• Embedding animal welfare in sustainability assessment: an indicator approach

      Brennan, M.; Hennessy, Thia; Dillon, Emma Jane (Teagasc, 2021-11-17)
      In line with growing consumer interest in sustainable food production, a number of farm-level sustainability indicator studies have been published in recent years. Despite the importance of animal welfare, many such frameworks fail to adequately take account of it, mostly due to difficulties in accessing suitable data. This paper demonstrates that it is possible to develop indicators of animal welfare that can be embedded within a wider sustainability framework using a representative farm-level dataset such as the European Union (EU) Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN) for Ireland, the Teagasc National Farm Survey. The paper presents a set of sustainability indicators for dairy farms in Ireland for the 2014–2017 period and examines the impact of policy reform on sustainability performance. Headline results show that welfare standards on dairy farms in Ireland have remained stable over the period despite the considerable intensification of the dairy sector following EU milk quota removal. Furthermore, dairy farms that have expanded herd size significantly have improved welfare standards more than farms that have not increased production. An analysis of synergies and trade-offs between the various aspects of sustainability reveals that positive correlations exist between welfare standards and economic and environmental performance. The analysis facilitates the identification of win-win farm-level strategies that can be adopted to improve economic, environmental and animal welfare outcomes. The framework developed here presents opportunities for evaluating policy impacts at the farm level on various aspects of sustainability. The use of the FADN demonstrates the capacity to extend such an approach across the EU.
    • Measuring the impact of improved animal health practices on the economic efficiency of Irish dairy farms

      Dillon, Emma Jane; Hennessy, Thia (Agricultural Economics Society, 2013)
      Cost and production efficiency gains must be achieved across herds if the Irish dairy sector is to prosper in a post-quota environment. As such, improvements in animal health are required and the costs of diseases such as mastitis must be reduced. Elevated levels of somatic cell count (SCC) found in milk are an indicator of the prevalence of clinical and subclinical mastitis in dairy herds. Given an EU regulatory limit of 400,000 (cells/mL) (Council Directive 92/46/EEC), the adverse effect of the disease on milk quality and the increasing practice of milk processors offering financial incentives for reduced cell count levels, the benefits of improved farm management practices resulting in lowered SCC are quantified here at the farm-level. Teagasc National Farm Survey data from over 300 nationally representative Irish dairy farms over a four year period (2008-2011) is utilised in the analysis. Preliminary regression results from a pooled OLS model indicate that a cell count reduction of 100,000 (cells/mL) results in an increase in gross margin of 6% or €87 per cow when all other pertinent factors are controlled for. The efficacy of herd management practices such as milk recording in improving animal health was also confirmed within the model. A cell count reduction of 17% was found as a result of milk recording within the herd, when all other variables were taken into account.