Now showing items 1-20 of 736

    • Inclusion of Healthy Oils for Improving the Nutritional Characteristics of Dry-Fermented Deer Sausage

      Vargas-Ramella, Márcio; Munekata, Paulo E. S.; Gagaoua, Mohammed; Franco, Daniel; Campagnol, Paulo C. B.; Pateiro, Mirian; Barretto, Andrea Carla da Silva; Domínguez, Rubén; Lorenzo, José M.; CYTED; et al. (MDPI AG, 2020-10-18)
      The influence of partial replacement of animal fat by healthy oils on composition, physicochemical, volatile, and sensory properties of dry-fermented deer sausage was evaluated. Four different batches were manufactured: the control was formulated with animal fat (18.2%), while in the reformulated batches the 50% of animal fat was substituted by olive, canola, and soy oil emulsions immobilized in Prosella gel. The reformulation resulted in a decrease of moisture and fat contents and an increase of protein and ash amount. Moreover, reformulated sausages were harder, darker, and had higher pH values. This fact is related to the lower moisture content in these samples. As expected, the fatty acid composition was changed by the reformulation. The use of soy and canola oils increased polyunsaturated fatty acids and omega-3 content and decreased n-6/n-3 ratio and saturated fatty acids. Thus, the use of these two oils presented the best nutritional benefits. The changes observed in the fatty acids reflected the fatty acid composition of the oils employed in the emulsions. Regarding volatile compounds (VOC), the replacement of animal fat by healthy emulsion gels increased the content of both total VOC and most of individual VOC. However, the lipid-derived VOC did not show this trend. Generally speaking, the control samples presented similar or higher VOC derived from lipid oxidation processes, which could be related to the natural antioxidant compounds present in the vegetable oils. Finally, all reformulated sausages presented higher consumer acceptability than control samples. In fact, the sausage reformulated with soy oil emulsion gel was the most preferred. Thus, as a general conclusion, the reformulation of deer sausages with soy emulsion gel improves both composition and sensory quality of the final product, which could be an excellent strategy to the elaboration of healthy fermented sausages.
    • Genome-Wide Profiling of Enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus Strains Used for the Production of Naturally Contaminated Cheeses

      Macori, Guerrino; Bellio, Alberto; Bianchi, Daniela Manila; Chiesa, Francesco; Gallina, Silvia; Romano, Angelo; Zuccon, Fabio; Cabrera-Rubio, Raúl; Cauquil, Alexandra; Merda, Déborah; et al. (MDPI AG, 2019-12-27)
      Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen and an important cause of livestock infections. More than 20 staphylococcal enterotoxins with emetic activity can be produced by specific strains responsible for staphylococcal food poisoning, one of the most common food-borne diseases. Whole genome sequencing provides a comprehensive view of the genome structure and gene content that have largely been applied in outbreak investigations and genomic comparisons. In this study, six enterotoxigenic S. aureus strains were characterised using a combination of molecular, phenotypical and computational methods. The genomes were analysed for the presence of virulence factors (VFs), where we identified 110 genes and classified them into five categories: adherence (n = 31), exoenzymes (n = 28), genes involved in host immune system evasion (n = 7); iron uptake regulatory system (n = 8); secretion machinery factors and toxins’ genes (n = 36), and 39 genes coding for transcriptional regulators related to staphylococcal VFs. Each group of VFs revealed correlations among the six enterotoxigenic strains, and further analysis revealed their accessory genomic content, including mobile genetic elements. The plasmids pLUH02 and pSK67 were detected in the strain ProNaCC1 and ProNaCC7, respectively, carrying out the genes sed, ser, and selj. The genes carried out by prophages were detected in the strain ProNaCC2 (see), ProNaCC4, and ProNaCC7 (both positive for sea). The strain ProNaCC5 resulted positive for the genes seg, sei, sem, sen, seo grouped in an exotoxin gene cluster, and the strain ProNaCC6 resulted positive for seh, a transposon-associated gene. The six strains were used for the production of naturally contaminated cheeses which were tested with the European Screening Method for staphylococcal enterotoxins. The results obtained from the analysis of toxins produced in cheese, combined with the genomic features represent a portrait of the strains that can be used for the production of staphylococcal enterotoxin-positive cheese as reference material.
    • Therapeutic effects of antibiotics loaded cellulose nanofiber and κ-carrageenan oligosaccharide composite hydrogels for periodontitis treatment

      Johnson, Athira; Kong, Fanbin; Miao, Song; Lin, Hong‑Ting Victor; Thomas, Sabu; Huang, Yi‑Cheng; Kong, Zwe‑Ling (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020-10-22)
      Periodontitis is an infammatory disease that can lead to the periodontal pocket formation and tooth loss. This study was aimed to develop antimicrobials loaded hydrogels composed of cellulose nanofbers (CNF) and κ-carrageenan oligosaccharides (CO) nanoparticles for the treatment of periodontitis. Two antimicrobial agents such as surfactin and Herbmedotcin were selected as the therapeutic agents and the hydrogels were formulated based on the increasing concentration of surfactin. The proposed material has high thermal stability, controlled release, and water absorption capacity. This study was proceeded by investigating the in vitro antibacterial and anti-infammatory properties of the hydrogels. This material has strong antibacterial activity against periodontal pathogens such as Streptococcus mutans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Moreover, a signifcant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) production and a decrease in bioflm formation and metabolic activity of the bacteria was observed in the presence of hydrogel. Besides, it reduced the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, transcription factor, and cytokines production in human gingival fbroblast cells (HGF) under infammatory conditions. In conclusion, the hydrogels were successfully developed and proven to have antibacterial and anti-infammatory properties for the treatment of periodontitis. Thus, it can be used as an excellent candidate for periodontitis treatment.
    • Current Trends in Proteomic Advances for Food Allergen Analysis

      López-Pedrouso, María; Lorenzo, José M.; Gagaoua, Mohammed; Franco, Daniel; Programa Iberoamericano de Ciencia y Tecnología para el Desarrollo; Axencia Galega de Innovación, Xunta de Galicia, Spain; 119RT0568; IN607A2019/01 (MDPI AG, 2020-08-25)
      Food allergies are a global food challenge. For correct food labelling, the detection and quantification of allergens are necessary. However, novel product formulations and industrial processes produce new scenarios, which require much more technological developments. For this purpose, OMICS technologies, especially proteomics, seemed to be relevant in this context. This review summarises the current knowledge and studies that used proteomics to study food allergens. In the case of the allergenic proteins, a wide variety of isoforms, post-translational modifications and other structural changes during food processing can increase or decrease the allergenicity. Most of the plant-based food allergens are proteins with biological functions involved in storage, structure, and plant defence. The allergenicity of these proteins could be increased by the presence of heavy metals, air pollution, and pesticides. Targeted proteomics like selected/multiple reaction monitoring (SRM/MRM) have been very useful, especially in the case of gluten from wheat, rye and barley, and allergens from lentil, soy, and fruit. Conventional 1D and 2-DE immunoblotting have been further widely used. For animal-based food allergens, the widely used technologies are 1D and 2-DE immunoblotting followed by MALDI-TOF/TOF, and more recently LC-MS/MS, which is becoming useful to assess egg, fish, or milk allergens. The detection and quantification of allergenic proteins using mass spectrometry-based proteomics are promising and would contribute to greater accuracy, therefore improving consumer information.
    • Is there evidence for bacterial transfer via the placenta and any role in the colonization of the infant gut? – a systematic review

      Gil, Angel; Rueda, Ricardo; Ozanne, Susan E.; van der Beek, Eline M.; van Loo-Bouwman, Carolien; Schoemaker, Marieke; Marinello, Vittoria; Venema, Koen; Stanton, Catherine; Schelkle, Bettina; et al. (Taylor and Francis, 2020-08-05)
      With the important role of the gut microbiome in health and disease, it is crucial to understand key factors that establish the microbial community, including gut colonization during infancy. It has been suggested that the first bacterial exposure is via a placental microbiome. However, despite many publications, the robustness of the evidence for the placental microbiome and transfer of bacteria from the placenta to the infant gut is unclear and hence the concept disputed. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review of the evidence for the role of the placental, amniotic fluid and cord blood microbiome in healthy mothers in the colonization of the infant gut. Most of the papers which were fully assessed considered placental tissue, but some studied amniotic fluid or cord blood. Great variability in methodology was observed especially regarding sample storage conditions, DNA/RNA extraction, and microbiome characterization. No study clearly considered transfer of the normal placental microbiome to the infant gut. Moreover, some studies in the review and others published subsequently reported little evidence for a placental microbiome in comparison to negative controls. In conclusion, current data are limited and provide no conclusive evidence that there is a normal placental microbiome which has any role in colonization of infant gut.
    • Gut microbes from the phylogenetically diverse genus Eubacterium and their various contributions to gut health

      Mukherjee, Arghya; Lordan, Cathy; Ross, R. Paul; Cotter, Paul D.; Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; Teagasc Walsh Fellowship; Science Foundation Ireland; EU; 15/F/635; 2017047; et al. (Taylor & Francis, 2020-08-23)
      Over the last two decades our understanding of the gut microbiota and its contribution to health and disease has been transformed. Among a new ‘generation’ of potentially beneficial microbes to have been recognized are members of the genus Eubacterium, who form a part of the core human gut microbiome. The genus consists of phylogenetically, and quite frequently phenotypically, diverse species, making Eubacterium a taxonomically unique and challenging genus. Several members of the genus produce butyrate, which plays a critical role in energy homeostasis, colonic motility, immunomodulation and suppression of inflammation in the gut. Eubacterium spp. also carry out bile acid and cholesterol transformations in the gut, thereby contributing to their homeostasis. Gut dysbiosis and a consequently modified representation of Eubacterium spp. in the gut, have been linked with various human disease states. This review provides an overview of Eubacterium species from a phylogenetic perspective, describes how they alter with diet and age and summarizes its association with the human gut and various health conditions.
    • Association of Habitual Dietary Fiber Intake and Fecal Microbiome Gene Abundance with Gastrointestinal Symptoms in an Irritable Bowel Syndrome Cohort

      Roy, Nicole; Heenan, Phoebe; Wall, Catherine; Young, Wayne; Carco, Caterina; Keenan, Jacqueline; Cotter, Paul; Maclean, Paul; Mullaney, Jane; Fraser, Karl; et al. (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2020-05-29)
      Objectives: Dietary fibre supplementation is recognised as important for functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID). The exact role of the microbiome in this relationship remains unclear. We explored differences in dietary fibre intake, GI symptoms and the fecal microbiome in those with FGID.
    • Proteomic biomarkers of beef colour

      Gagaoua, Mohammed; Hughes, Joanne; Terlouw, E.M. Claudia; Warner, Robyn D.; Purslow, Peter P.; Lorenzo, José M.; Picard, Brigitte; European Union; Enterprise Ireland; 713654; et al. (Elsevier BV, 2020-07)
      Background Implementation of proteomics over the last decade has been an important step toward a better understanding of the complex biological systems underlying the conversion of muscle to meat. These sophisticated analytical tools have helped to reveal the biochemical pathways involved in fresh meat colour and have identified key protein biomarkers. Scope and approach Until recently, there have been no detailed or critical studies on the role of protein biomarkers in determining meat colour. This review presents an integromics of recent muscle proteomic studies to investigate pathways and mechanisms of beef colour. A database was created from 13 independent proteomic-based studies including data on five muscles and a list of 79 proteins which were significantly correlated with colour traits. The database was subjected to a multistep analysis including Gene Ontology annotations, pathway analysis and literature mining. This report discusses the key protein biomarkers and the biological pathways associated with fresh beef colour. Biomarkers were prioritised by the frequency of identification and the need for future validation experiments is discussed. Key findings and conclusions This review identifies six pathways involved in beef colour including energy metabolism, heat shock and oxidative stress, myofibril structure, signalling, proteolysis and apoptosis. The data-mining of the list of the putative biomarkers showed that certain proteins, such as β-enolase (ENO3), Peroxiredoxin 6 (PRDX6), HSP27 (HSPB1), Phosphoglucomutase 1 (PGM1), Superoxide Dismutase [Cu-Zn] (SOD1) and μ-calpain (CAPN1) were consistently reported by multiple studies as being differentially expressed and having a significant role in beef colour. This integromics work proposes a list of 27 putative biomarkers of beef colour for validation using adapted high-throughput methods.
    • The harmonized INFOGEST in vitro digestion method: From knowledge to action

      Egger, Lotti; Ménard, Olivia; Delgado-Andrade, Cristina; Alvito, Paula; Assunção, Ricardo; Balance, Simon; Barberá, Reyes; Brodkorb, Andre; European Union; Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia; et al. (Elsevier BV, 2015-12)
      Within the active field of in vitro digestion in food research, the COST Action INFOGEST aimed to harmonize in vitro protocols simulating human digestion on the basis of physiologically inferred conditions. A harmonized static in vitro digestion (IVD) method was recently published as a primary output from this network. To validate this protocol, inter-laboratory trials were conducted within the INFOGEST network. A first study was performed using skim milk powder (SMP) as a model food and served to compare the different in-house digestion protocols used among the INFOGEST members. In a second inter-laboratory study applying the harmonized protocol, the degree of consistency in protein hydrolysis was investigated. Analysis of the hydrolyzed proteins, after the gastric and intestinal phases, showed that caseins were mainly hydrolyzed during the gastric phase, whereas β-lactoglobulin was, as previously shown, resistant to pepsin. Moreover, generation of free amino acids occurred mainly during the intestinal phase. The study also showed that a few critical steps were responsible for the remaining inter-laboratory variability. The largest deviations arose from the determination of pepsin activity. Therefore, this step was further clarified, harmonized, and implemented in a third inter-laboratory study. The present work gives an overview of all three inter-laboratory studies, showing that the IVD INFOGEST method has led to an increased consistency that enables a better comparability of in vitro digestion studies in the future.
    • Proteomic biomarkers of beef colour

      Gagaoua, Mohammed; Hughes, Joanne; Terlouw, E.M. Claudia; Warner, Robyn D.; Purslow, Peter P.; Lorenzo, José M.; Picard, Brigitte; Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant agreement; Meat Technology Ireland; 713654; et al. (Elsevier, 2020-05-28)
      Background Implementation of proteomics over the last decade has been an important step toward a better understanding of the complex biological systems underlying the conversion of muscle to meat. These sophisticated analytical tools have helped to reveal the biochemical pathways involved in fresh meat colour and have identified key protein biomarkers. Scope and approach Until recently, there have been no detailed or critical studies on the role of protein biomarkers in determining meat colour. This review presents an integromics of recent muscle proteomic studies to investigate pathways and mechanisms of beef colour. A database was created from 13 independent proteomic-based studies including data on five muscles and a list of 79 proteins which were significantly correlated with colour traits. The database was subjected to a multistep analysis including Gene Ontology annotations, pathway analysis and literature mining. This report discusses the key protein biomarkers and the biological pathways associated with fresh beef colour. Biomarkers were prioritised by the frequency of identification and the need for future validation experiments is discussed. Key findings and conclusions This review identifies six pathways involved in beef colour including energy metabolism, heat shock and oxidative stress, myofibril structure, signalling, proteolysis and apoptosis. The data-mining of the list of the putative biomarkers showed that certain proteins, such as β-enolase (ENO3), Peroxiredoxin 6 (PRDX6), HSP27 (HSPB1), Phosphoglucomutase 1 (PGM1), Superoxide Dismutase [Cu-Zn] (SOD1) and μ-calpain (CAPN1) were consistently reported by multiple studies as being differentially expressed and having a significant role in beef colour. This integromics work proposes a list of 27 putative biomarkers of beef colour for validation using adapted high-throughput methods.
    • What are the drivers of beef sensory quality using metadata of intramuscular connective tissue, fatty acids and muscle fiber characteristics?

      Listrat, Anne; GAGAOUA, Mohammed; Andueza, Donato; Gruffat, Dominique; Normand, Jérome; Mairesse, Guillaume; Picard, Brigitte; Hocquette, Jean-François; Agence de l'Environnement et de la Maîtrise de l'Energie; European Union; et al. (Elsevier, 2020-08-14)
      The aim of this integrative study was to investigate the relationships between biochemical traits (total, insoluble and soluble collagens (TCol, ICol, SCol), cross-links (CLs), proteoglycans (TPGs), proportion of fiber types, total lipids (TLips), main fatty acids (FAs) families, the n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated FA (n-6/n-3PUFA) ratio and the sensory attributes scores (tenderness, juiciness, flavor) of two muscles from beef: Rectus abdominis (RA) and Longissimus thoracis (LT). For robust analysis, a database was prepared using samples from three studies from animals raised under different production systems. The analyses were performed either on each study separately or on pooled data per muscle after removing as many experimental effects as possible in each study. The CLs (across the muscles and studies) and, to a lower extent, type IIA muscle fibers (mainly for RA muscles), saturated FAs (SFAs), monounsaturated FAs (MUFAs) (for the LT muscles) were the components the most frequently associated with tenderness. The CLs, type IIA muscle fibers (mainly for the RA muscles), TLips, SFAs, MUFAs, conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) and n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio (mainly for the LT muscles) were the components the most associated with juiciness. The TLips and CLAs (across the muscles and studies), SFAs, MUFAs (mainly for the LT muscles), CLs (mainly for the RA muscles) and TPGs (mainly for the LT muscles) were the components the most associated with flavor liking. The CLs, CLAs, TLips, SFAs, MUFAs, n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio, type IIA and I muscle fibers were the components the most frequently associated with the 3 sensory scores taken together. The SCol, TPGs and type IIX+B muscle fibers were little associated with the sensory scores taken together. The TCol, ICol and PUFAs were components the least associated with sensory scores. The data of this integrative study highlighted for the first time that the CLs were negatively involved in the determination of the three sensory traits mainly in the RA muscle. The muscle fibers in this integrative study had a weak impact on the variations in beef sensory traits. The type IIA and IIX+B muscle fibers were respectively negatively and positively associated with tenderness, negatively associated with juiciness and flavor. The type I muscle fibers were overall positively associated with juiciness and flavor and negatively or positively with tenderness and these associations were muscle and study-dependent. Overall, the TLips and FAs were positively associated with the sensory scores and the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio was negatively associated with them.
    • Marked elevations in pro-inflammatory polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolites in females with irritable bowel syndrome

      Clarke, Gerard; Fitzgerald, Peter; Hennessy, Alan A.; Cassidy, Eugene M.; Quigley M., Eamonn M.; Ross, Paul; STANTON, CATHERINE; Cryan, John F.; Dinan, Timothy G. (Elsevier, 2021-01-04)
      Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most common functional gastrointestinal disorder referred to gastroenterologists. Although the pathophysiology remains unclear, accumulating evidence points to the presence of low-level immune activation both in the gut and systemically. Circulating polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have recently attracted attention as being altered in a variety of disease states. Arachidonic acid (AA), in particular, has been implicated in the development of a pro-inflammatory profile in a number of immune-related disorders. AA is the precursor of a number of important immunomodulatory eicosanoids, including prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and leukotriene B4 (LTB4). We investigated the hypothesis that elevated plasma AA concentrations in plasma contribute to the proposed pro-inflammatory profile in IBS. Plasma AA and related PUFA were quantified by gas chromatography analysis in IBS patients and controls. Both PGE2 and LTB4 were measured in serum using commercially available ELISA assays. AA concentrations were elevated in our patient cohort compared with healthy controls. Moreover, we demonstrated that this disturbance in plasma AA concentrations leads to downstream elevations in eicosanoids. Together, our data identifies a novel proinflammatory mechanism in irritable bowel syndrome and also suggests that elevated arachidonic acid levels in plasma may serve as putative biological markers in this condition.
    • Goat farm variability affects milk Fourier-transform infrared spectra used for predicting coagulation properties

      Dadousis, Christos; Gotet, Claudio Cipolat; Stocco, Giorgia; FERRAGINA, ALESSANDRO; Dettori, Maria L.; Pazzola, Michele; do Nascimento Rangel, Adriano Henrique; Vacca, Giuseppe M.; University of Sassari (Elsevier, 2021-02-13)
      Driven by the large amount of goat milk destined for cheese production, and to pioneer the goat cheese industry, the objective of this study was to assess the effect of farm in predicting goat milk-coagulation and curd-firmness traits via Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Spectra from 452 Sarda goats belonging to 14 farms in central and southeast Sardinia (Italy) were collected. A Bayesian linear regression model was used, estimating all spectral wavelengths' effects simultaneously. Three traditional milk-coagulation properties [rennet coagulation time (min), time to curd firmness of 20 mm (min), and curd firmness 30 min after rennet addition (mm)] and 3 curd-firmness measures modeled over time [rennet coagulation time estimated according to curd firmness change over time (RCTeq), instant curd-firming rate constant, and asymptotical curd firmness] were considered. A stratified cross validation (SCV) was assigned, evaluating each farm separately (validation set; VAL) and keeping the remaining farms to train (calibration set) the statistical model. Moreover, a SCV, where 20% of the goats randomly taken (10 replicates per farm) from the VAL farm entered the calibration set, was also considered (SCV80). To assess model performance, coefficient of determination (R2VAL) and the root mean squared error of validation were recorded. The R2VAL varied between 0.14 and 0.45 (instant curd-firming rate constant and RCTeq, respectively), albeit the standard deviation was approximating half of the mean for all the traits. Although average results of the 2 SCV procedures were similar, in SCV80, the maximum R2VAL increased at about 15% across traits, with the highest observed for time to curd firmness of 20 mm (20%) and the lowest for RCTeq (6%). Further investigation evidenced important variability among farms, with R2VAL for some of them being close to 0. Our work outlined the importance of considering the effect of farm when developing Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy prediction equations for coagulation and curd-firmness traits in goats.
    • Next-generation multiparameter flow cytometry assay improves the assessment of oxidative stress in probiotics

      Fallico, Vincenzo; Rea, Mary; Stanton, Catherine; Ilestam, Niclas; McKinney, Julie; Pfizer Consumer Healthcare (USA) (Elsevier, 2020-04-07)
      Stability of probiotic products’ potency throughout shelf life is essential to ensure systematic delivery of the dosages required to provide clinically-proven health benefits. Due to the oxygen sensitivity of gut-derived microorganisms, methods for the rapid and accurate monitoring of oxidative stress in probiotics are greatly needed as they can be instrumental to both bioprocess optimization and quality control. This study introduces a next-generation flow cytometry method multiplexing the CellROX® Green and Propidium Iodide probes for the simultaneous measurement of free total reactive oxygen species (ROS) and membrane integrity, respectively. The multiparameter method was compared to the single-parameter assays, measuring either ROS or membrane integrity, for the ability to evaluate the fitness of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) after freeze drying, spray drying and H2O2-mediated oxidative stress. Each stand-alone assay detected only three cell populations, showing either differential membrane integrity (Syto 24+/PI-, Syto 24+/PI+, Syto 24-/PI+) or ROS levels (ROS-, low-ROS, high-ROS), and no correlation could be drawn between these groups. Conversely, the multiparameter method detected up to five physiologically distinct cell populations and allowed the integrated assessment of their membrane integrity and oxidative stress. It also revealed a much larger fitness heterogeneity in LGG as each group of low-ROS and high-ROS cells was found to be formed by a healthier population with an intact membrane (L-ROS/PI-, H-ROS/PI-) and a population with damaged membrane (L-ROS/PI+, H-ROS/PI+). As the CRG probe only detects free unreacted ROS, these populations are suggested to reflect the dynamic lifecycle of ROS formation, accumulation and reactive depletion leading to oxidative damage of macromolecules and consequent cell death. With the stand-alone CRG assay being unable to detect ROS lifecycle, the multiparameter method here presented delivers a superior profiling of the heterogeneity generated by oxidative stress in bacteria and enables a more correct interpretation of CRG fluorescence data. We provide recent examples from literature where the use of a single-parameter fluorescence approach may have led to misinterpret oxidative stress data and eventually draw erroneous conclusions.
    • Determination of the presence of pathogens and anthelmintic drugs in raw milk and raw milk cheeses from small scale producers in Ireland

      Lourenco, Antonio; Fraga-Corral, Maria; De Colli, Lorenzo; Moloney, Mary; Danaher, Martin; Jordan, Kieran; Depart of Agriculture, Food and the Marine; 15/F/690 (Elsevier, 2020-04-03)
      This aim of this study was to assess the microbiological and anthelmintic drug residue risks associated with raw milk used for cheesemaking and raw milk cheese, over an 18-month period. Samples of raw milk, milk filters, curd and cheese from nine raw milk artisan cheese producers in the south of Ireland were tested. Numbers of presumptive Bacillus cereus group, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes were determined. The determination of anthelmintic drug residues, including benzimidazoles, flukicides, macrocyclic lactone (avermectin and milbemycins), levamisole and morantel was also performed. Neither L. monocytogenes, nor Salmonella spp. were detected in any of the samples tested and no anthelmintic drug residues were detected. Only one of the samples did not conform with regulatory numbers for other bacteria. This survey has shown a good microbiological and residue quality (and low risk) of the raw milk cheese and raw milk used for raw milk cheese produced in Ireland. Moreover, it has shown the importance of frequent assessment of raw milk used for cheesemaking and for raw milk cheese, as it allows the identification of potential problems facilitating resolution of these issues before they cause any public health threat.
    • Self-Agglomeration in Fluidised Beds after Spray Drying

      Fitzpatrick, John J.; Wu, Shaozong; Cronin, Kevin; Miao, Song; China Scholarship Council; 201606350091 (MDPI AG, 2020-06-05)
      Many powders are produced in spray-drying processes from liquid concentrates. Self-agglomeration can be performed in a fluidised bed where the spray-dried powder is agglomerated using the liquid concentrate as the binder material. This has advantages over traditional wet agglomeration in fluid beds using liquid binders (such as water or sugar solutions). These include thermal energy savings and no additional non-aqueous binder components added. The work presented has two parts. The first part is experimental, which investigated the self-agglomeration of whey protein isolate (WPI) powder as a case-study. It showed that satisfactory agglomeration was achieved with a great improvement in the wettability of the powder. The second part of the work performed thermal energy analysis to estimate the energy saving potential of self-agglomeration, and how this is influenced by binder to powder ratio and binder solids concentration. For the WPI case-study, the analysis showed there is potential for a 19% saving in thermal energy requirement for self-agglomeration in comparison to traditional agglomeration using a water binder.
    • Visible and NIR hyperspectral imaging and chemometrics for prediction of microbial quality of beef Longissimus dorsi muscle under simulated normal and abuse storage conditions

      Achata, Eva M.; Oliveira, Marcia; Esquerre, Carlos A.; Tiwari, Brijesh K; O'Donnell, Colm P.; Irish Department of Agriculture, Food & the Marine; 13/FM/508 (Elsevier BV, 2020-06)
      There is a need to develop a rapid technique to provide real time information on the microbial load of meat along the supply chain. Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is a rapid, non-destructive technique well suited to food analysis applications. In this study, HSI in both the visible and near infrared spectral ranges, and chemometrics were studied for prediction of the bacterial growth on beef Longissimus dorsi muscle (LD) under simulated normal (4 °C) and abuse (10 °C) storage conditions. Total viable count (TVC) prediction models were developed using partial least squares regression (PLS-R), spectral pre-treatments, band selection and data fusion methods. The best TVC prediction models developed for storage at 4 (RMSEp 0.58 log CFU/g, RPDp 4.13, R2p 0.96), 10 °C (RMSEp 0.97 log CFU/g, RPDp 3.28, R2p 0.94) or at either 4 or 10 °C (RMSEp 0.89 log CFU/g, RPDp 2.27, R2p 0.86) were developed using high-level data fusion of both spectral regions. The use of appropriate spectral pre-treatments and band selection methods was key for robust model development. This study demonstrated the potential of HSI and chemometrics for real time monitoring to predict microbial growth on LD along the meat supply chain.
    • Preparation, structure-property relationships and applications of different emulsion gels: Bulk emulsion gels, emulsion gel particles, and fluid emulsion gels

      Lin, Duanquan; Kelly, Alan L.; Miao, Song; China Scholarship Council; 201708350111 (Elsevier BV, 2020-08)
      Background In recent years, there has been increasing interest in emulsion gels, due to their better stability during storage and potential for prolonged intestinal drug release compared to emulsions. There are three kinds of emulsion gels, classified according to their morphological properties: bulk emulsion gels, emulsion gel particles and liquid emulsion gels. Scope and approach This paper provides a comprehensive review of the mechanisms and procedures of different methods for preparing different emulsion gels and relationships between structures and properties of emulsion gels. The applications of emulsion gels in the food industry are finally discussed. Key findings and conclusions Different emulsion gels result from different preparation methods, and have various structure-property relationships and applications. Many methods can be used to prepare bulk emulsion gels, involving different matrix materials, processing techniques, and purposes. This can result in different structures of gel matrices and emulsion droplets, and interactions between them, which can influence the structures of bulk emulsion gels and then their mechanical and release properties. On the other hand, extrusion and impinging aerosol methods are two methods for preparing emulsion gel particles, while liquid emulsion gels can be prepared by Pickering emulsions and disrupted gel systems. Rheological, syneresis and swelling properties are critical for gel particle suspensions, while flow behavior and release properties are important to liquid emulsion gels. In addition, fat replacements and delivery systems are main applications of emulsion gels in the food industry. However, current research has mainly focused on bulk emulsion gels, so further studies on emulsion gel particles and liquid emulsion gels are required.
    • Effect of concentrations of alginate, soy protein isolate and sunflower oil on water loss, shrinkage, elastic and structural properties of alginate-based emulsion gel beads during gelation

      Lin, Duanquan; Kelly, Alan L.; Maidannyk, Valentyn; Miao, Song; China Scholarship Council; 201708350111 (Elsevier BV, 2020-11)
      The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of concentrations of sodium alginate (0.5%–1.5% in the water phase of an emulsion), soy protein isolate (SPI, 0.5%–2.0% in the water phase) and oil phase (10%–40% in the emulsion) on the properties (including water loss, shrinkage, morphological, elastic, and structural properties) of emulsion gel beads during gelation (0–30 min). Gel beads were prepared with external gelation by dropping emulsions into CaCl2 solutions using pipettes. The Young's modulus of emulsion gel beads kept increasing during gelation before reaching a plateau accompanied by syneresis (i.e., water loss), shrinkage, and structural tightening. SPI absorbed at the surface of oil droplets could prevent re-coalescence of droplets during gelation. Additionally, increasing concentrations of sodium alginate and oil increased the Young's modulus of gel beads. Water loss decreased with increasing contents of alginate, SPI and oil, and shrinkage could be diminished by increasing alginate and oil contents.
    • Use of an NIR MEMS spectrophotometer and visible/NIR hyperspectral imaging systems to predict quality parameters of treated ground peppercorns

      Esquerre, Carlos A.; Achata, Eva M.; García-Vaquero, Marco; Zhang, Zhihang; Tiwari, Brijesh K; O'Donnell, Colm P. (Elsevier BV, 2020-09)
      The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of a micro-electromechanical NIR spectrophotometer (NIR-MEMS) and visible (Vis)/NIR hyperspectral imaging (HSI) systems to predict the moisture content, antioxidant capacity (DPPH, FRAP) and total phenolic content (TPC) of treated ground peppercorns. Partial least squares (PLS) models were developed using spectra from peppercorns treated with hot-air, microwave and cold plasma. The spectra were acquired using three spectroscopy systems: NIR-MEMS (1350–1650 nm), Vis-NIR HSI (450–950 nm) and NIR HSI (957–1664 nm). Very good predictions of TPC (RPD > 3.6) were achieved using NIR-MEMS. The performance of models developed using Vis-NIR HSI and NIR HSI were good or very good for DPPH (RPD > 3.0), FRAP (RPD >2.9) and TPC (RPD > 3.8). This study demonstrated the potential of NIR-MEMS and Vis-NIR/NIR HSI to predict the moisture content, antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content of peppercorns. The spectroscopy technologies investigated are suitable for use as in-line PAT tools to facilitate improved process control and understanding during peppercorn processing.