heat-treatments and the control un-treated reaction. The viscosity, surface hydrophobicity, and insolubility of the heat-treated WPI solutions subsequently declined upon their hydrolysis. The extensive aggregation in some heattreated solutions was postulated to relate to the congruent increased rate of hydrolysis.
This study demonstrated that prior thermal treatment of ≥ 75 ºC for 5 min can
accelerate the enzymatic hydrolysis reaction of WPI with Corolase® PP.
Doherty, Sinead B.; Brodkorb, Andre (Intech, 13/06/2012)
Modern approaches to science tend to follow divergent paths. On one hand, instruments
and technologies are developed to capture as much information as possible with the need
for complex data analysis to identify problematic issues. On the other hand, formulation focused, minimalistic approaches that gather only the most pertinent data for specific questions also represent a powerful methodology. This chapter will provide many examples of the latter by integrating Flow Cytometry (FACS - Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting) technology with high throughput screening (HTS) of encapsulation systems with extensive utility of one-dimensional (1-D) imaging for protein localisation. In this regard, less
information is acquired from each cell, data files will be more manageable, easier to analyse and throughput screening will be significantly enhanced beyond traditional HTS analysis, irrespective of the protein concentration present in the background or delivery media.
Kehoe, Joseph James; Wang, Lizhe; Morris, Edwin R; Brodkorb, Andre (Springer, 01/12/2011)
A mechanism describing the denaturation and aggregation behavior during heat-treatment of pure β-lactoglobulin and β-lactoglobulin in whey protein isolate (WPI) under selected conditions (20 to 90 gL−1 in water at pH 7.0, 78 °C) is presented. A combination of reversed-phase and gel permeation chromatography was used to study the disappearance of native β-lactoglobulin and the formation of non-native intermediates in the aggregation process. The mean reaction order for pure β-lactoglobulin and β-lactoglobulin in WPI were the same, 1.4. While the rate of β-lactoglobulin denaturation was greater in WPI there was less aggregation compared to that of pure β-lactoglobulin. More of the β-lactoglobulin in WPI remained in a non-native monomer intermediate state after 30 min of heating. After an initial lag period, during which non-native monomers appeared, aggregates formed and rapidly reached a plateau in terms of their size. These aggregates were visualized using atomic force microscopy. There was no significant effect of protein concentration on either aggregate size or the number of exposed sulfhydryls in the heated solutions.
Kehoe, Joseph James; Remondetto, Gabriel E; Subirade, Muriel; Morris, Edwin R; Brodkorb, Andre (American Chemical Society, 04/06/2008)
β-Lactoglobulin A, a genetic variant of one of the main whey proteins, was irradiated at 295 nm for 24 h. After irradiation, 18% of the protein was denatured (determined by reverse-phase chromatography). The fluorescence spectrum of the irradiated protein was red-shifted compared to that of the native protein, indicating a change in protein folding. Sulfhydryl groups, which are buried in native β-lactoglobulin, were exposed following irradiation and became available for quantification using the Ellman assay. The quantity of exposed sulfhydryls increased, but the number of total sulfhydryl groups decreased. Gel permeation chromatography showed that some protein aggregation occurred during irradiation. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy of irradiated β-lactoglobulin revealed changes in the secondary structure, comparable to that of early events during heat-induced denaturation. There was evidence for some photo-oxidation of tryptophan.
Le Maux, Solene; Giblin, Linda; Croguennec, Thomas; Bouhallab, Said; Brodkorb, Andre (American Chemical Society, 27/08/2012)
The dairy protein β-lactoglobulin (βlg) is known to bind hydrophobic ligands such as fatty acids. In the present work, we investigated the biological activity in vitro of linoleate once complexed to bovine βlg. Binding of linoleate (C18:2) to bovine βlg was achieved by heating at 60 °C for 30 min at pH 7.4, resulting in a linoleate/βlg molar binding stoichiometry of 1.1, 2.1, and 3.4. Two types of binding sites were determined by ITC titrations. Binding of linoleate induced the formation of covalent dimers and trimers of βlg. The LD50 on Caco-2 cells after 24 h was 58 μM linoleate. However, cell viability was unaffected when 200 μM linoleate was presented to the Caco-2 cells as part of the βlg complex. The Caco-2 cells did not increase mRNA transcript levels of long chain fatty acid transport genes, FATP4 and FABPpm, or increase levels of the cAMP signal, in response to the presence of 50 μM linoleate alone or as part of the βlg complex. Therefore, it is proposed that βlg can act as a molecular carrier and alter the bioaccessibility of linoleate/linoleic acid.
Gough, Ronan; Gomez-Sala, Beatriz; O'Connor, Paula M.; Rea, Mary C.; Miao, Song; Hill, Colin; Brodkorb, Andre (Springer, 29/05/2017)
Nisin, an antimicrobial peptide showing activity against a broad range of Gram-positive bacteria, is widely used as a food preservative and has potential as a therapeutic for a range of infectious diseases. Here, we present a simple purification method, based on a salting-out approach, which can produce a powder containing ∼33% nisin, from a nisin-producing culture in a whey permeate-based medium. This process removes over 99% of the lactic acid, NaCl, lactose and non-nisin proteins from the cell-free culture supernatant. The approach can also enrich a commonly used commercial nisin preparation over 30-fold to a purity of ∼58%. These are higher purities than comparable published methods. The simplicity of this approach facilitates its use in research and also its scale-up.
Jiang, Zhanmei; Brodkorb, Andre (Elsevier, 11/02/2012)
Maillard reaction products (MRPs) were prepared from aqueous model mixtures containing 3% (w/w) ribose and 3% (w/w) of the dairy proteins α-lactalbumin (α-LA) or β-lactoglobulin (β-LG), heated at 95 °C, for up to 5 h. The pH of MRPs decreased significantly during heat treatment of α-LA-Ribose and β-LG-Ribose mixtures from 8.4 to 5.3. The amino group content in MRPs, derived from the α-LA-Ribose and β-LG-Ribose model system, was decreased noticeably during the first hour and did not change thereafter. The loss of free ribose in MRPs was higher for β-LG-Ribose than for α-LA-Ribose. During the Maillard reaction, the concentration of native and non-native α-LA, or β-LG, decreased and the formation of aggregates was observed. Fluorescence intensity of the β-LG-Ribose MRPs reached maximum within 1 h, compared to 2 h for α-LA-Ribose MRPs. Meanwhile, modification of the UV/vis absorption spectra for α-LA and β-LG was mainly due to a condensation reaction with ribose. Dynamic light scattering showed a significant increase in the particle size of the MRPs. Size exclusion chromatography of MRPs revealed the production of both high and low molecular weight material. Electrophoresis of MRPs indicated polymerization of α-LA and β-LG monomers via inter-molecular disulfide bridge, but also via other covelant bonds. MRPs from α-LA-Ribose and β-LG-Ribose exhibited increased antioxidant activities, therefore theses MRPs may be used as natural antioxidants in food products.
O'Loughlin, Ian B.; Murray, Brian A.; Brodkorb, Andre; Fitzgerald, Richard J.; Robinson, A. A.; Holton, T. A.; Kelly, Tom A. (Elsevier, 24/05/2013)
The effects of heat-induced denaturation of whey protein isolate (WPI) on the enzymatic breakdown of α-La, caseinomacropeptide (CMP), β-Lg A and β-Lg B were observed as hydrolysis proceeded to a 5% degree of hydrolysis (DH) in both unheated and heat-treated (80 °C, 10 min) WPI dispersions (100 g L−1). Hydrolysis of denatured WPI favoured the generation of higher levels of free essential amino acids; lysine, phenylalanine and arginine compared to the unheated substrate. LC–MS/MS identified 23 distinct peptides which were identified in the denatured WPI hydrolysate – the majority of which were derived from β-Lg. The mapping of the detected regions in α-La, β-Lg, and CMP enabled specific cleavage points to be associated with certain serine endo-protease activities. The outcomes of the study emphasise how a combined approach of substrate heat pre-treatment and enzymology may be used to influence proteolysis with attendant opportunities for targeting unique peptide production and amino acid release
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